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Product listing: Diap2 Antibody, UniProt ID O60879 #5474 to NKX2.2 Antibody, UniProt ID O95096 #12310

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Formins are a family of large multidomain actin nucleation/polymerization proteins characterized by their catalytic FH2 domains. The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia/diap) subfamily, including mDia1/diap1, mDia2/diap3 and mDia3/diap2, are effectors of Rho family small GTPases. In response to Rho, mDia/diap proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple cell functions including cytoskeletal dynamics, migration, adhesion, polarity and cell shape (reviewed in 1,2).mDia1/diap1 is activated by GTP-bound Rho, leading to Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-dependent stress fiber formation (3,4). Rho activation of mDia1 has also been shown to regulate serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription (5), and has been implicated in human cancer phenotypes such as ras-mediated transformation, metastasis and invasion (reviewed in 6).mDia3/diap2, activated by the Rho family small GTPase cdc42, regulates the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore during mitosis in mammalian cells (7).Rho-dependent activation of mDia2/diap3 is important in assembly of the contractile ring during cytokinesis (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Ret proto-oncogene (c-Ret) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that functions as a multicomponent receptor complex in conjunction with other membrane-bound, ligand-binding GDNF family receptors (1). Ligands that bind the Ret receptor include the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its congeners neurturin, persephin, and artemin (2-4). Research studies have shown that alterations in the corresponding RET gene are associated with diseases including papillary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia (type 2A and 2B), familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, and a congenital developmental disorder known as Hirschsprung’s disease (1,3). The Tyr905 residue located in the Ret kinase domain plays a crucial role in Ret catalytic and biological activity. Substitution of Phe for Tyr at position 905 dramatically inhibits Ret autophosphorylation activity (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Coat Protein Complex II (COPII) is composed of five cytosolic proteins: Sec23/24 complex, Sec13/31 complex, and Sar1. COPII coat is located at the ER/Golgi interface and is involved in transport of newly synthesized proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus (1). COPII formation is initiated through the binding of the activated G protein, Sar1, to the Sec23/24 complex, thereby forming a prebudding complex that directly binds target molecules (1-3). The prebudding complex further recruits Sec13/31 to form mature COPII coat (4,5). The Sec24 subunit of COPII coat is thought to play a critical role in cargo selection (2,6). It binds directly to cargo proteins at the ER and brings them to COPII vesicles through interaction with Sec23. There are four Sec24 isoforms in human cells: Sec24A, Sec24B, Sec24C, and Sec24D (7). In mice, mutations in Sec24B have been linked to developmental defects (8,9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® AMPKα2 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit AMPKα2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is highly conserved from yeast to plants and animals and plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis (1). AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, each of which is encoded by two or three distinct genes (α1, 2; β1, 2; γ1, 2, 3) (2). The kinase is activated by an elevated AMP/ATP ratio due to cellular and environmental stress, such as heat shock, hypoxia, and ischemia (1). The tumor suppressor LKB1, in association with accessory proteins STRAD and MO25, phosphorylates AMPKα at Thr172 in the activation loop, and this phosphorylation is required for AMPK activation (3-5). AMPKα is also phosphorylated at Thr258 and Ser485 (for α1; Ser491 for α2). The upstream kinase and the biological significance of these phosphorylation events have yet to be elucidated (6). The β1 subunit is post-translationally modified by myristoylation and multi-site phosphorylation including Ser24/25, Ser96, Ser101, Ser108, and Ser182 (6,7). Phosphorylation at Ser108 of the β1 subunit seems to be required for the activation of AMPK enzyme, while phosphorylation at Ser24/25 and Ser182 affects AMPK localization (7). Several mutations in AMPKγ subunits have been identified, most of which are located in the putative AMP/ATP binding sites (CBS or Bateman domains). Mutations at these sites lead to reduction of AMPK activity and cause glycogen accumulation in heart or skeletal muscle (1,2). Accumulating evidence indicates that AMPK not only regulates the metabolism of fatty acids and glycogen, but also modulates protein synthesis and cell growth through EF2 and TSC2/mTOR pathways, as well as blood flow via eNOS/nNOS (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: BCAT1 and BCAT2 are cytosolic and mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferases, respectively (1,2). Research studies have implicated BCAT1 in distant metastasis in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (3). Disruption of BCAT2 in mice leads to higher levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids, reduced adiposity and body weight, and increased energy expenditure, suggesting its role in regulating insulin sensitivity (4).

