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Product listing: APC6 (D8D8) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q13042 #9499 to SimpleChIP® ChIP-seq Multiplex Oligos for Illumina® (Single Index Primers) #29580

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic cell proliferation depends strictly upon the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose main function is to trigger the transition of the cell cycle from metaphase to anaphase. The APC/C complex promotes the assembly of polyubiquitin chains on substrate proteins in order to target these proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome (1,2). The vertebrate APC/C complex consists of as many as 15 subunits, including multiple scaffold proteins, two catalytic subunits (APC2, APC11), and a number of proteins responsible for substrate recognition (3). All E3 enzymes, including APC/C, utilize ubiquitin residues activated by E1 enzymes and transferred to E2 enzymes. Research studies indicate that APC/C interacts with the E2 enzymes UBE2S and UBE2C via the RING-finger domain-containing subunit APC11 (4-6). APC/C function relies on multiple cofactors, including an APC/C coactivator formed by the cell division control protein 20 homolog (CDC20) and Cdh1/FZR1. The CDC20/Cdh1 coactivator is responsible for recognition of APC/C substrates through interaction with specific D-box and KEN-box recognition elements within these substrates (7-9).

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® XIAP siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit XIAP expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family consists of an evolutionarily conserved group of apoptosis inhibitors containing a conserved 70 amino acid BIR (baculovirus inhibitor repeat) domain (1,2). Human members of this family include c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, survivin, livin, and NAIP. Overexpression of IAP family members, particularly survivin and livin, in cancer cell lines and primary tumors suggests an important role for these proteins in cancer progression (3-5). In general, the IAP proteins function through direct interactions to inhibit the activity of several caspases, including caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 (5,6). In addition, binding of IAP family members to the mitochondrial protein Smac blocks their interaction with caspase-9, thereby allowing the processing and activation of the caspase (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Lunatic Fringe (Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, LFNG) is a single-pass type II Golgi membrane glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the elongation of O-linked fucose residues on EGF-like repeats of Notch signaling molecules. Fucosylation of EGF-like repeats serves to fine-tune Notch ligand-receptor interactions, thereby modulating downstream Notch pathway activity (1). Studies in genetic mouse models have shown that Lunatic Fringe-mediated Notch regulation is critical for somite patterning during vertebrate embryogenesis (2-4). Consistent with this, loss-of-function mutations in human LFNG are associated with spondylocostal dysostoses, a heritable skeletal growth disorder characterized by malformations of the spinal column and thoracic structures (5). Lunatic Fringe continues to modulate Notch signaling postnatally (6), and is implicated as a putative tumor suppressor in multiple Notch-related cancers (7, 8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2, Repo-Man) is a cell-cycle protein that recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to mitotic chromatin at anaphase onset, which is essential for cell proliferation (1). Carboxy-terminal phosphorylation of CDCA2 at Ser893 by Aurora B inhibits the protein and leads to diffuse localization during prometaphase and metaphase. Dephosphorylation of CDCA2 by PP2A is necessary for CDCA2/PP1 complex reformation (2). The CDCA2/PP1 complex is required for chromatin binding and dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10, and Ser28 (2-4). The CDCA2/PP1 complex is also involved in nuclear envelope reformation during mitotic exit for proper progression through the M/G1 transition (4). The interaction of CDCA2 with importin beta and Nup153, which is required for nuclear envelope formation, is negatively regulated by CDK phosphorylation of the amino-terminal domain of CDCA2 (5). CDCA2 may play a role in DNA repair as the release of CDCA2 from chromatin at sites of DNA damage promotes the activation of DNA damage response (6). These results imply that the CDCA2/PP1 complex may play a part in cancer progression. Research studies indicate that CDCA2 may serve as a prognostic marker, as increased CDCA2 expression is seen in a number of cancers, including melanoma, neuroblastoma tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, and synovial sarcomas (7-9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cofilin siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit cofilin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1/BAM32) is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that mediates the recruitment and interaction of molecules required for signal transduction downstream of the B cell receptor (BCR) (1). The DAPP1/BAM32 