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Product listing: RPA70/RPA1 (4D9) Rat mAb, UniProt ID P27694 #2198 to Drosha (D30F3) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q9NRR4 #3410

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: RPA70 (HSSB, REPA1, RF-A, RP-A, p70) is a component of a heterotrimeric complex, composed of 70, 32/30 and 14 kDa subunits, collectively known as RPA. RPA is a single stranded DNA binding protein, whose DNA binding activity is believed to reside entirely in the 70 kDa subunit. The complex is required for almost all aspects of cellular DNA metabolism such as DNA replication (1-3), recombination, cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints, and all major types of DNA repair including nucleotide excision, base excision, mismatch and double-strand break repairs (4-7). In response to genotoxic stress in eukaryotic cells, RPA has been shown to associate with the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex (8). RPA is hyperphosphorylated upon DNA damage or replication stress by checkpoint kinases including ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (9-11). Phosphorylation of RPA32 occurs at serines 4, 8 and 33 (11). Hyperphosphorylation may alter RPA-DNA and RPA-protein interactions. In addition to the checkpoint partners, RPA interacts with a wide variety of protein partners, including proteins required for normal replication such as RCF, PCNA and Pol α, and also proteins involved in SV40 replication, such as DNA polymerase I and SV40 large T antigen (10,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mindbomb homolog 1 (MIB1) is an E3 ligase that facilitates the ubiquitination and the subsequent endocytosis of the Notch ligands, Delta and Jagged (1,2). MIB1 appears to promote the ubiquitination and degradation of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK1) in vitro (3). Expression of MIB1 is seen in both adult and embryonic murine tissues (4). Recently, MIB1 was reported to regulate the extrinsic cell death pathway by binding to cellular FLICE-like inhibitory proteins (cFLIP-L and cFLIP-S), which reduces the interaction of caspase-8 with cFLIP and leads to cell death (5). MIB1 is also involved in T and marginal zone B (MZB) cell development in the lymphopoietic niches (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: BAG6 (BCL2-associated athanogene-6), alternately known as BAT3 (HLA-B-associated transcript 3), was originally identified as a gene within the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex, but has subsequently been found to exhibit protein chaperone activity. BAG6, in conjunction with other chaperone proteins and ubiquitin ligases, regulates protein stability and insertion of tail-anchored membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (1-3). The BAT3 complex, consisting of BAG6, TRC35 and Ubl4a localizes to ribosomes synthesizing membrane proteins and facilitates tailed-anchored protein capture by TRC40 and subsequent insertion of the nascent protein in to the ER membrane (4,5). BAG6 also plays a critical role in clearing cells of mis-folded and mis-localized peptides via endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (1,6,7). BAG6 may also act as a chaperone for glycoproteins through its interaction with DERLIN2 (8).In addition to its role as a chaperone, BAG6 has also been implicated in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. For example, BAG6 and SET1A act as binding partners for BORIS to effect changes of chromatin structure and gene expression (9). Similarly, increased expression of BAG6 induces p300-mediated acetylation of p53, which is required for DNA damage response (10). BAG6 has also been found to interact with TGF-β, and in so doing acts as a positive regulator of TGF-β1 stimulation of type 1 collagen expression (11). BAG6 also suppresses bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling via its interaction with and regulation of small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) that dephosphorylates SMAD proteins resulting in subsequent termination of BMP-mediated events (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2) and 4 (SMC4) proteins are subunits of the condensin complex, which enables chromosome condensation and maintains the compaction of chromosomes as they separate to opposite poles during anaphase (1-3). In addition to regulating chromosome condensation, condensin is a general regulator of chromosome architecture and may function to regulate gene expression and DNA repair. SMC proteins contain a hallmark bipartite ATPase domain of the ABC ATPase superfamily, which consists of an N-terminal Walker A motif nucleotide-binding domain and C-terminal Walker B motif catalytic domain that interact to form a functional ATPase (1-3). The two ATPase domains are connected by two coiled coil domains separated by a central hinge region that facilitates protein-protein interactions between partnering SMC proteins. In the case of the condensin complex, SMC2 and SMC4 interact to form a functional ATPase required for chromatin condensation; however, the mechanism by which this ATPase activity regulates chromsome architecture is still being determined. In addition to SMC proteins, condensin contains three auxiliary subunits, which function to regulate condensin ATPase