$152
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Etoposide-induced 2.4 mRNA (EI24)/p53-induced gene 8 (PIG8) was identified as a DNA damage response gene induced by etoposide in a p53 dependent manner with roles in growth suppression and apoptosis (1-3). As a pro-apoptotic gene, some evidence suggests that EI24 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in cases such as breast and cervical cancer (4-6). The mechanism of EI24 is still unclear, but studies have shown that it can localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and associate with Bcl-2 and could regulate apoptosis through regulation of Bcl-2 function (7). Liver-specific deletions of EI24 in mice show impaired autophagic flux, suggesting that it may also play a role in regulating basal autophagy (8). EI24 was shown to be involved in the autophagic degradation of many RING E3 ligases (9). In addition, decreased expression of EI24 in epithelial tumor cells induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (10). Together these studies suggest multiple mechanisms for EI24 to regulate tumor progression that includes regulation of apoptosis, autophagy, and EMT.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® LC3B siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit LC3B expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. LC3B siRNA II will not inhibit expression of LC3A or LC3C. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a central nervous system monoamine implicated in a number of physiological functions, including sleep, mood, appetite, anxiety, and neurovegetative control (1). Serotonin acts through the activation of G protein receptors called serotonin receptors (5-HTRs). Seven 5-HTR subclasses (5-HTR1-7) have been described to date (2). Serotonin receptor 4 (5-HTR4) couples to Gαs (3), with stimulation of the receptor leading to adenylyl cyclase activation, elevation of cyclic AMP levels and downstream PKA activation (4). The corresponding HTR4 gene exhibits a complex structure, which includes a large number of splice variants that seem to share the same pharmacological properties (5). 5-HTR4 is one of several receptors implicated in cognition, depression, and the development of Alzheimer's disease (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of translation is an important biological event and a variety of factors contribute to this process. Members of the eIF4 translation initiation factor family bind to the 5' m7GTP mRNA cap and unwind the mRNA secondary structure (1,2). The amino-terminal portion of eIF4G physically associates with eIF4E to stimulate the binding of eIF4E to the mRNA cap structure (3). eIF4G also interacts with eIF3 and eIF4A and serves as an adaptor molecule in the eIF4 complex (4). Moreover, eIF4G plays a role in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation of translation (5,6). The eIF4G family includes eIF4G1 (eIF4GI), eIF4G2 (p97, DAP5 or NAT1), and eIF4G3 (eIF4GII) (7). These factors share a homologous sequence that provides for interaction with initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A. Both eIF4G1 and eIF4G3 are involved in cap-dependent translation, while eIF4G2 plays a role in IRES-mediated translation of some genes during cell stress (7,8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Desmosomes are a class of intracellular junction that tightly link adjacent cells in mechanically stressed tissues such as the epithelium and myocardium (1). They derive their characteristic strength from the protein Desmoplakin, which acts as a tether by binding the cytoplasmic component of the Desmosome at it’s N-terminus (2) while its C-terminus is anchored to the intermediate-filament cytoskeleton (3). This association mitigates the impact of mechanical forces on the desmosome by distributing them throughout the cytoskeleton and tissue (4). Desmoplakin is essential for normal desmosomal adhesion (5); defects can result in pathologies that include cardiomyopathy (6), keratoderma (7), or the skin blistering disease Epidermolysis bullosa (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IKKα (3G12) Mouse mAb #11930.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state, complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Most agents that activate NF-κB do so through a common pathway based on phosphorylation-induced, proteasome-mediated degradation of IκB (3-7). The key regulatory step in this pathway involves activation of a high molecular weight IκB kinase (IKK) complex whose catalysis is generally carried out by three tightly associated IKK subunits. IKKα and IKKβ serve as the catalytic subunits of the kinase and IKKγ serves as the regulatory subunit (8,9). Activation of IKK depends upon phosphorylation at Ser177 and Ser181 in the activation loop of IKKβ (Ser176 and Ser180 in IKKα), which causes conformational changes, resulting in kinase activation (10-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Kazal type 3 serine peptidase inhibitor (SPINK3) is a serine peptidase inhibitor expressed in the adult pancreas that protects acinar cells from trypsin-induced cell damage (1). Ingestion of milk by newborn SPINK3 knock out mice triggers autophagic cell death in pancreatic acinar cells and the complete disappearance of