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Product listing: β-Catenin (L54E2) Mouse mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate), UniProt ID P35222 #5612 to SignalSilence® Stat3 siRNA I, UniProt ID P40763 #6580

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluorescence in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated β-Catenin (L54E2) Mouse mAb (IF Preferred) #2677.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) belongs to an antioxidant enzyme family of non-seleno peroxidases (prdx). It is a unique member of the Prdx family exhibiting both glutathione peroxidase and phospholipase A2 activities (1,2). Prdx6 regulates phospholipid turnover as well as protects cells against oxidative injury. Prdx6 is expressed in all major organs with a particularly high level in lung where it regulates lung surfactant phospholipid synthesis and turnover (3-5). Studies show Prdx6 is aberrantly expressed in various cancers and promotes cancer cell metastasis and invasion (6,7). Elevated expression of Prdx6 and other prdx family members contributes to drug resistance in cancer cells (8,9). Prdx6 is also expressed in neutrophils, where it regulates the function of these cells and activates NADPH oxidase (Nox2) ( 10-12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: NFI-C belongs to the nuclear factor I (NFI) family of site-specific transcription factors that regulate viral DNA replication and expression of various genes (1,2). The NFI family is composed of four members in vertebrates: NFI-A, NFI-B, NFI-C, and NFI-X, all of which are critical in the development of multiple organ systems in mice and humans (3). NFI-C is expressed in various tissues and regulates TGF-β dependent tooth development and hair follicle cycling (3-5). Research studies have shown that NFI-C directly represses FoxF1 transcription and suppresses the motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells (6).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated EpCAM (VU1D9) Mouse mAb #2929.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Tie2/Tek is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expressed almost exclusively on endothelial cells. It is critical for vasculogenesis and could be important for maintaining endothelial cell survival and integrity in adult blood vessels as well as tumor angiogenesis (1-3). A family of ligands known as the angiopoietins binds to Tie2. Interestingly, these ligands appear to have opposing actions; Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Angiopoietin-4 (Ang4) stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2; Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) and Angiopoietin-3 (Ang3) can inhibit this phosphorylation (4,5). Downstream signaling components, including Grb2, Grb7, Grb14, SHP-2, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and p56/Dok-2 interact with Tie2 in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner through their SH2 or PTB domains (6,7). Tyr992 is located on the putative activation loop of Tie2 and is a major autophosphorylation site (8).

$305
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. Stat3 (79D7) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation assay of Stat3 proteins.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The leukocyte Ig-like receptor subfamily B (LILRB) are type-I transmembrane glycoproteins containing ligand binding extracellular IgG-like domains and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMS) within the cytoplasmic domain, which recruit SHP protein tyrosine phosphatases, leading to transduction of signals that inhibit immune cell activation. Encoded within a region of chromosome 19 known as the leukocyte receptor complex, the LILRB subfamily of inhibitory receptors consists of LILRB1 to LILRB5, also referred to as CD85J, CD85D, CD85A, CD85K, and CD85C, respectively (1). There is mounting evidence that LILRBs function, in part, as a novel class of immune checkpoint receptors and support tumor growth through the transmission of inhibitory signals upon engagement of ligands expressed on tumor cells (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Reptin/RuvBL2 and Pontin/RuvBL1 are closely related members of the AAA+ (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) superfamily of proteins, and are putatively homologous to bacterial RuvB proteins that drive branch migration of Holliday junctions (1). Reptin and Pontin function together as essential components of chromatin remodeling and modification complexes, such as INO80, TIP60, SRCAP, and Uri1, which play key roles in regulating gene transcription (1,2). In their capacity as essential transcriptional co-regulators, Reptin and Pontin have both been implicated in oncogenic transformations, including those driven by c-Myc, β-catenin, and E1A (2-7).