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Product listing: SYAP1/BSTA Antibody, UniProt ID Q96A49 #14077 to MST3b Antibody, UniProt ID Q9Y6E0 #4062

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Synapse-associated protein 1 (SYAP1) was originally described by its similarity to the Drosophila synapse-associated SAP47 protein (1). Subsequent research using a yeast two-hybrid system described the protein as a BSD domain–containing signal transducer and Akt interactor (BSTA) based on protein structure and function. The ubiquitously expressed BSTA protein contains a central BSD domain that may play a role in mediating interaction between the BSTA protein and the serine/threonine kinase Akt1 (2). Research studies support a model of Akt1 activation that involves interactions between the BSTA protein and both Akt1 and the mTORC2 kinase complex, followed by phosphorylation of both BSTA and Akt1 by mTORC2. This series of interactions and phosphorylation events is thought to result in phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Akt1 kinase activation (2). The BSTA mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 may promote adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of the transcription factor FoxC2 (2). Additional studies show that the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen can regulate the expression of BSTA in some breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible role for BSTA in pathways related to response to tamoxifen and other chemopreventative agents (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Microtubules (MTs) are polarized cellular filaments composed of α/β tubulin heterodimers. The slower growing (minus) microtubule ends are located at MT organizing centers (MTOCs), with the faster growing (plus) ends extending to the cell periphery. The regulation of MT dynamics is an important part of several biological processes, including cell division, migration, adhesion, membrane trafficking, and polarity (1).Human cytoplasmic linker-associate proteins 1 and 2 (CLASP1 and CLASP2) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that localize to the plus ends of interphase microtubules. During mitosis, CLASP 1 and CLASP2 localize to the centrosomes and kinetochores (KT) where they regulate mitotic spindle positioning to ensure proper chromosome alignment (2,3). Research studies indicate that phosphorylation of the carboxy terminus of CLASP2 during mitosis by CDK1 and PLK1 is required for efficient mitotic MT-KT attachment (4). Phosphorylation of CLASP2 at Ser1013 is a critical step that primes CLASP2 for further phosphorylation by PLK1 (4). The additional phosphorylation of CLASP2 at Ser533 and Ser537 by GSK3-3β controls the distribution of CLASP2 on MTs by inhibiting CLASP2 interaction with the Rac1/cdc42 effector protein IQGAP1 (5).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PDK1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PDK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SMARCAD1 is a SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling protein that plays a critical role in the maintenance of heterochromatin domains following DNA replication and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis (1-3). SMARCAD1 can be found in association with transcription repressor KAP1, histone deacetylases HDAC1/2, and lysine methyltransferase G9a/GLP, which are recruited to sites of DNA replication by PCNA. These proteins facilitate deacetylation of histones and methylation of histone H3 Lys9 to re-establish heterochromatin domains, such as centromeric regions (1). SMARCAD1 also plays a role in double stranded DNA break repair by facilitating DNA end resection and the subsequent repair by homologous recombination (4). Loss of SMARCAD1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, suggesting a role in the maintenance of genome stability.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Hox, Pbx, and Meis are families of transcription factors that bind DNA via their homeodomains. Members from each family form heterodimers to give rise to complexes with unique DNA binding specificities. Homeodomain containing proteins are frequently involved in normal developmental processes, but can also be associated with tumorigenic states (1). MEIS proteins belong to the TALE (Three Amino Acid Loop Extension) homeobox containing transcription factor family. MEIS1 has been associated with leukemogenesis and neuroblastoma (2,3) while MEIS2 is known to play an important role in the transcriptional program that is induced in normal pancreatic development (4) and cardiogenesis (5).