the pancreas (2). Mutations in the human SPINK3 homolog (known as SPINK1) are associated with chronic pancreatitis, presumably through decreased protection against trypsin-induced autophagic cell death (1,3). SPINK3 may be involved in the embryonic development of several other tissues (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) is a widely expressed actin regulatory protein that plays a role in adhesion through its interactions with talin1 and FAK (1). High CAP1 expression is associated with metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (2), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (3). Research studies also show that CAP1 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer correlates with proliferation, histological grade, and prognosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GIRK2 is a member of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel family proteins (GIRKs). GIRK family proteins allow potassium to flow into the cell and therefore control cellular excitability in the central nervous system, heart, and pancreas (1-4). Activation of most GIRK channels requires heterologous subunit assembly and the presence of ATP (5-7). GIRK2 is abundantly expressed in the brain, where it is involved in pain perception. It is also required for peripheral opioid-mediated analgesia (8). Additionally GIRK2 localizes to pancreatic β cells and regulates insulin secretion (9,10). Mutations in the KCNJ6 gene encoding GIRK2 are associated with Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome, a rare disease characterized by severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and intellectual disability (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Acetylation of the histone tail causes chromatin to adopt an "open" conformation, allowing increased accessibility of transcription factors to DNA. The identification of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and their large multiprotein complexes has yielded important insights into how these enzymes regulate transcription (1,2). HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can acetylate nonhistone proteins, suggesting multiple roles for these enzymes (3). In contrast, histone deacetylation promotes a "closed" chromatin conformation and typically leads to repression of gene activity (4). Mammalian histone deacetylases can be divided into three classes on the basis of their similarity to various yeast deacetylases (5). Class I proteins (HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8) are related to the yeast Rpd3-like proteins, those in class II (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10) are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC activity are now being explored as potential therapeutic cancer agents (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the UCH family of DUBs, which all posses a conserved catalytic domain (UCH domain) of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique extended C-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule. In particular, UCHL3 functions as a Ub hydrolase involved in the processing of both Ub precursors and ubiquitinated substrates, generating free monomeric Ub. This is accomplished through the ability of UCHL3 to recognize and hydrolyze isopeptide bonds at the C-terminal glycine of either Ub or NEDD8 (5-7). Recent functional studies have identified UCH-L3 as a critical regulator of adipogenesis through its ability to promote IGF-IR and insulin receptor signaling (8). Furthermore, UCHL3 has been shown to promote deubiquitination, recycling, and cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CD80 (B7-1, BB1) and CD86 (B7-2, B70) are members of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. CD80 is expressed on activated antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B cells, monocytes, and macrophages. CD86 is expressed on resting monocytes, dendritic cells, activated B lymphocytes, and can be further upregulated in the presence of inflammation (1-3). CD80 and CD86 are ligands for CD28, which functions as a T cell costimulatory receptor. Interaction of CD28 with CD80 or CD86 provides the second signal required for naïve T cell activation, T cell proliferation, and acquisition of effector functions (3-7). Alternatively, CD80 and CD86 also act as ligands to CTLA-4, which results in the downregulation of T cell activity (3,7-9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® β-Catenin siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit β-catenin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: TIF1β is a member of the TIF1 (transcriptional intermediary factor 1) family, a group of transcriptional regulators that play key roles in development and differentiation. Members of this family are characterized by the presence of two conserved motifs – an N-terminal RING-B box-coiled-coil motif and a C-terminal PHD finger and bromodomain unit (1,2). TIF1β is a corepressor for KRAB (Kruppel associated box) domain containing zinc finger proteins. The KRAB domain containing zinc finger proteins are a large group of transcription factors that are vertebrate-specific, varied in their expression patterns between species, and thought to regulate gene transcription programs that control