protein contains an amino-terminal SH2 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to PI3K-derived phosphoinositides (i.e., PIP3). Upon BCR activation, DAPP1/BAM32 is phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues and translocated from the cytoplasm to the membrane. Research studies indicate that phosphorylation and translocation of DAPP1/BAM32 is strongly dependent upon PI3K signaling (2,3). The amino-terminal SH2 domain binds to PLCγ2 and other tyrosine-phosphorylated targets. As a result of these interactions, DAPP1/BAM32 can adjust the response to receptor activation by coordinating membrane-localized interactions among proteins of distinct signal transduction pathways (1,4). DAPP1/BAM32 is expressed most abundantly in B lymphocytes; high expression during dendritic cell (DC) maturation and localization to contact sites between DC and allogenic T cells suggest that the DAPP1/BAM32 adaptor may play a role in the activation of T cells through MHC class I-mediated signaling pathways (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, sharing the same receptor, EGFR, and regulating cell proliferation, survival, and differention (1). Members of the family share an EGF-like domain of 45-60 amino acids characterized by the conservation of six regularly spaced cysteins, forming three disulfide bonds that function as their receptor binding domain. TGF-alpha was initially discovered in the media of retrovirally transformed fibroblasts, and it name comes from its ability to induce transformation in cultured fibroblasts (2). This transforming activity was later shown to require TGF-beta, which potentiates the activity of TGF-alpha through a separate receptor (3). Soluble TGF-alpha is released from its membrane-bound precusor, pro-TGF-alpha, following protolytic cleavage, but the membrane bound precursor is still able to bind and activate EGFR (4). Binding of soluble or membrane bound TGF-alpha to EGFR leads to receptor dimerization, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and activation of downstream signaling components. TGF-alpha and related peptides play an important role in the progression of cancer as well as in neuropathological processes (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) consist of α, β and γ subunits and mediate the effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, chemokines, and sensory stimuli. To date, over 20 known Gα subunits have been classified into four families, Gα(s), Gα(i/o), Gα(q) and Gα(12), based on structural and functional similarities (1,2). Phosphorylation of Tyr356 of Gα(q)/Gα(11) is essential for activation of the G protein, since phenylalanine substitution for Tyr356 changes the interaction of Gα with receptors and abolishes ligand-induced IP3 formation (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinating enzymes, respectively (1,2). Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are categorized into five subfamilies based on catalytic domain structure: USP, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. The valosin-containing protein p97/p47 complex-interacting protein 1 (VCIP135, VCPIP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that belongs to the A20-like subfamily of ovarian tumor (OTU) DUBs (3). VCIP135 serves as a cofactor for the p97/p47 complex in regulating Golgi membrane fusion and reassembly at the end of mitosis (4-6). Research studies suggest that the phosphorylation status of VCIP135 provides a mechanism to fine-tune the kinetics of Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. For example, these studies demonstrate that VCIP135 undergoes phosphorylation early in mitosis, which blocks its association with the Golgi membrane and p97/VCP, thus inhibiting p97/VCP-mediated Golgi membrane fusion (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cripto, also known as teratocarcinoma derived growth factor 1 (TDGF-1), belongs to the EGF-CFC family of proteins. Members of this family are characterized by an N-terminal signal peptide, a conserved cysteine rich domain (CFC motif), and a short hydrophobic carboxy-terminal tail that contains GPI cleavage and attachment sites. The GPI moiety anchors Cripto and family members to the extracellular plasma membrane (1). An O-linked fucosylation site within the EGF-like motif is required for Cripto and related family members to perform their function as co-receptors for TGF-β-related ligands such as Nodal and Vg1/GDF1 (2,3). Soluble forms of Cripto can be produced - these contain intact EGF and CFC domains, and are thought to have paracrine activities, as opposed to the autocrine activity of Cripto functioning as a coreceptor (4). Understanding of this paracrine activity is not complete, but it is proposed that Cripto may act as co-ligand for Nodal (3).Cripto is an important modulator of embryogenesis and oncogenesis (4). It is highly expressed in early embryos, and in embryonic stem (ES) cells where it is involved in cardiomyocytic differentiation and acts as a negative regulator of neurogenesis (5-7). Transient activation of Cripto is essential for the capacity of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency in ES cells, and in some adult derived stem cells (8). Signaling through Cripto can also stimulate other activities that promote tumorigenesis such as stimulation of proliferation, cell motility, invasion, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (9-11). Cripto is highly expressed in a broad range of tumors, where it acts as a potent oncogene.