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® Akt2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Akt2 expression using RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression in specified cell lines.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Synapsins, a group of at least five related members (synapsins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa), are abundant brain proteins essential for regulating neurotransmitter release (1,2). All synapsins contain a short amino-terminal domain that is highly conserved and phosphorylated by PKA or CaM kinase I (1). Phosphorylation of the synapsin amino-terminal domain at Ser9 inhibits its binding to phospholipids and dissociates synapsins from synaptic vesicles (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Highly conserved and widely expressed plastin proteins comprise a subset of actin-binding proteins that include proteins that promote actin bundling. Three plastins exhibiting differential expression are found in mammals and include L-plastin, T-plastin, and I-plastin. T-plastin (plastin-3) is found in cells of most solid tissues, while I-plastin (plastin-1) is expressed specifically in the kidney, colon, and small intestine (1-3). Research studies have shown that L-plastin (plastin-2) or lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells and nonhematopoietic tumors, and increased expression correlates with metastatic progression in colon cancer cell lines (4). Investigators have found that overexpression of LCP1 in premetastatic cancer cell lines induces invasion and loss of E-cadherin expression, which is characteristic of metastatic cancer cell lines (5). LCP1 becomes phosphorylated at Ser5 upon stimulation through the T cell receptor/CD3 complex in association with the CD2 cell adhesion molecule or the CD28 receptor (6). Phosphorylation at Ser5 enhances the ability of LCP1 to bind to F-actin and increases cell motility (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of more than 100 proteins whose normal expression is largely restricted to immune privileged germ cells of the testis, ovary, and trophoblast cells of the placenta. Although most normal somatic tissues are void of CTA expression, due to epigenetic silencing of gene expression, their expression is upregulated in a wide variety of human solid and liquid tumors (1,2). As such, CTAs have garnered much attention as attractive targets for a variety of immunotherapy-based approaches to selectively attack tumors (3).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Glucocorticoid receptor siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit glucocorticoid receptor expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Glucocorticoid hormones control cellular proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism through their association with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/NR3C1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors (1). GR is composed of several conserved structural elements, including a carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain (which also contains residues critical for receptor dimerization and hormone-dependent gene transactivation), a neighboring hinge region containing nuclear localization signals, a central zinc-finger-containing DNA-binding domain, and an amino-terminal variable region that participates in ligand-independent gene transcription. In the absence of hormone, a significant population of GR is localized to the cytoplasm in an inactive form via its association with regulatory chaperone proteins, such as HSP90, HSP70, and FKBP52. On hormone binding, GR is released from the chaperone complex and translocates to the nucleus as a dimer to associate with specific DNA sequences termed glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), thereby enhancing or repressing transcription of specific target genes (2). It was demonstrated that GR-mediated transcriptional activation is modulated by phosphorylation (3-5). Although GR can be basally phosphorylated in the absence of hormone, it becomes hyperphosphorylated upon binding receptor agonists. It has been suggested that hormone-dependent phosphorylation of GR may determine target promoter specificity, cofactor interaction, strength and duration of receptor signaling, receptor stability, and receptor subcellular localization (3).