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are a family of ancient zinc metalloenzymes found in almost all living organisms. All CA can be divided into 3 distinct classes (α, β, and γ) that evolved independently and have no significant homology in sequence and overall folding. All functional CA catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 into HCO3- and H+ and contain a zinc atom in the active sites essential for catalysis. There are many isoforms of CA in mammals and they all belong to the α class (1,2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Coat Protein Complex II (COPII) is composed of five cytosolic proteins: Sec23/24 complex, Sec13/31 complex, and Sar1. COPII coat is located at the ER/Golgi interface and is involved in transport of newly synthesized proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus (1). COPII formation is initiated through the binding of the activated G protein, Sar1, to the Sec23/24 complex, thereby forming a prebudding complex that directly binds target molecules (1-3). The prebudding complex further recruits Sec13/31 to form mature COPII coat (4,5). The Sec24 subunit of COPII coat is thought to play a critical role in cargo selection (2,6). It binds directly to cargo proteins at the ER and brings them to COPII vesicles through interaction with Sec23. There are four Sec24 isoforms in human cells: Sec24A, Sec24B, Sec24C, and Sec24D (7). In mice, mutations in Sec24B have been linked to developmental defects (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tug (Tether containing UBX domain for GLUT4), also known as ASPL, ASPSCR1, RCC17, UBXD9, UBXN9, was first identified as a chromosomal translocation partner for TFE3 in patients with Alveolar soft part sarcoma (1) and contains an UBX-like domain in its C-terminal region. Tug is found to tether GLUT4 in intracellular vesicles and to release GLUT4 for cell surface translocation upon insulin stimulation (2). Stable Tug depletion or expression of a dominant negative form stimulates GLUT4 redistribution (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CTD small phosphatase-like protein 2 (CTDSPL2, HSPC129) is a putative RNA-polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase (1) that belongs to a small subfamily of CTD phosphatases (2). The CTD of RNA polymerase II contains multiple Y-S-P-T-S-P-S repeats that are phosphorylated during the transcription cycle (3,4). In general, CTD phosphatases regulate the reversible CTD phosphorylation state of RNA-polymerase II at several stages of RNA synthesis and during post-transcriptional modification (4-6). CTDSPL2 has several structural and functional similarities to other CTD phosphatases, including FCP1, SCP1, DULLARD, and UBLCP1 (1,2).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: In multicellular organisms, intercellular junctions play essential roles in tissue integrity and maintenance of cell polarity. Tight junctions (TJs) form a continuous barrier to fluids across the epithelium and endothelium (reviewed in 1). Adherens junctions (AJs) are dynamic structures that form cell-cell contacts linking cells into a continuous sheet (reviewed in 2). The actin filament-binding protein, Afadin, binds to nectin forming a connection to the actin cytoskeleton (3). AJs are formed when nectin assembles cadherin at the cell-cell adhesion site and these junctions are then involved in the formation and maintenance of TJs (4,5). Afadin has two splice variants: l-afadin, which is ubiquitously expressed, and s-afadin, which is expressed predominantly in neural tissue. s-Afadin is a shorter form lacking one of the three proline-rich regions found in l-afadin, as well as the carboxyl-terminal F-actin binding region (6). Human s-afadin is identical to AF-6, the ALL-1 fusion partner involved in acute myeloid leukemias (7). Recent work has also shown that afadin is involved in controlling the directionality of cell movement when it is localized at the leading edge of moving cells (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (NCAM-L1/L1CAM) is a single pass transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, containing six amino-terminal extracellular Ig-like domains followed by five fibronectin type-III domains (1). NCAM-L1 is mainly expressed in the brain, and plays an important role in the developing nervous system, with involvement in neurite fasciculation and outgrowth, myelination, neuronal migration, and neuronal cell adhesion (2). Mutations in the NCAM-L1 gene cause varying degrees of neurological disease including X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA syndrome, spastic paraplegia type 1, and X-linked corpus callosum agenesis, together known as L1 syndrome (3). Apart from the nervous system, NCAM-L1 is overexpressed in many cancers and supports a poor prognosis by facilitating aggressive tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation

Background: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters of 39 and 47 amino acids that are involved in a variety of physiological processes. The CART precursor, a polypeptide of 116 residues, requires prohormone/proprotein convertase-mediated endoproteolytic cleavage to produce the two active peptides (1). CART peptides are found in several neuroendocrine tissues such as the brain, pituitary, adrenals, and pancreas (2). Hypothalamic CART is regulated by leptin, and plays a role in appetite and feeding behavior (3). Mesolimbic CART is regulated by CREB and may play a role in drug abuse behaviors by mediating some of CREB effects (4). Pancreatic CART is found in islet endocrine cells and parasympathetic and sensory nerves. It inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and has been found to be up-regulated in beta cells in animal model of diabetes (5). A missense mutation in the corresponding CART gene can correlate with susceptibility to obesity and reduced resting energy expenditure (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional Y-box proteins that bind single-stranded DNA and RNA and function as regulators of transcription, RNA metabolism, and protein synthesis (1). YB1 binds to Y-box sequences (TAACC) found in multiple gene promoters and can positively or negatively regulate transcription. YB1 activates genes associated with proliferation and cancer, such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and the multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene (2-4). YB1 represses genes associated with cell death, including the Fas cell death-associated receptor and the p53 tumor suppressor gene (5-7). It also interacts with the RNA-splicing factor SRp30c and stabilizes interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA upon induction of T lymphocytes by IL-2 (8,9). The majority of YB1 protein localizes to the cytoplasm, with a minor pool found in the nucleus; however, nuclear localization appears to be critical for its role in promoting proliferation. Nuclear translocation is cell cycle regulated, with YB1 protein accumulating in the nucleus during G1/S phase (2). In addition, nuclear translocation is induced in response to extracellular stimuli such as hyperthermia and UV irradiation, or treatment of cells with thrombin, interferons, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) (2,10). Treatment of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line with IGF-I results in Akt-mediated phosphorylation of YB1 at Ser102, which is required for nuclear translocation of YB1 and its ability to promote anchorage-independent growth (10). Research studies have shown that YB1 is overexpressed in many malignant tissues, including breast cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinomas, human osteosarcomas, colorectal carcinomas, and malignant melanomas. Investigators have shown that nuclear YB1 expression correlates with high levels of proliferation, drug resistance, and poor tumor prognosis (2,7,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure of secreted macromolecules surrounding mammalian organs and tissues. Controlled interactions between cells and the ECM are important in proliferation, migration, survival, polarity, and differentiation. Cells contact the ECM primarily through focal adhesion complexes, which contain integrins, as well as multiple adaptor and signaling proteins (1). The ILK/PINCH/Parvin (IPP) adaptor complex acts at the interface of the integrin/actin connection to regulate formation of focal adhesions and integrin signaling. Roles for IPP proteins outside of the IPP complex have been proposed, including regulation of gene expression (2,3).PINCH, also known as LIMS1, has been shown to function as a specific regulator of gene expression in glomerular podocytes in response to TGF-β1 (4). Researchers have shown that PINCH is highly expressed in some human tumors, and that PINCH can promote resistance to ionizing radiation through activation of Akt (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Succinyl-CoA synthetase α subunit (SUCLG1) catalyzes the conversion of succinate to succinyl-CoA and plays a key role in the citric acid cycle (1,2). Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a variety of diseases including fatal infantile lactic acidosis (3) and mitochondrial hepatoencephalomyopathy (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Vav proteins belong to the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho/Rac small GTPases. The three identified mammalian Vav proteins (Vav1, Vav2 and Vav3) differ in their expression. Vav1 is expressed only in hematopoietic cells and is involved in the formation of the immune synapse. Vav2 and Vav3 are more ubiquitously expressed. Vav proteins contain the Dbl homology domain, which confers GEF activity, as well as protein interaction domains that allow them to function in pathways regulating actin cytoskeleton organization (reviewed in 1). Phosphorylation stimulates the GEF activity of Vav protein towards Rho/Rac (2,3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) was originally identified as a p53 binding partner that could enhance the transcriptional activity of p53 (1,2). 