activity. Higher eukaryotes contain two distinct condensin complexes (condensin I and II), both of which contain SMC2 and SMC4 (1-3). Condensin I also contains the auxiliary subunits CAP-D2, CAP-G and CAP-H, while condensin II contains the related auxiliary proteins CAP-D3, CAP-G2 and CAP-H2. The two condensin complexes show different localization patterns during the cell cycle and on chromosomes and both are required for successful mitosis, suggesting distinct functions for each complex (1-3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator with both intra- and extracellular functions. Together with other sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes, SPHKs regulate the balance of the lipid mediators, ceramide, sphingosine, and S1P (1-4). Two distinct SPHK isoforms, SPHK1 and SPHK2, have been cloned and characterized (5,6). SPHK1 and SPHK2 are highly conserved and diversely expressed (7,8). The SPHKs are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, immunoglobulin receptors, cytokines, and other stimuli (9-12). The molecular mechanisms by which SPHK1 and SPHK2 are specifically regulated are complex and only partially understood.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Rab family of proteins includes small, monomeric GTPases essential for regulating intracellular vesicle trafficking. Members of the Rab3 subfamily, including Rab3A-3D, are involved in the exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones (1). Rab3A is primarily expressed in neurons (2), neuroendocrine cells (such as rat PC-12 cells), and in human pancreatic β cells (3,4). By acting as a molecular switch between active GTP-bound Rab3A and the inactive GDP-bound form, Rab3A inhibits synaptic vesicle and chromaffin granule secretion during late membrane release (5,6). Loss-of-function studies suggest Rab3A is involved in controlling synaptic vesicle targeting and docking at the active zone (7). Through binding to its direct effector Rabphillin, Rab3A also orchestrates the coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that drive directional, microtubule-dependent intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles and other macromolecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids). The intracellular transport functions of KIFs are fundamentally important for a variety of cellular functions, including mitotic and meiotic division, motility/migration, hormone and neurotransmitter release, and differentiation (1-4). Disruptions to KIF-mediated intracellular transport have been linked with a variety of pathologies, ranging from tumorigenesis to defects in higher order brain function such as learning and memory (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Cadherins are a superfamily of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain cadherin repeats of approximately 100 residues in their extracellular domain. Cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion and play critical roles in normal tissue development (1). The classic cadherin subfamily includes N-, P-, R-, B-, and E-cadherins, as well as about ten other members that are found in adherens junctions, a cellular structure near the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins interacts with β-catenin, γ-catenin (also called plakoglobin), and p120 catenin. β-catenin and γ-catenin associate with α-catenin, which links the cadherin-catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton (1,2). While β- and γ-catenin play structural roles in the junctional complex, p120 regulates cadherin adhesive activity and trafficking (1-4). Investigators consider E-cadherin an active suppressor of invasion and growth of many epithelial cancers (1-3). Research studies indicate that cancer cells have upregulated N-cadherin in addition to loss of E-cadherin. This change in cadherin expression is called the "cadherin switch." N-cadherin cooperates with the FGF receptor, leading to overexpression of MMP-9 and cellular invasion (3). Research studies have shown that in endothelial cells, VE-cadherin signaling, expression, and localization correlate with vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis (5,6). Investigators have also demonstrated that expression of P-cadherin, which is normally present in epithelial cells, is also altered in ovarian and other human cancers (7,8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cadherins are a superfamily of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain cadherin repeats of approximately 100 residues in their extracellular domain. Cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion and play critical roles in normal tissue development (1). The classic cadherin subfamily includes N-, P-, R-, B-, and E-cadherins, as well as about ten other members that are found in adherens junctions, a cellular structure near the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins interacts with β-catenin, γ-catenin (also called plakoglobin), and p120 catenin. β-catenin and γ-catenin associate with α-catenin, which links the cadherin-catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton (1,2). While β- and γ-catenin play structural roles in the junctional complex, p120 regulates cadherin adhesive activity and trafficking (1-4). Investigators consider E-cadherin an active suppressor of invasion