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® p38α MAPK siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit p38α MAPK expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), also called RK (1) or CSBP (2), is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast HOG kinase that participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress (1-4). Four isoforms of p38 MAPK, p38α, β, γ (also known as Erk6 or SAPK3), and δ (also known as SAPK4) have been identified. Similar to the SAPK/JNK pathway, p38 MAPK is activated by a variety of cellular stresses including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), UV light, and growth factors (1-5). MKK3, MKK6, and SEK activate p38 MAPK by phosphorylation at Thr180 and Tyr182. Activated p38 MAPK has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 (3) and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF-2 (5), Max (6), and MEF2 (5-8). SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-imidazole) is a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. This compound inhibits the activation of MAPKAPK-2 by p38 MAPK and subsequent phosphorylation of HSP27 (9). SB203580 inhibits p38 MAPK catalytic activity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket, but does not inhibit phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by upstream kinases (10).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Stat1 siRNA allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Stat1 expression by RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression in specified cell lines.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Stat1 transcription factor is activated in response to a large number of ligands (1) and is essential for responsiveness to IFN-α and IFN-γ (2,3). Phosphorylation of Stat1 at Tyr701 induces Stat1 dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (4). Stat1 protein exists as a pair of isoforms, Stat1α (91 kDa) and the splice variant Stat1β (84 kDa). In most cells, both isoforms are activated by IFN-α, but only Stat1α is activated by IFN-γ. The inappropriate activation of Stat1 occurs in many tumors (5). In addition to tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat1 is also phosphorylated at Ser727 through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway in response to IFN-α and other cellular stresses (6). Serine phosphorylation may be required for the maximal induction of Stat1-mediated gene activation.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® IκBα siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit IκBα expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Dog, Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The myosin family of motor proteins drive ATP-dependent actin-based motility in eukaryotic cells and contain a conserved amino-terminal motor domain (reviewed in 1,2).Myosin VI is an unconventional minus-end-directed myosin involved in the transport of vesicles and organelles within the cell, endocytosis, and organelle biogenesis (3-6). The movement of myosin VI and its cargo along actin filaments is unique among myosin family members in its mechanism; its tail domain structure allows it to take larger than predicted steps along the actin filament (reviewed in 1,7).Myosin VI has been shown to regulate the polarized delivery of proteins to specialized subcellular locations, including the delivery of EGFR to the leading edge of migrating cells (8), as well as the delivery of specialized axonal proteins in neurons (9). Myosin VI has also been shown to mediate activity of the tumor suppressor p53 during DNA damage (10,11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication is a stringently regulated process that requires the cooperation of many proteins and protein complexes to occur efficiently, at the origins of replication, and once per cell cycle. The initiation of DNA replication requires a protein complex composed of two DNA polymerase α subunits and a pair of primase subunits. Primase activity catalyzes de novo synthesis of an RNA/DNA primer (initiator DNA) on the leading and lagging strands, while polymerase activity extends the initiator DNA (1). The 48 and 58 kDa primase subunits cooperate in the synthesis of small RNA primers. p48 is the catalytically active subunit (2), while p58 couples p48 to the polymerase to allow the transfer of primers to the active site. The p58 subunit may also play a role in regulation of primer length (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The AlkB alkylation repair homolog 7 (ALKBH7, ABH7) is a member of the alkylated DNA repair homolog family that is responsible for repair of DNA damage induced by oxidation and alkylation (1). ALKBH7 is a nuclear encoded protein that contains an amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that directs import of ALKBH7 to the mitochondria (2). Unlike other Alkb family members, the ALKBH7 protein lacks a functional nucleotide recognition lid essential for nucleobase-binding, which abrogates any DNA or RNA repair capability (3). In response to DNA damage, mitochondrial ALKBH7 triggers the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The resultant loss of mitochondrial function leads to depletion of cellular energy and programmed cell death (2). Research studies indicate that ALKBH7 knockdown cells are resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by oxidizing and alkylating agents, which suggests that ALKBH7 may play a novel function in promoting cell death (2). Indeed, ALKBH7 has been identified as a key regulator of the alkylation or oxidizing DNA damaged induced necroptosis pathway (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Western Blotting