53BP1 consists of two BRCA1 carboxy terminal (BRCT) domains that allow for binding to p53 and a separate domain responsible for binding to phosphorylated histone H2A.X (3). 53BP1 rapidly translocates to nuclear foci following treatment of cells with ionizing radiation (IR) or radiomimetic agents that cause DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) (4,5). Because of this localization to DSBs and homology to the yeast protein Rad9, a role for 53BP1 in DSB repair has been proposed. Recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage has been demonstrated to be independent of ATM, NBS1, and DNA-PK (4) and retention of 53BP1 at DNA breaks requires phosphorylated H2A.X (6). In cells lacking 53BP1, phosphorylation of ATM substrates is reduced, suggesting that 53BP1 is upstream of ATM (7). In response to IR, phosphorylation of 53BP1 at serines 6, 25, 29, and 784 by ATM has been demonstrated, but phosphorylation at these sites is not required for localization of 53BP1 to sites of DSBs (6). Phosphorylation of 53BP1 at Ser1618 has been reported to be enriched in human cells arrested in mitosis (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 26S proteasome is a highly abundant proteolytic complex involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It consists largely of the 20S catalytic core particle (CP) and the 19S/PA700 regulatory particle (RP) that caps either end of the CP. The CP consists of two stacked heteroheptameric β-rings (β1-7) that contain three catalytic β-subunits flanked on either side by two heteroheptameric α-rings (α1-7). The RP includes multimeric base and lid complexes. The RP base includes a heterohexameric ring of ATPase subunits that unfold the substrate and open the α-subunit gate to expose the substrate to the catalytic β-subunits. The lid consists of ubiquitin receptors and DUBs that recruit ubiquitinated substrates and modify ubiquitin chain topology (1,2). Proteasome activity modulators, such as PA28/11S REG, bind the 20S CP cylinder end and open the CP channel (1,2).Proteasome maturation protein (POMP, proteassemblin, hUMP1) is an integral factor essential for assembly of the 20S catalytic core particle during mammalian proteasome biogenesis. POMP promotes heteroheptameric β-ring formation and dimerization of half-proteasomes during core particle assembly. The POMP protein undergoes proteasomal degradation following 20S CP complex assembly and activation (3-6). Research studies suggest that POMP is required for CP assembly for both constitutive proteasomes and immunoproteasomes, and that the assembly focal point resides at the endoplasmic reticulum (6-8). A single nucleotide deletion in the 5' UTR of POMP results in altered epidermal POMP distribution and the autosomal recessive skin disorder known as KLICK syndrome (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr)-binding protein (VPRBP, DCAF1) is a substrate-specific adaptor for the CUL4-based ubiquitin ligase complex that consists of CUL4A, RBX1, and DDB1 (1). VPRBP protein structure contains a central LIS1 homology (LisH) motif responsible for dimerization, and two carboxy-terminal WD-40 motifs involved in Vpr and DDB1 binding (2-4). Research studies demonstrate that VPRBP plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism by promoting the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of the TR4 nuclear receptor, which is involved in lipid homeostasis (5). The VPRBP protein plays a role in mammalian germ cell development through regulation of TET methylcytosine dioxygenase activation (6). Additional studies show that VPRBP exhibits kinase activity and phosphorylates histone H2A at Ser120, which blocks tumor suppressor gene transcription (7). The tumor suppressor Merlin/NF2 inhibits tumorigenesis through interaction with and suppression of the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-VPRBP complex (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNP C1/C2) has multiple biological functions including transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and RNA processing. hnRNP C1/C2 acts as a ‘molecular ruler’ in the mRNA processing pathway, committing nascent transcripts from the chromatin template to the mRNA export pathway once the nascent transcript becomes longer than 200-300 nucleotides (1). hnRNP C1/C2 associates with SWI/SNF and NurD family members to form the locus control region (LCR)-associated remodeling complex (LARC), which binds to β-globin gene promoter to prevent transcriptional silencing. Studies