speciation (3,4).TIF1β has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development and spermatogenesis (6,5). It functions to either activate or repress transcription in response to environmental or developmental signals by chromatin remodeling and histone modification. The recruitment and association of TIF1β with heterochromatin protein (HP1) is essential for transcriptional repression, and for progression through differentiation of F9 embryonic carcinoma cells (6,7). TIF1β also plays a role in the DNA damage response. Phosphorylation of TIF1β on Ser842 occurs in an ATM-dependent manner in response to genotoxic stress and is thought to be essential for chromatin relaxation, which is in turn required for the DNA damage response (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Lysine is subject to a wide array of regulatory post-translational modifications due to its positively charged ε-amino group side chain. The most prevalent of these are ubiquitination and acetylation, which are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes (1,2). Acyl group transfer from the metabolic intermediates acetyl-, succinyl-, malonyl-, glutaryl-, butyryl-, propionyl-, and crotonyl-CoA all neutralize lysine’s positive charge and confer structural alterations affecting substrate protein function. Lysine acetylation is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases, HATs, using acetyl-CoA as a cofactor (3,4). Deacylation is mediated by histone deacetylases, HDACs 1-11, and NAD-dependent Sirtuins 1-7. Some sirtuins have little to no deacetylase activity, suggesting that they are better suited for other acyl lysine substrates (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CDC73 (HPRT2) is a putative tumor suppressor protein thought to bind RNA polymerase II to help inhibit cell cycle progression (1,2). Commonly referred to as parafibromin, CDC73 is expressed in endocrine tissues, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle and is localized to both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments (3). CDC73 acts as a Wnt signaling regulator as it binds the carboxy-terminal region of β-catenin (4). Mutations in the corresponding gene cause an endocrine disorder known as hyperparathyroidism 2, which is characterized by hypercalcemia, bone resorption, and the development of jaw tumors (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of tumor suppressor proteins and transcription regulators (1,2). Differential mRNA splicing generates several ING1 isoforms, with the widely expressed ING1b (p33) isoform playing key roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and senescence (2-5). All ING family proteins contain a plant homeodomain (PHD) that is thought to recognize and bind methylated lysine residues on histone proteins (6,7). The ING1 protein regulates expression of genes through its association with histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes. The PHD of ING1 may facilitate the recruitment of these chromatin-modifying enzymes to targets genes that are regulated by various transcription factors, such as p53 (2, 8-10). Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, alterations in ING1 expression levels and cytoplasm localization have been observed in several cancers but mutations in the corresponding ING1 gene in cancers are uncommon (11-14).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MEP50 (methylosome protein 50) is a component of the methylosome, a protein arginine methyltransferase complex that modifies specific arginine residues found in arginine- and glycine-rich regions of some spliceosomal Sm proteins. MEP50 is important for methylosome activity and may regulate the transfer of Sm proteins to the SMN (survival of motor neurons) complex, an early step in the assembly of U snRNPs. Both the methylosome and the SMN complex are essential for the assembly of spliceosomal snRNPs (1).MEP50 is a WD repeat protein that may provide an interface for multiple protein interactions between methylosome proteins. (1). It binds to JBP1, an arginine protein methyltransferase component of the methylosome. MEP50 has been shown to interact with CTD phosphatase FCP1 (CTDP1), a protein that may link the processes of transcriptional elongation and splicing (2), and with SUZ12, a polycomb group protein involved in transcriptional repression (3). JBP1 and MEP50 have also been reported to interact with the methyl-CpG binding protein complex MBD2/NuRD (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The NDK/NME/NM23 kinase family (encoded by the NME gene family) consists of at least eight distinct proteins that exhibit different cellular localization (1). Members of this group inhibit metastasis in a variety of tumor cell types (2). All NDK/NME/NM23 proteins possess nucleoside diphosphatase kinase (NDK) activity and catalyze the phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate to the corresponding nucleoside triphosphate to regulate a diverse array of cellular events (3). At least four classes of NDK biochemical activities have been described, including protein-protein interactions (4-6), regulation of GTP-binding protein function (7-9), DNA-associated activities (10,11), and histidine-dependent protein phosphotransferase activity (12). NDK/NME