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is essential for the cellular response to hypoxia (1,2). Under normoxia conditions, the α subunit of HIF is ubiquitinated by von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein and is degraded in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (1,2). Hypoxia inhibits the degradation of the α subunit, which leads to its stabilization (1,2). HIF, in turn, regulates the transcription of a variety of genes that respond to hypoxia conditions (1,2). There are several isoforms of the HIF α subunit (2). Studies have found that HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression is increased in some human cancers (2). HIF-1α has both pro- and anti-proliferative activities, whereas HIF-2α does not possess anti-proliferative activity (2). Therefore, HIF-2α likely plays an important role in tumorigenesis (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Histone cell cycle regulation defective homolog A (HIRA), also known as TUP1-like enhancer of split protein 1 (TUPLE1), is the mammalian homolog of the yeast HIR1 and HIR2 transcriptional repressor proteins (1). HIRA interacts with UBN1, CABIN, and ASF1A in the cell nucleus to form the evolutionarily conserved HUCA histone chaperone complex that deposits the variant histone H3.3 into chromatin in a DNA-replication independent manner (2). HIRA is required for deposition of histone H3.3 at the transcription start sites of genes, where incorporation of histone H3.3 facilitates nucleosome destabilization and contributes to transcriptional activation (3-5). Histone H3.3 is also linked to gene silencing and is incorporated into regions of the genome thought to be transcriptionally inactive (5-7). While some incorporation of H3.3 into heterochromatin is facilitated by a different histone chaperone complex that contains ATRX and DAXX (ie. telomeric incorporation of H3.3), HIRA is required for incorporation of histone H3.3 and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) during cellular senescence (5-8). HIRA is ubiquitously expressed during mouse embryonic development (9). In the adult mouse, HIRA is expressed at high levels in the kidney, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, but it is expressed at lower levels in the heart, lung, placenta, brain, and liver (9). A missing copy of the HIRA gene on human chromosome region 22q11.2 is a common characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome patients and insufficient production of the HIRA protein may disrupt normal embryonic development (9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® FLIP siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit FLIP expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cellular FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) is a regulator of apoptosis that has various names, such as c-FLIP (1), Casper (2), CLARP (3), FLAME (4), I-FLICE (5), MRIT (6), CASH (7), and Usurpin (8). FLIP is expressed as two alternative splice isoforms, FLIP short (FLIPS) and FLIP long (FLIPL). FLIPS contains two death effector domains (DEDs) like those found on the death receptor adaptor protein FADD and the pro-domain of caspase-8. FLIPL shares significant homology with caspase-8 (FLICE), and contains an additional death effector domain, but FLIPL lacks the catalytic active site of the caspases and does not have protease activity. Both FLIP isoforms have been reported to interact with FADD and pro-caspase-8. The role of FLIP in apoptosis is controversial as some research studies have reported it to be anti-apoptotic, while others claim that it is pro-apoptotic. Overexpression of FLIPL can lead to caspase-8 heterodimers that produce an active protease, resulting in apoptosis. However, at physiological levels, it is thought that the binding of FLIP to the DED of FADD results in inhibition of caspase-8 processing. Reduction of FLIP by siRNA or gene targeting sensitizes cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. FLIP has also been implicated in the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis and is upregulated in some cancer types including Hodgkin's lymphoma and ovarian and colon carcinomas (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor subfamily that is activated by its ligand, RANKL (TRANCE/OPGL/ODF), to promote survival of dendritic cells and differentiation of osteoclasts (1-4). Although RANK is widely expressed, its cell surface expression may be more restricted to dendritic cells and foreskin fibroblasts (1). RANK contains a 383-amino acid intracellular domain that associates with specific members of the TRAF family to NF-κB and JNK activiation (1,5). RANKL/RANK signaling may also lead to survival signaling through activation of the Akt pathway and an upregulation of survival proteins, including Bcl-xL (2,6). RANK signaling has been implicated as a potential therapeutic to inhibit bone loss and arthritis (7,8).

