Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells using Ubiquityl-Histone H2B (Lys120) (D11) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (blue) compared to concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (red).
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This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ubiquityl-Histone H2B (Lys120) (D11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5546.
Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.
posted July 2009
revised June 2017
Protocol Id: 407
Ubiquityl-Histone H2B (Lys120) (D11) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) detects endogenous levels of histone H2B protein only when ubiquitylated on Lys120. The antibody does not cross-react with other ubiquitylated proteins or free ubiquitin.Species Reactivity:
Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the human histone H2B protein in which Lys120 is mono-ubiquitylated.
The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitylation (1). Ubiquitin is a conserved 76 amino acid peptide unit that can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitylation process. Three components are involved in this protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (2). Histone H2B is mono-ubiquitylated on lysine 120 during transcriptional activation by the RAD6 E2 protein in conjunction with the BRE1A/BRE1B E3 ligase (also known as RNF20/RNF40) (3). The RAD6/BRE1 complex is recruited to gene promoters during activation by the PAF complex, an RNA polymerase II-associated protein complex that regulates transcriptional elongation (3-5). Mono-ubiquitylated histone H2B lysine 120 is associated with the transcribed region of active genes (3,6). Mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B stimulates transcriptional elongation by facilitating FACT-dependent chromatin remodeling (7,8). In addition, it is essential for subsequent methylation of histone H3 lysines 4 and 79, two additional histone modifications that regulate transcriptional initiation and elongation (9). Interestingly, de-ubiquitylation of histone H2B lysine 120 by USP22, a subunit of the human SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, is a required step in transcriptional activation (10). Thus, it appears that the ubiquitylation state of histone H2B is dynamic during transcription and may serve as an intermediate step in transcriptional activation.
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