proteins participate in the regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular responses, including development, differentiation, proliferation, endocytosis, and apoptosis (13). Because of its role in metastasis suppression and oncogenesis, NDKA (NME1/NM23-H1) has been widely studied (14). NDKA (NM23-H1) and NDKB (NM23-H2) are encoded by adjacent NME1 and NME2 genes and share 90% sequence identity. Two serine residues (Ser122 and Ser144) on NDKA/NM23-H1 can be phosphorylated by AMPKα1, but only phosphorylation at Ser122 determines whether NDKA channels ATP to AMPKα1. This regulates AMPKα1 activity towards ACC1, an important regulator of fatty acid metabolism (15). Mutation of NDKB/NM23-H2 at Ser122 (S122P) in melanoma cells results in altered phosphoryl transfer activity (16).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 20S proteasome is the major proteolytic enzyme complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. It consists of four stacked rings, each with seven distinct subunits. The two outer layers are identical rings composed of α subunits (called PSMAs), and the two inner layers are identical rings composed of β subunits. While the catalytic sites are located on the β rings (1-3), the α subunits are important for assembly and as binding sites for regulatory proteins (4). Seven different α and ten different β proteasome genes have been identified in mammals (5). PA700, PA28, and PA200 are three major protein complexes that function as activators of the 20S proteasome. PA700 binds polyubiquitin with high affinity and associates with the 20S proteasome to form the 26S proteasome, which preferentially degrades poly-ubiquitinated proteins (1-3). The proteasome has a broad substrate spectrum that includes cell cycle regulators, signaling molecules, tumor suppressors, and transcription factors. By controlling the degradation of these intracellular proteins, the proteasome functions in cell cycle regulation, cancer development, immune responses, protein folding, and disease progression (6-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CARD11/Carma1/Bimp3 belongs to the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family that typically function as molecular scaffolds in the assembly of multiprotein complexes (1,2). MAGUK family members contain an SH3 domain, a PDZ domain and a GuK domain homologous to guanylate kinase. In addition, CARD11 contains an amino-terminal CARD domain (caspase recruitment domain). This domain plays an important role in forming interactions with a number of proteins containing CARD domains that are involved in regulating apoptosis and NF-κB activation. CARD11 is predominately expressed in lymphocytes (1,2) and associates with the CARD domain of Bcl10. When overexpressed, CARD11 leads to the phosphorylation of Bcl10 and activation of NF-κB (1,2). CARD11 is constitutively associated with lipid rafts and is thought to function by recruiting Bcl10 and MALT1 and triggering the phosphorylation of IKKs (3,4). Several studies using the genetic disruption of CARD11 or dominant-negative mutations have demonstrated that it plays a critical role in NF-κB activation and lymphocyte signaling (4-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: INCENP (inner centromere protein antigens 135 kDa, 155 kDa) is a chromosomal passenger protein crucial for multiple events that mediate chromosome separation during mitosis (1). At prophase INCENP is associated with chromatin whereas during prometaphase and metaphase it translocates to the inner centromere (1). Depletion of INCENP results in aberrant chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate, incomplete chromosome separation, and disruption of proper spindle formation and cytokinesis (2). INCENP is part of the chromosomal passenger complex that also contains Aurora B, borealin and survivin (2). Aurora B and INCENP are mutually dependent on each other for proper localization (3), and in Drosophila cells and C.elegans embryos that lack INCENP or survivin, Aurora B cannot organize the kinetochores and the midbody (4,5). Phosphorylation on INCENP by CDK1 on Thr59 and Thr388 leads to the association of INCENP with Plk1, another important regulator of mitotic entry and exit (6). Interaction of INCENP with Plk1 is necessary for recruitment of Plk1 to the kinetochores, and the metaphase to anaphase transition (6). Interactions have also been reported between INCENP and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1) (7) and β-tubulin (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The NKX family of homeobox genes are known to act as intermediaries in the neural response to Sonic hedgehog signaling during central nervous system development (1). NKX2.2 is a member of this family of transcription factors and is necessary for neuroendocrine differentiation in the central nervous system and pancreas (2,3). NKX2.2 mutant mice die shortly after birth due to incomplete differentiation of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and defects in ventral neural patterning (2,3). According to the research literature, expression of NKX2.2 has also been found in neuroendocrine tumors of the gut, making it a potential marker for the study of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (4).