and growth of many epithelial cancers (1-3). Research studies indicate that cancer cells have upregulated N-cadherin in addition to loss of E-cadherin. This change in cadherin expression is called the "cadherin switch." N-cadherin cooperates with the FGF receptor, leading to overexpression of MMP-9 and cellular invasion (3). Research studies have shown that in endothelial cells, VE-cadherin signaling, expression, and localization correlate with vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis (5,6). Investigators have also demonstrated that expression of P-cadherin, which is normally present in epithelial cells, is also altered in ovarian and other human cancers (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP/p23/HRF) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein involved in various cellular processes, such as its role as a histamine releasing factor in chronic allergic disease (1). TCTP binds tubulin in a cell cycle dependent manner and is associated with the mitotic spindle (2). In addition, TCTP interacts with the actin cytoskeleton to regulate cell shape (3). In mitosis, TCTP is phosphorylated by PLK at Ser46, decreasing microtubule stability (4,5). TCTP interacts with the small GTPase Rheb, possibly acting as a GEF, thereby activating the TORC1 pathway and controlling cell growth and proliferation (6,7). TCTP has also been shown to be involved in apoptosis and cell stress (8-11). In cultured cells, reduction in TCTP expression can cause loss of the malignant phenotype (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: FAM129B/Niban-like protein 1 (family with sequence similarity 129, member B) belongs to a poorly characterized family of Niban proteins that also includes FAM129A/Niban and FAM129C/Niban-like protein 2. FAM129A/Niban is implicated in the ER stress response and is upregulated at the protein level in thyroid carcinoma (1,2). FAM129C/Niban-like protein 2 is preferentially expressed in B-cells and is one of five biomarkers upregulated in whole blood from patients with colorectal carcinoma (3,4). FAM129B is broadly expressed and has been shown to be a downstream target of B-Raf in melanoma cells (5). Though FAM129B does not appear to regulate cell growth and division, phosphorylation of FAM129B by B-Raf is essential for the invasive potential of melanoma and non-melanoma cell lines (5). Deletion of FAM129B in melanoma cells significantly impairs B-Raf/MEK/Erk-dependent invasion into the extracellular matrix (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainite- and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are comprised of four subunits (GluR 1-4) that assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers and mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the CNS. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization and plasticity. Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing and nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phoshorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties of AMPARs (1). GluR 3 knockout mice exhibited normal basal synaptic transmission and long-term depression (LTD) but enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP). In contrast, GluR 2/3 double knockout mice are impaired in basal synaptic transmission (2). Aberrant GluR 3 expression or activity is implicated in a number of diseases, including autoimmune epilepsy, X-linked mental retardation, Rett's syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer disease (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL), also known as glutamine synthetase (GS), catalyzes the de novo synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. GLUL is ubiquitously expressed with particularly high expression in the muscle, liver, and brain (1). GLUL expression is elevated in various cancers. Its expression is upregulated by oncogenic c-Myc (2). High expression of GLUL in breast cancer patients is associated with larger tumor size and high level of HER2 expression. It is a predictor of poor survival in patients with glioma and liver cancers (3-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT III (endosomal sorting required for transport complex III) complex (1, 2). The ESCRT system is composed of the ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III complexes, which function sequentially to direct the transport of ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into the intralumenal vesicles (ILVs), which will eventually mature into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). CHMP2B is a homolog of yeast Vps2, which functions in the ESCRT-II complex to change the initial spiral-structure of snf7 into membrane-sculpting helices for the final pinch off process (3). CHMP2B probably functions similarly in mammalian cells. Research studies show that manipulation of the ESCRT-III complex leads to accumulation of CHMP2B at the plasma membrane and overexpressed CHMP2B polymerizes into a tight helical structure that deforms the shape of associated plasma membrane (4).Research studies have shown that mutation of CHMP2B is associated with frontotemporal dementia, (5, 6). Studies have further shown that the dysfunction of mutant CHMP2B expression may disrupts the normal endo-autophagosome and endo-lysosome pathways and lead to neurodegenerative diseases (6-9).