$305
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. ALK (C26G7) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for immunoprecipitation assays. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated ALK (C26G7) Rabbit mAb #3333.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor for pleiotrophin (PTN), a growth factor involved in embryonic brain development (1-3). In ALK-expressing cells, PTN induces phosphorylation of both ALK and the downstream effectors IRS-1, Shc, PLCγ, and PI3 kinase (1). ALK was originally discovered as a nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein produced by a translocation (4). Investigators have found that the NPM-ALK fusion protein is a constitutively active, oncogenic tyrosine kinase associated with anaplastic lymphoma (4). Research literature suggests that activation of PLCγ by NPM-ALK may be a crucial step for its mitogenic activity and involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic lymphomas (5).A distinct ALK oncogenic fusion protein involving ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) has been described in the research literature from a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, with corresponding fusion transcripts present in some cases of lung adenocarcinoma. The short, amino-terminal region of the microtubule-associated protein EML4 is fused to the kinase domain of ALK (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CASK is an adaptor protein with a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase domain, an SH3 domain, a guanylate kinase homology domain (GUK), and a PDZ domain. CASK links transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and signaling molecules. In particular, CASK binds to neurexin to stabilize pre- and post-synaptic structures (1). While most CASK protein (~80%) is cytoplasmic, a portion of the protein enters the nucleus, where it acts as a transcriptional coactivator (2). Transgenic mice with CASK insertional mutations die within 24 hours of birth (3).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® LRP6 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit LRP6 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: LRP5 and LRP6 are single-pass transmembrane proteins belonging to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein family. Unlike other members of the LDLR family, LRP5 and LRP6 have four EGF and three LDLR repeats in the extracellular domain, and proline-rich motifs in the cytoplasmic domain (1). They function as co-receptors for Wnt and are required for the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (2,3). LRP5 and LRP6 are highly homologous and have redundant roles during development (4,5). The activity of LRP5 and LRP6 can be inhibited by the binding of some members of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of proteins (6,7). Upon stimulation with Wnt, LRP6 is phosphorylated at multiple sites including Thr1479, Ser1490, and Thr1493 by kinases such as GSK-3 and CK1 (8-10). Phosphorylated LRP6 recruits axin to the membrane and presumably activates β-catenin signaling (8-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: E-Ras (Embryonic Ras) is a member of the Ras family that includes K-Ras, N-Ras, and H-Ras. E-Ras is expressed in early mouse blastocysts and murine embryonic stem cells and is down-regulated upon differentiation (1). Amino acid substitutions as a result of mutation at three conserved positions in K-, H-, N-, and R-Ras proteins result in constitutive activation of these small GTPases, and oncogenic transformation. Intriguingly, the Eras gene encodes a protein where each of these amino acids are substituted, and so E-Ras is naturally constitutively active. E-Ras is thought to contribute to the tumorigenic potential of mouse ES cells to form teratomas in immunodeficient or isogenic mice (1). Despite the parallels between oncogenic mutated Ras, major differences in signaling exist between H-Ras G12V and E-Ras. While H-Ras G12V highly activates the MAPK pathway, E-Ras cannot bind to Raf1 to activate this pathway. Instead, E-Ras signals through PI3K to activate Akt (1). E-Ras is not expressed in human embryonic stem cells, nor is it is expressed in any adult tissues as found thus far (2). Reports have suggested it may be expressed in several tumor types, including gastric cancer (1,2,3). Researchers have speculated on the role of E-Ras in the early mouse blastocyst. Preimplantation embryos can survive in tissue culture in defined medium until the blastocyst stage without any requirement for serum or growth factors. Preimplantation embryos have a requirement for PI3K signaling, and in the absence of exogenous signals, E-Ras has been suggested to be the effector of this signal transduction (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: EphB6 is a kinase-defective receptor and member of the ephrin-B family of transmembrane proteins (1). Although lacking kinase activity, EphB6 can regulate cellular functions through its interaction with adaptor proteins and other Eph family members (2). In hematopoietic cells, EphB6 is specifically expressed in the T cell population (3) and functions as an important regulator of T cell receptor (TCR) mediated signaling. Upon binding with its ephrin-B1 or ephrin-B2 ligand, EphB6 modulates TCR activity through inhibition of JNK signaling, reduction of CD25 expression, and decreased IL-2 secretion (4). Reduced levels of cell proliferation and cytokine secretion are seen in EphB6 knock-out mice relative to wild type (5). In conjunction with EphB3 receptor activation, EphB6 suppresses Fas receptor induced apoptosis by triggering the Akt activation pathway (6). Research indicates that decreased EphB6 expression is associated with a higher degree of metastasis in