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Product listing: CD19 (1D3) Rat mAb (PE-Cy7® Conjugate), UniProt ID P25918 #27221 to HLA-DR (L243) Mouse mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID P01903 #78397

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD27 (TNFRSF7) is a transmemebrane protein of the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). It is mainly expressed on lymphoid cells (also on early hematopoietic precursor cells in mice) (1,2). CD27 is considered a phenotypic marker for memory B cells and is also used to identify B regulatory (Breg) cells (3,4). It is constitutively expressed on naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells and its expression is further upregulated upon T cell activation. CD27 is one of the two most important co-stimulatory receptors for T cell priming (the other one is CD28). While CD28 co-stimulatory signal mainly triggers cell proliferation, CD27 co-stimulatory signal primarily promotes cell survival and differentiation (5,6). Upon binding to its ligand CD70, CD27 activates the NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways through TNFR associated factors (TRAFs), the adaptor molecules that are associated with CD27 cytoplasmic tail domain. Upon activation CD27 is shed from cell surface and soluble CD27 is used as a marker of T cell activation (7,8).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated YAP/TAZ (D24E4) Rabbit mAb #8418.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: YAP (Yes-associated protein, YAP65) was identified based on its ability to associate with the SH3 domain of Yes. It also binds to other SH3 domain-containing proteins such as Nck, Crk, Src, and Abl (1). In addition to the SH3 binding motif, YAP contains a PDZ interaction motif, a coiled-coil domain, and WW domains (2-4). While initial studies of YAP all pointed towards a role in anchoring and targeting to specific subcellular compartments, subsequent studies showed that YAP is a transcriptional co-activator by virtue of its WW domain interacting with the PY motif (PPxY) of the transcription factor PEBP2 and other transcription factors (5). In its capacity as a transcriptional co-activator, YAP is now widely recognized as a central mediator of the Hippo Pathway, which plays a fundamental and widely conserved role in regulating tissue growth and organ size. Phosphorylation at multiple sites (e.g., Ser109, Ser127) by LATS kinases promotes YAP translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is sequestered through association with 14-3-3 proteins (6-8). These LATS-driven phosphorylation events serve to prime YAP for subsequent phosphorylation by CK1δ/ε in an adjacent phosphodegron, triggering proteosomal degradation of YAP (9).

$135
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD161/KLRB1 (Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1, also known as CLEC5B and NKR-P1A) is a type II transmembrane protein that is expressed on the majority of Natural Killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, and some T lymphocytes (1). CD161/KLRB1 is also expressed on Th17 cells, promotes their generation, and modulates their function (2). Engagement with its ligand lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) inhibits NK cell function, while LLT1 and CD161/KLRB1 interaction in the presence of a TCR signal enhances IFN-gamma production by T cells (3,4). There are several different CD161 isoforms in rodents and some function as activating receptors as well (5,6).

$219
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-c-Jun (Ser63) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of c-Jun when phosphorylated at Ser63. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-c-Jun (Ser63) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-c-Jun (Ser63). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$170
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-selectin (CD62L, MEL-14, LAM1, SELL) is a cell adhesion molecule, responsible for homing and mediating the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) in secondary lymphoid tissues (1-5). It is a commonly used marker for distinguishing naive and memory T cells from effector T cells (6).

$69
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total LC3B ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of LC3B. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with LC3B in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of LC3B. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.IMPORTANT: This FastScan™ ELISA Kit requires 4 washes at Step 6 of the protocol.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).

$259
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD161/KLRB1 (Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1, also known as CLEC5B and NKR-P1A) is a type II transmembrane protein that is expressed on the majority of Natural Killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, and some T lymphocytes (1). CD161/KLRB1 is also expressed on Th17 cells, promotes their generation, and modulates their function (2). Engagement with its ligand lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) inhibits NK cell function, while LLT1 and CD161/KLRB1 interaction in the presence of a TCR signal enhances IFN-gamma production by T cells (3,4). There are several different CD161 isoforms in rodents and some function as activating receptors as well (5,6).