$262
100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® Rheb siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Rheb expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) is an evolutionarily conserved member of the Ras family of small GTP-binding proteins originally found to be rapidly induced by synaptic activity in the hippocampus following seizure (1). While it is expressed at relatively high levels in the brain, Rheb is widely expressed in other tissues and may be induced by growth factor stimulation. Like other Ras family members, Rheb triggers activation of the Raf-MEK-MAPK pathway (2). Biochemical and genetic studies demonstrate that Rheb has an important role in regulating the insulin/TOR signaling pathway (3-6). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a sensor for ATP and amino acids, balancing the availability of nutrients with translation and cell growth. The tuberin/hamartin (TSC2/TSC1) complex inhibits mTOR activity indirectly by inhibiting Rheb through the tuberin GAP activity (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TBC1D1 is a paralog of AS160 (1) and both proteins share about 50% identity (2). TBC1D1 was shown to be a candidate gene for severe obesity (3). It plays a role in Glut4 translocation through its GAP activity (2,4). Studies indicate that TBC1D1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (1). Insulin, AICAR, and contraction directly regulate TBC1D1 phosphorylation in this tissue (1). Three AMPK phosphorylation sites (Ser231, Ser660, and Ser700) and one Akt phosphorylation site (Thr590) were identified in skeletal muscle (5). Muscle contraction or AICAR treatment increases phosphorylation on Ser231, Ser660, and Ser700 but not on Thr590; insulin increases phosphorylation on Thr590 only (5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TBR1 (D6C6X) Rabbit mAb #49661.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: T-box, brain, 1 (TBR1) is a transcription factor important in vertebrate embryo development. As a member of T-Box family of transcription factors, TBR1 is expressed in postmitotic glutamatergic projection neurons (1). During cortical neurogenesis, sequential expression of transcription factors Pax6, TBR2, and TBR1 regulates discrete steps in projection neuron differentiation (2). TBR1 is enriched in layer 6 of the developing cortex. In the absence of TBR1, TBR1 mutants exhibit profound defects in frontal cortex and layer 6 differentiation, suggesting that TBR1 regulates regional and laminar identity of postmitotic cortical neurons (3). Therefore, TBR1 expression can be used as a marker for postmitotic glutamatergic neurons and cortical laminar specificity.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase DTX3L (BBAP) is a deltex (DTX) family ligase that binds B aggressive lymphoma 1 (BAL1) to mediate the monoubiquitination of histone H4 Lys91 in response to DNA damage (1,2). The early recruitment of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) protein to sites of DNA damage leads to poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of multiple target proteins. This results in the subsequent recruitment of DTX3L/BAL1 through binding of the BAL macrodomain to PARylated proteins. DTX3L/BAL1 then mediates the monoubiquitination of histone H4 Lys91 that is required for subsequent methylation of histone H4 Lys20 and recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (1-3). DTX3L and BAL1 are highly expressed in malignant B-cell lymphomas and act to confer chemotherapy-resistance by protecting cells from DNA damaging agents (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The zyxin family of proteins includes LIMD1, ajuba, trip6 and zyxin, each of which contains three LIM domains at the carboxy-terminus. Zyxin family members associate with the actin cytoskeleton and are components of both the cell-cell junction adhesive complex and the integrin-mediated adhesive complex. They shuttle in and out of the nucleus where they may function in transcriptional activation (1).Zyxin is involved in the regulation of mechanical force-induced actin polymerization at focal adhesions (2), and in regulation of adhesion and migration, possibly through recruitment of Ena/VASP proteins to focal adhesions (3). Zyxin interacts with and may regulate the function of the tumor suppressor myopodin, which inhibits tumor growth and metastasis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: GAP43 is a nervous system specific, growth-associated protein enriched in growth cones and areas of high plasticity (1). Phosphorylation of GAP43 at Ser41 by PKC is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ and affects the ability of GAP43 to bind calmodulin (2,3). GAP43 is integral to growth cone formation, neurite outgrowth, and the development of a functional cerebral cortex (4,5). Aberrant GAP43 expression can be seen in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays a major role in regulating the proliferation and metabolism of normal and malignant cells. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) play an integral role in modifying IGF actions in a wide variety of cell types. The six IGFBP family members share a high affinity for IGF binding and are structurally related, but are encoded by distinct genes (1). IGF binding proteins can exert stimulatory or inhibitory effects by controlling IGF availability through high affinity binding of IGF at the carboxy-terminal domain (2,3). IGFBP3 is the most abundant serum IGF binding protein and the main mediator for IGF-I bioactivities. IGFBP3 also binds IGF-II, insulin, and other cellular and extracellular components to regulate cell growth, development, and apoptosis through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms (4-8). Research studies describe correlations between increased IGF-I levels and reduced levels of IGFBP3 with increased risks of developing cancer, including breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancer (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Spry1 is a member of the Sprouty (Spry) family proteins that was initially identified in Drosophila as an inhibitor of the FGF signaling pathway (1). There are four human Spry proteins (Spry1-4), encoded by different genes, and they all share a highly conserved carboxy-terminal cystine-rich Spry domain that is known to be essential for their receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory function stimulated by various growth factors (1-3). Spry1 and other Spry proteins play a key role in embryonic development, tissue and organ formation, as well as growth in almost all living organisms (1-4). Spry proteins are considered tumor suppressors due to their inhibitory function in a variety of growth factor signaling pathways (2,3). Spry1 anchors itself to the membrane by palmitoylation and can translocate from the cytosol to the membrane by binding to caveolin-1 (5,6). Regulation of Spry1 protein function is thought to occur at various levels. Spry1 regulation includes transcriptional regulation by growth factors and kinases (1,4,7), post-transcriptional regulation by microRNA-21 (8), post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, and regulation by its interacting protein partners (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a nuclear protein that regulates gene expression and is involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and cytoskeletal organization. The CXXC5 protein is also known as retinoid-inducible nuclear factor (RINF) as it was originally identified from a set of genes upregulated by retinoic acid stimulation (1). CXXC5 is a transcriptional activator of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor VEGFR2. The CXXC5 protein regulates differentiation and migration of endothelial cells and subsequent blood vessel formation downstream of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling (2). CXXC5 also regulates TNFα-induced apoptosis by facilitating phosphorylation of Smad3 and the nuclear translocation of Smad4 (3). Expression of CXXC5 in skeletal muscle regulates expression of genes involved in skeletal myogenesis (4). This nuclear factor also plays an important role in the regulation of normal myelopoiesis. The CXXC5 gene is localized to the 5q31.2 chromosomal region that is often involved in abnormalities associated with various myeloid malignancies, and CXXC5 over-expression is associated with decreased overall survival in human AML (5). Interestingly, CXXC5 is also over-expressed in many solid tumors, and high expression is also correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1) catalyzes the conversion of malate and NADP+ to pyruvate and NADPH (1,2). NADPH is then used for fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenesis (1,2). Cytosolic malic enzyme was shown to mediate high fat diet-induced adiposity (1). Mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME2) preferentially uses NAD+ to catalyze the conversion of malate to pyruvate with the concomitant generation of NADH (2). Recent studies have demonstrated that the tumor suppressor p53 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation by repressing the expression of both cytosolic malic enzyme and mitochondrial malic enzyme (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic cell proliferation depends strictly upon the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose main function is to trigger the transition of the cell cycle from metaphase to anaphase. The APC/C complex promotes the assembly of polyubiquitin chains on substrate proteins in order to target these proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome (1,2). The vertebrate APC/C complex consists of as many as 15 subunits, including multiple scaffold proteins, two catalytic subunits (APC2, APC11), and a number of proteins responsible for substrate recognition (3). All E3 enzymes, including APC/C, utilize ubiquitin residues activated by E1 enzymes and transferred to E2 enzymes. Research studies indicate that APC/C interacts with the E2 enzymes UBE2S and UBE2C via the RING-finger domain-containing subunit APC11 (4-6). APC/C function relies on multiple cofactors, including an APC/C coactivator formed by the cell division control protein 20 homolog (CDC20) and Cdh1/FZR1. The CDC20/Cdh1 coactivator is responsible for recognition of APC/C substrates through interaction with specific D-box and KEN-box recognition elements within these substrates (7-9).