various cancers, including breast cancer (7), lung cancer (8), and neuroblastoma (9). EphB6 is thought to reduce cancer invasiveness through its effect on cell adhesion and migration. Following EphrinB1 ligand binding, EphB6 is phosphorylated by kinases such as Src and another active EphB kinase (2, 10, 11). Phosphorylated EphB6 forms a stable complex with Cbl and initiates Cbl inhibition of cell adhesion (2,11). EphB6 regulates signal transduction through direct interaction with other active Eph receptor kinases, sequestering these EphB6-bound receptors and inhibiting typical signal transduction function (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase (LARS) is a leucine sensor critical for the activation of mTORC1 (1). mTORC1 kinase complex is an important component in the regulation of cell growth (2,3). Its activity is modulated by energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (4,5). The four related GTPases, RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD, have been shown to interact with raptor in mTORC1 (2,3). These interactions are both necessary and sufficient for mTORC1 activation in response to amino acid signals (2,3). LARS functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and interacts directly with RagD GTPase (1). The role of LARS in leucine sensing is not related to its tRNA charging activity (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: EPRS (Glutamatyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase) is a bifunctional enzyme in the aminoacyl-tRNA ligase family that attaches the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA for protein translation (1,2). EPRS usually resides in the tRNA multisynthetase complex (MSC) that may facilitate the delivery of aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome during protein synthesis (3,4). In monocytic cells, upon interferon (IFN)-gamma activation, EPRS becomes phosphorylated and is released from the MSC to form the so-called GAIT (IFN-Gamma-Activated Inhibitor of Translation) complex with NS1-associated protein (NSAP1), ribosomal protein L13a, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The GAIT complex binds to a defined RNA element through EPRS in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) to inhibit translation of target transcripts, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, ceruloplasmin, and several cytokines and their receptors. Thus, EPRS plays an important role in inflammation regulation (5-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF5) is crucial for the assembly of translation initiation complex and plays an important role in protein synthesis (1). eIF5 interacts with the 43S initiation complex to stimulate hydrolysis of GTP bound to eIF2 (1-3). Studies suggest that eIF5 functions as the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in the hydrolysis of GTP-bound eIF2 (4,5). This hydrolysis leads to the release of initiation factors from the 40S ribosomal subunit, which is a necessary step in the formation of the 80S initiation complex (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Set1 histone methyltransferase protein was first identified in yeast as part of the Set1/COMPASS histone methyltransferase complex, which methylates histone H3 at Lys4 and functions as a transcriptional co-activator (1). While yeast contain only one known Set1 protein, six Set1-related proteins exist in mammals: SET1A, SET1B, MLL1, MLL2, MLL3, and MLL4, all of which assemble into COMPASS-like complexes and methylate histone H3 at Lys4 (2,3). These Set1-related proteins are each found in distinct protein complexes, all of which share the common subunits WDR5, RBBP5, ASH2L, CXXC1 and DPY30. These subunits are required for proper complex assembly and modulation of histone methyltransferase activity (2-6). MLL1 and MLL2 complexes contain the additional protein subunit, menin (6). Like yeast Set1, all six Set1-related mammalian proteins methylate histone H3 at Lys4 (2-6). MLL translocations are found in a large number of hematological malignancies, suggesting that Set1/COMPASS histone methyltransferase complexes play a critical role in leukemogenesis (6).

$260
100 µl
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Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, morphogenesis, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangements (1). This group of serine/threonine kinases includes a pair of closely related proteins (MST1, MST2) that are functionally distinct from the more distantly related MST3 and MST4 kinases. All four MST kinases share a conserved amino-terminal kinase domain and carboxy-terminal regulatory and interaction domains (1-3). At least three of these kinases (MST1-3) promote apoptosis and are activated by caspase cleavage followed by nuclear translocation of the active kinase. MST1/2 kinases play a key role in the Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved program that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal (4).Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 3 (MST3, STK24) is ubiquitously expressed as a longer MST3b isoform and a shorter MST3a protein lacking a portion of the amino-terminal region (5). The widely expressed MST3a protein regulates apoptosis and cell motility, as well as neuronal migration during CNS development (6,7). MST3 phosphorylates and activates the NDR protein kinases that regulate cell cycle progression and cell morphology (8). Autophosphorylation of MST3 at Thr178 is required for in vitro kinase activity, and alteration of this residue inhibits MST3 regulation of cell migration in vivo (7). The brain-specific MST3b protein is activated by nerve growth factor or inosine and localizes to neurons where it helps regulate axon growth and regeneration (9).