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1, CGBP, CFP1) is a key subunit of the human SET1 histone methyltransferase complex (1,2) that methylates histone H3 at Lys4 to create a mark of transcriptionally active promoters (3,4). CXXC1 is enriched at CpG islands where it selectively binds non-methylated CpG motifs to provide a link between global H3K4 methylation and CpG islands (5). Research studies have revealed a role for CXXC1 in the maintenance of cytosine methylation through direct interaction with DNMT1 (6-9). The epigenetic functions of CXXC1 are critical for normal embryonic development. Targeted deletion of the murine Cxxc1 gene results in early embryonic lethality while Cxxc1-null embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit increased apoptosis and fail to undergo differentiation in vitro following withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor LIF (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: BST2 (CD317, Tetherin, HM1.24) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein functioning as a major mediator of the innate immune defense against the dissemination of enveloped viruses by tethering viron on cell surface (1). BST2 has a N-terminal cytoplasmic tail for entocytosis and cytoskelatal signaling, a transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain containing putative disulfide bonds and coiled coil region for forming homodimer, and a C-terminal GPI domain for membran anchoring (2,3). Both the transmembrane domain and the GPI domain can insert either to the cell membrane or the viral envelope membrane and hold them together to prevent viral release. Virus counteracts BST2 by encoding viral protein as antagonist. These viral proteins interact directly with BST2 to either enhance BST2 endocytosis/lysosomal degradation (such as Vpu) or prevent BST2 secretion pathway by sequestering the protein in endosome (2, 3). BST2 is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, lung cancer and multiple myeloma (4-7). BST2 monoclonal antibody targeting myeloma or lung cancer cells induces celllular cytotoxicity and cell death (ADCC, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). Thus BST2 serves as a potential target for tumor immunotherapy.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC), which contains Bub1, Bub1b, Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20, controls chromosome segregation and monitors kinetochore-microtubule interactions (1). During mitosis, the MCC complex inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), thereby preventing cells with unaligned chromosomes from prematurely entering anaphase (2). Research studies have shown that Bub1b and Bub1 kinases are mutated in several types of human malignancies including hematopoietic, colorectal, lung, and breast cancers (3). Biallelic mutations in Bub1b have been found in mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome and premature chromatid separation syndrome (4). Bub1b mouse germline knockouts are embryonic lethal with heterozygous animals displaying genetic instability, early aging phenotypes, and increased cancer susceptibility (5). Bub3 binds both Bub1 and Bub1b, facilitating their recruitment to kinetochores (6), and is required for functional microtubule-kinetochore interactions (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Eph receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). They can be divided into two groups based on sequence similarity and on their preference for a subset of ligands: EphA receptors bind to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ephrin A ligand; EphB receptors bind to ephrin B proteins that have a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain (1,2). Research studies have shown that Eph receptors and ligands may be involved in many diseases including cancer (3). Both ephrin A and B ligands have dual functions. As RTK ligands, ephrins stimulate the kinase activity of Eph receptors and activate signaling pathways in receptor-expressing cells. The ephrin extracellular domain is sufficient for this function as long as it is clustered (4). The second function of ephrins has been described as "reverse signaling", whereby the cytoplasmic domain becomes tyrosine phosphorylated, allowing interactions with other proteins that may activate signaling pathways in the ligand-expressing cells (5). Various stimuli can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of ephrin B, including binding to EphB receptors, activation of Src kinase, and stimulation by PDGF and FGF (6). Tyr324 and Tyr327 have been identified as major phosphorylation sites of ephrin B1 in vivo (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: KHSRP, also known as KSRP, is a KH domain-containing AU-rich element (ARE) binding protein (1). It recruits degradation machinery and activates mRNA turnover (2). This protein was previously shown to function as a regulator for splicing (3). KHSRP associates with both the Drosha and Dicer multiprotein complexes (4), and controls the biogenesis