$249
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells transfected with Myc-tagged protein.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining techniques. Because of their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein’s biochemical properties.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as CCL2, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCAF) or glioma-derived chemotactic factor-2 (GDCF-2), is the product of the human JE gene and a member of the family of C-C (or β) chemokines (1-4). The predicted molecular weight of MCP-1 protein is 11-13 kDa, but it may migrate at 20-30 kDa due to glycosylation. MCP-1 is secreted by a variety of cell types in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and was originally described for its chemotactic activity on monocytes. This activity has led to studies demonstrating its role in diseases characterized by monocyte infiltrates such as psoriasis (5), rheumatoid arthritis (6) and atherosclerosis (7). MCP-1 may also contribute to tumor progression and angiogenesis (8). Signaling by MCP-1 is mediated by the G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 (9).

$249
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP-Cy5.5® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$149
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD161/KLRB1 (Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1, also known as CLEC5B and NKR-P1A) is a type II transmembrane protein that is expressed on the majority of Natural Killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, and some T lymphocytes (1). CD161/KLRB1 is also expressed on Th17 cells, promotes their generation, and modulates their function (2). Engagement with its ligand lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) inhibits NK cell function, while LLT1 and CD161/KLRB1 interaction in the presence of a TCR signal enhances IFN-gamma production by T cells (3,4). There are several different CD161 isoforms in rodents and some function as activating receptors as well (5,6).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated RIP (D94C12) XP® Rabbit mAb #3493.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated FLT3 (BV10A4H2) Mouse mAb #89334.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, also called Flk2), is a member of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family, which includes c-Kit, PDGFR and M-CSF receptors. FLT3 is expressed on early hematopoietic progenitor cells and supports growth and differentiation within the hematopoietic system (1,2). FLT3 is activated after binding with its ligand FL, which results in a cascade of tyrosine autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream targets (3). The p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, GRB2 and Shc are associated with FLT3 after FL stimulation (4-6). Tyr589/591 is located in the juxtamembrane region of FLT3 and may play an important role in regulation of FLT3 tyrosine kinase activity. Somatic mutations of FLT3 consisting of internal tandem duplications (ITDs) occur in 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (7).

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-selectin (CD62L, MEL-14, LAM1, SELL) is a cell adhesion molecule, responsible for homing and mediating the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) in secondary lymphoid tissues (1-5). It is a commonly used marker for distinguishing naive and memory T cells from effector T cells (6).

$129
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$215
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 450 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$219
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to redFluor™ 710 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-selectin (CD62L, MEL-14, LAM1, SELL) is a cell adhesion molecule, responsible for homing and mediating the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) in secondary lymphoid tissues (1-5). It is a commonly used marker for distinguishing naive and memory T cells from effector T cells (6).

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-selectin (CD62L, MEL-14, LAM1, SELL) is a cell adhesion molecule, responsible for homing and mediating the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) in secondary lymphoid tissues (1-5). It is a commonly used marker for distinguishing naive and memory T cells from effector T cells (6).

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cleaved RIP (Asp324) (D5P6D) Rabbit mAb #77565.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$229
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 450 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Androgen receptor (AR), a zinc finger transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by phosphorylation and dimerization upon ligand binding (1). This promotes nuclear localization and binding of AR to androgen response elements in androgen target genes. Research studies have shown that AR plays a crucial role in several stages of male development and the progression of prostate cancer (2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, also called Flk2), is a member of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family, which includes c-Kit, PDGFR and M-CSF receptors. FLT3 is expressed on early hematopoietic progenitor cells and supports growth and differentiation within the hematopoietic system (1,2). FLT3 is activated after binding with its ligand FL, which results in a cascade of tyrosine autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream targets (3). The p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, GRB2 and Shc are associated with FLT3 after FL stimulation (4-6). Tyr589/591 is located in the juxtamembrane region of FLT3 and may play an important role in regulation of FLT3 tyrosine kinase activity. Somatic mutations of FLT3 consisting of internal tandem duplications (ITDs) occur in 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (7).

$230
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to redFluor™ 710 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to redFluor™ 710 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$119
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-selectin (CD62L, MEL-14, LAM1, SELL) is a cell adhesion molecule, responsible for homing and mediating the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) in secondary lymphoid tissues (1-5). It is a commonly used marker for distinguishing naive and memory T cells from effector T cells (6).

$159
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).