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chk2 is the mammalian orthologue of the budding yeast Rad53 and fission yeast Cds1 checkpoint kinases (1-3). The amino-terminal domain of Chk2 contains a series of seven serine or threonine residues (Ser19, Thr26, Ser28, Ser33, Ser35, Ser50, and Thr68) each followed by glutamine (SQ or TQ motif). These are known to be preferred sites for phosphorylation by ATM/ATR kinases (4,5). After DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), UV irradiation, or hydroxyurea treatment, Thr68 and other sites in this region become phosphorylated by ATM/ATR (5-7). The SQ/TQ cluster domain, therefore, seems to have a regulatory function. Phosphorylation at Thr68 is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation step, which is attributable to autophosphorylation of Chk2 at residues Thr383 and Thr387 in the activation loop of the kinase domain (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The modulation of chromatin structure is an essential component in the regulation of transcriptional activation and repression. Modifications can be made by at least two evolutionarily conserved strategies, through the disruption of histone-DNA contacts by ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, or by histone tail modifications including methylation and acetylation. One of the four classes of ATP-dependent histone remodelers is the SWI/SNF complex, the central catalytic subunit of which is Brg1 or the highly related protein hBRM (1). This SWI/SNF complex contains varying subunits but its association with either Brg1 or hBRM remains constant (1). SWI/SNF complexes have been shown to regulate gene activation, cell growth, the cell cycle and differentiation (1). Brg1/hBRM have been shown to regulate transcription through enhancing transcriptional activation of glucocorticoid receptors (2). Although usually associated with transcriptional activation, Brg1/hBRM have also been found in complexes associated with transcriptional repression including with HDACs, Rb and Tif1β (3-5). Brg1/hBRM plays a vital role in the regulation of gene transcription during early mammalian embryogenesis. In addition, Brg1/hBRM also play a role as a tumor suppressors and Brg1 is mutated in several tumor cell lines (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 26S proteasome is a highly abundant proteolytic complex involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It consists largely of two sub-complexes, the 20S catalytic core particle (CP) and the 19S/PA700 regulatory particle (RP) that can cap either end of the CP. The CP consists of two stacked heteroheptameric β-rings (β1-7) that contain three catalytic β-subunits and are flanked on either side by two heteroheptameric α-rings (α1-7). The RP includes a base and a lid, each having multiple subunits. The base, in part, is composed of a heterohexameric ring of ATPase subunits belonging to the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family. The ATPase subunits function to unfold the substrate and open the gate formed by the α-subunits, thus exposing the unfolded substrate to the catalytic β-subunits. The lid consists of ubiquitin receptors and DUBs that function in recruitment of ubiquitinated substrates and modification of ubiquitin chain topology (1,2). Other modulators of proteasome activity, such as PA28/11S REG, can also bind to the end of the 20S CP and activate it (1,2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The methylation state of lysine residues in histone proteins is a major determinant of the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (1,2). Jumonji C (JmjC) domain-containing proteins represent the largest class of potential histone demethylase proteins (3). The JmjC domain of several proteins has been shown to catalyze the demethylation of mono-, di-, and tri-methyl lysine residues via an oxidative reaction that requires iron and α-ketoglutarate (3). Based on homology, both humans and mice contain at least 30 such proteins, which can be divided into seven separate families (3). The JMJD1 (Jumonji domain-containing protein 1) family, also known as JHDM2 (JmjC domain-containing histone demethylation protein 2) family, contains four members: hairless (HR), JMJD1A/JHDM2A, JMJD1B/JHDM2B, and JMJD1C/JHDM2C. Hairless is expressed in the skin and brain and acts as a co-repressor of the thyroid hormone receptor (4-6). Mutations in the hairless gene cause alopecia in both mice and humans (4,5). JMJD1A is expressed in meiotic and post-meiotic male germ cells, contributes to androgen receptor-mediated gene regulation, and is required for spermatogenesis (7-9). It has also been identified as a downstream target of OCT4 and STAT3 and is critical for the regulation of self-renewal in embryonic stem cells (10,11). JMJD1B is a more widely expressed family member and is frequently deleted in myeloid leukemia (12). JMJD1C (also known as TRIP8) is a co-factor of both the androgen and thyroid receptors and has a potential link to autism (13-15). Members of the JMJD1/JHDM2 family have been shown to demethylate mono-methyl and di-methyl histone H3 (Lys9) (3,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Western Blotting

Background: Drosha was identified as a nuclear RNase III that catalyzes the initial step of microRNA (miRNA) processing (1). This enzyme processes the long primary transcript pri-miRNAs into stem-looped pre-miRNAs. Interference of Drosha results in the increase of pri-miRNAs and the decrease of pre-miRNAs (1). Drosha exists in a multiprotein complex called Microprocessor along with other components such as DGCR8 (2). Drosha, along with DGCR8, is necessary for miRNA biogenesis (3).