of some microRNAs by binding to the terminal loops of these microRNA precursors (3). KHSRP is found in neural and non-neural cell types in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: APS is an SH2 and PH domain-containing adaptor protein closely related to Lnk and SH2-B (1). APS was identified as a substrate for many receptor tyrosine kinases including TrkA, insulin receptor, c-Kit and PDGF receptor (2). Tyrosine phosphorylation of APS provides docking sites for downstrean signaling components, mediating diverse signaling pathways. APS plays quite different roles in RTK signaling. Overexpression of APS has been shown to inhibit PDGF-induced mitogenicity, which may result from APS/c-Cbl-mediated PDGF receptor degradation (3). However, APS promotes enhanced mitogenicity in response to insulin stimulation (4). The striking difference in APS-mediated signaling between the different RTKs could lie in the mode of interaction with the respective receptor.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cofilin siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit cofilin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

$193
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD11c (integrin αX, ITGAX) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that forms an α/β heterodimer with CD18 (integrin β2), which interacts with a variety of extracellular matrix molecules and cell surface proteins (1). CD11c is primarily used as a dendritic cell marker. Dendritic cells can be classified into two major types: CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells that specialize in antigen presentation, and CD11c- plasmacytoid dendritic cells that specialize in type I interferon production (2, 3). CD11c expression has also been observed on activated NK cells, subsets of B cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and some B cell malignancies including hairy cell leukemia (4-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters of 39 and 47 amino acids that are involved in a variety of physiological processes. The CART precursor, a polypeptide of 116 residues, requires prohormone/proprotein convertase-mediated endoproteolytic cleavage to produce the two active peptides (1). CART peptides are found in several neuroendocrine tissues such as the brain, pituitary, adrenals, and pancreas (2). Hypothalamic CART is regulated by leptin, and plays a role in appetite and feeding behavior (3). Mesolimbic CART is regulated by CREB and may play a role in drug abuse behaviors by mediating some of CREB effects (4). Pancreatic CART is found in islet endocrine cells and parasympathetic and sensory nerves. It inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and has been found to be up-regulated in beta cells in animal model of diabetes (5). A missense mutation in the corresponding CART gene can correlate with susceptibility to obesity and reduced resting energy expenditure (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: REPS1 is a RalBP1-associated EH-homology domain containing protein. The sequence of REPS1 has an EH domain, followed by two proline-rich segments, and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain for binding to RalBP1 (1). The EH domain of REPS1 interacts with the NPF motif of Rab11-FIP2, mediates their colocalization to endosome vesicles, and influences EGFR endocytosis (2). The two proline-rich regions of REPS1 are important for binding to the SH3 domain of GRK/GRB2 and further regulate EGFR downstream signaling. The proline-rich regions of REPS1 have also been shown to interact with the SH3 domain of intersectin1 (ITSN1) and contribute to ITSN1/SGIP1/REPS1 complex formation on clathrin-coated pits (3). Three alternatively spliced isoforms of REPS1 have been identified.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CACYBP/SIP) is a component of the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex that also contains Siah1, Skp1, and Ebi (1). CACYBP regulates β-catenin turnover and plays an important role in thymocyte development (2). CACYBP also binds to tubulin and may be involved in cytoskeletal regulation (3,4). It is highly expressed in neurons, and its cellular localization may be regulated by Ca2+ (5,6). Retinoic acid treatment of the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y induces translocation of CACYBP to the nucleus and seems to be correlated with phosphorylation of CACYBP on serine residues (7). Recent studies also suggest that CACYBP may possess phosphatase activity (8), and that it can bind and dephosphorylate Erk1/2 (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of various cell functions. Substrate specificity is determined by the binding of a regulatory subunit to the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). It is estimated that over fifty different regulatory subunits exist (1).The myosin phosphatase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: PP1c, a targeting/regulatory subunit (MYPT/myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), and a 20 kDa subunit of unknown function (M20). MYPT binding to PP1cδ alters the conformation of the catalytic cleft and increases enzyme activity and specificity (2). Two MYPT isoforms that are 61% identical have been described. MYPT1 is widely expressed, while MYPT2 expression appears to be exclusive to heart and brain (3). Related family members include MBS85, MYPT3, and TIMAP (4).Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin in response to signaling through the small GTPase Rho. Rho activity inhibits myosin phosphatase via Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 and Thr853 results in phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The progression of progenitor cells towards neuronal differentiation is regulated by cell cycle control and the transition from proliferative to neurogenic cell divisions. Cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation 1 (CEND1) is a neuronal protein widely expressed in the adult nervous system (1). It is implicated in the synchronization of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors in the developing nervous system, and its expression marks the exit of proliferative cells from the cell cycle (2,3). Levels of CEND1 expression in the subventricular zone of the adult nervous system are critical for cell cycle control and neuronal differentiation mechanisms during neonatal SVZ neurogenesis (4). It has recently been shown that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that overexpress CEND1 display increased neuronal differentiation in a mouse model of brain injury, suggesting its potential use as a therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury (5).

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Human Nanog Promoter Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to a region of the human nanog homeobox (Nanog) promoter. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$203
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Naked1 (Nkd1) and Naked2 (Nkd2) are homologs of Drosophila Naked cuticle, a negative regulator of Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway which functions through a feedback mechanism (1,2). Both Drosophila and vertebrate Naked proteins contain a putative calcium-binding EF-hand motif, however, Drosophila Naked binds to zinc instead of calcium (3). Naked inhibits the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway by binding to Dishevelled proteins and directs Dishevelled activity towards the planar cell polarity pathway (2,4). Naked1 is a direct target of Wnt signaling and is overexpressed in some colon tumors due to constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway (5). Naked2 is myristoylated and is required for sorting of TGF-α to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells (6).

$193
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to allophycocyanin (APC) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Testis-specific kinase 1 (TESK1) is a LIMK-related protein kinase originally identified to be expressed highly in testes and subsequently shown to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types (1-4). TESK1 phosphorylates the actin severing protein cofilin at Ser3, inactivating cofilin and thus regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton (2). Integrin signaling activates TESK1 activity and leads to stress fiber formation and cell spreading (2,5,6). TESK1 is involved in regulation of ERK signaling through its interaction with Spry2 (7) and regulation of cell spreading through its interaction with the focal adhesion protein actopaxin/α-parvin (5).

$184
24 assays
1 Kit
Next generation sequencing (NG-seq) is a high throughput method that can be used downstream of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to identify and quantify target DNA enrichment across the entire genome. SimpleChIP® ChIP-seq Multiplex Oligos for Illumina® (Single Index Primers) contains adaptors and primers that are ideally suited for multiplex sample preparation for NG-seq on the Illumina® platform. This kit can be used to generate up to 12 distinct, barcoded ChIP-seq DNA libraries that can be combined into a single sequencing reaction.This product provides enough reagents to support up to 24 DNA sequencing libraries, and must be used in combination with the SimpleChIP® ChIP-seq DNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® #56795.This product is compatible with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic ChIP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003, SimpleChIP® Plus Enzymatic ChIP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9005, and SimpleChIP® Plus Sonication ChIP kit #56383. This product is not compatible with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Agarose Beads) #9002 and SimpleChIP® Plus Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Agarose Beads) #9004 because agarose beads are blocked with sonicated salmon sperm DNA, which will contaminate DNA library preps and NG-seq.
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Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome, or the opposite, to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). It can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells or tissues are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. The chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or Quantitative Real-Time PCR can be used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing, or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8).