indicate that without hnRNP C1/C2, LARC does not associate with its target DNA sequence (2,3). hnRNP C1/C2 and other hnRNP family members interact with DNA damage response (DDR) proteins (4). hnRNP proteins regulate double stranded break (DSB) repair by promoting either homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) (4). hnRNP C1/C2 downregulates the expression of miR-21, which leads to the increased expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) protein in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (5). Research studies have shown that silencing of hnRNP C1/C2 renders GBM cells more susceptible to apoptosis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1) is a transmembrane protein abundantly expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells (1). It is a metalloreductase that reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ and Cu2+ to Cu1+ (2). STEAP1 is also reportedly overexpressed in multiple tumor types, and has been used as a cell surface biomarker for prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma (3-6). Peptides derived from STEAP1 protein have been shown to induce an antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that can kill tumor cells expressing STEAP1 (7). These finding are the basis for research studies examining the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) targeting STEAP1 (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: H box/ACA-motif small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide snoRNA proteins (snoRNPs) to uridine residues on rRNA for the conversion to pseudouridine (1). These H/ACA snoRNPs consist of four highly conserved proteins including GAR1, NHP2, NOP10, and the catalytic component dyskerin (1-3). The core snoRNPs also bind to mammalian telomerase RNA, which contains a H/ACA-like motif in the 3’ domain. This binding results in the maintenance of telomerase levels and activity (4). Defects in the snoRNPs can lead to dyskeratosis congenita, a rare, x-linked disorder characterized by a failure of the bone marrow and an increased tumor risk (5,6). Mutations in the dyskerin gene can cause defects in translation of mRNAs containing internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which include mRNAs to tumor suppressors p27 and p53 and anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-xL and XIAP (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: DNA topoisomerases I and II are nuclear enzymes; type II consists of two highly homologous isoforms: topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. These enzymes regulate the topology of DNA, maintain genomic integrity, and are essential for processes such as DNA replication, recombination, transcription, and chromosome segregation by allowing DNA strands to pass through each other (1). Topoisomerase I nicks and rejoins one strand of the duplex DNA, while topoisomerase II transiently breaks and closes double-stranded DNA (2). Topoisomerases are very susceptible to various stresses. Acidic pH or oxidative stress can convert topoisomerases to DNA-breaking nucleases, causing genomic instability and cell death. DNA-damaging topoisomerase targeting drugs (e.g., etoposide) also convert topoisomerases to nucleases, with the enzyme usually trapped as an intermediate that is covalently bound to the 5+ end of the cleaved DNA strand(s). Research studies have shown that this intermediate leads to genomic instability and cell death. Thus, agents that target topoisomerases are highly sought after cancer chemotherapeutic drugs (3). Ca2+-regulated phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα at Ser1106 modulates the activity of this enzyme and its sensitivity to targeting drugs (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Developmentally-regulated brain proteins (Drebrins) are cytoplasmic proteins that were originally identified in the brain as F-actin-binding proteins. There are two mammalian isoforms: adult type (A) and embryonic type (E). These isoforms are derived from a single gene through alternative RNA splicing mechanisms (1). Drebrin E has been observed to accumulate in the developmental stage of migrating neurons and in the growing cell processes of neurons. Drebrin A is found at the dendritic spines of mature cortical neurons where it plays a role in synaptic plasticity (2,3). Although drebrins are primarily found in neurons, they have also been found in skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, and kidney. Research studies have shown that reduced expression of drebrin in the brain could be associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, Down Syndrome (4), and bipolar disorders (5).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Stat3 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Stat3 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).