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Product listing: Androgen Receptor (E3S4N) Rabbit mAb (Carboxy-terminal Antigen) (ChIP Formulated), UniProt ID P10275 #82055 to CD11b/ITGAM (M1/70) Rat mAb (violetFluor™ 450 Conjugate), UniProt ID P11215 #70078

$260
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Androgen receptor (AR), a zinc finger transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by phosphorylation and dimerization upon ligand binding (1). This promotes nuclear localization and binding of AR to androgen response elements in androgen target genes. Research studies have shown that AR plays a crucial role in several stages of male development and the progression of prostate cancer (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) binds to both AP-1 and CRE DNA response elements and is a member of the ATF/CREB family of leucine zipper proteins (1). ATF-2 interacts with a variety of viral oncoproteins and cellular tumor suppressors and is a target of the SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways (2-4). Various forms of cellular stress, including genotoxic agents, inflammatory cytokines, and UV irradiation, stimulate the transcriptional activity of ATF-2. Cellular stress activates ATF-2 by phosphorylation of Thr69 and Thr71 (2-4). Both SAPK and p38 MAPK have been shown to phosphorylate ATF-2 at these sites in vitro and in cells transfected with ATF-2. Mutations of these sites result in the loss of stress-induced transcription by ATF-2 (2-4). In addition, mutations at these sites reduce the ability of E1A and Rb to stimulate gene expression via ATF-2 (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant RNA modification that plays an important role in mRNA splicing, processing, and stability. The m6A modification is specifically recognized by members of the YT521B homology (YTH) domain-containing family (YTHDF), consisting of YTHDF1, YTHDF2, and YTHDF3. All three members of the YTHDF family are primarily cytosolic proteins that share similar sequence and domain structure, including a conserved C-terminal YTH domain that specifically interacts with m6A (1). Despite these similarities, recent studies suggest that YTHDF proteins are involved in distinct regulatory functions with minimal overlap. Specifically, YTHDF1 binding has been reported to promote enhanced mRNA translation, but has no measurable effect on mRNA stability (2). Conversely, YTHDF2 binding appears to promote mRNA degradation, but has minimal effect on translation efficiency (3). The function of YTHDF3 is less clear, but it has been proposed to function as an auxiliary protein for both YTHDF1 and YTHDF2, helping to promote either increased mRNA translation or decay, respectively (4). Additional studies offer a different viewpoint, suggesting that all three YTHDF proteins initiate mRNA degradation (5), or mediate increased mRNA stability and protein expression (6), promoting the idea that these proteins may carry out similar rather than distinct functions.

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Vimentin ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Vimentin. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Vimentin in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Vimentin. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Major types of intermediate filaments are distinguished by their cell-specific expression: cytokeratins (epithelial cells), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (glial cells), desmin (skeletal, visceral, and certain vascular smooth muscle cells), vimentin (mesenchyme origin), and neurofilaments (neurons). GFAP and vimentin form intermediate filaments in astroglial cells and modulate their motility and shape (1). In particular, vimentin filaments are present at early developmental stages, while GFAP filaments are characteristic of differentiated and mature brain astrocytes. Thus, GFAP is commonly used as a marker for intracranial and intraspinal tumors arising from astrocytes (2). Research studies have shown that vimentin is present in sarcomas, but not carcinomas, and its expression is examined in conjunction with that of other markers to distinguish between the two (3). Vimentin's dynamic structural changes and spatial re-organization in response to extracellular stimuli help to coordinate various signaling pathways (4). Phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser56 in smooth muscle cells regulates the structural arrangement of vimentin filaments in response to serotonin (5,6). Remodeling of vimentin and other intermediate filaments is important during lymphocyte adhesion and migration through the endothelium (7).During mitosis, CDK1 phosphorylates vimentin at Ser56. This phosphorylation provides a PLK binding site for vimentin-PLK interaction. PLK further phosphorylates vimentin at Ser82, which might serve as memory phosphorylation site and play a regulatory role in vimentin filament disassembly (8,9). Additionally, studies using various soft-tissue sarcoma cells have shown that phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser39 by Akt1 enhances cell migration and survival, suggesting that vimentin could be a potential target for soft-tissue sarcoma targeted therapy (10,11).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated NeuN (D4G4O) XP® Rabbit mAb #24307.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: Neuronal nuclei (NeuN, Fox-3, RBFOX3) is a nuclear protein expressed in most post-mitotic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. NeuN is not detected in Purkinje cells, sympathetic ganglion cells, Cajal-Retzius cells, INL retinal cells, inferior olivary, or dentate nucleus neurons (1). This neuronal protein was originally identified by immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody also called NeuN. Using MS-analysis, NeuN was later identified as the Fox-3 gene product. Fox-3 contains an RNA recognition motif and functions as a splicing regulator (2). Fox-3 regulates alternative splicing of NumB, promoting neuronal differentiation during development (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Western Blotting

Background: B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (also known as MS4A1; Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1) is a cell surface phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of B cell activation and proliferation (1,2). It is commonly used as a marker to identify B cells and is expressed throughout B cell development, up until their differentiation into plasma cells. CD20 has no known ligand, and its expression and function are largely conserved between human and mouse (1-3). Evidence suggests that CD20 is necessary for store operated calcium (SOC) entry, which leads to elevated cytoplasmic calcium levels required for B cell activation (4-5). Anti-CD20 antibody immunotherapy depletes B cells by activation of the innate monocytic network and is a common treatment for B cell lymphomas, leukemias, and autoimmune diseases (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-1, or interleukin-1ß converting enzyme (ICE/ICEα), is a class I cysteine protease, which also includes caspases -4, -5, -11, and -12. Caspase-1 cleaves inflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL-1ß and interferon-γ inducing factor (IL-18) into their mature forms (1,2). Like other caspases, caspase-1 is proteolytically activated from a proenzyme to produce a tetramer of its two active subunits, p20 and p10. Caspase-1 has a large amino-terminal pro-domain that contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD). Overexpression of caspase-1 can induce apoptosis (3). Mice deficient in caspase-1, however, have no overt defects in apoptosis but do have defects in the maturation of pro-IL-1β and are resistant to endotoxic shock (4,5). At least six caspase-1 isoforms have been identified, including caspase-1 α, β, γ, δ, ε and ζ (6). Most caspase-1 isoforms (α, β, γ and δ) produce products between 30-48 kDa and induce apoptosis upon over-expression. Caspase-1 ε typically contains only the p10 subunit, does not induce apoptosis and may act as a dominant negative. The widely expressed ζ isoform of caspase-1 induces apoptosis and lacks 39 amino-terminal residues found in the α isoform (6). Activation of caspase-1 occurs through an oligomerization molecular platform designated the "inflammasome" that includes caspase-5, Pycard/Asc, and NALP1 (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: LACTB is a serine beta-lactamase-like protein that is most prominently expressed in skeletal muscle, heart and liver (1). It contains an amino-terminal transmembrane domain and is localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it is polymerized into stable filaments that promote intramitochondrial membrane organization and micro-compartmentalization (2). Studies in multiple breast cancer cell types have shown that LACTB can function as a tumor suppressor by promoting decreased levels of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PISD), leading to reduced cell proliferation (3). In accordance with this, levels of LACTB have been shown to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer and associated with poor prognosis in both (4,5).

$69
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Evi-1 (C50E12) Rabbit mAb #2593.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Evi-1 (Ecotropic virus integration site 1) was originally identified as a common site of viral integration in murine myeloid leukemia. It is involved in human myeloid disorders through chromosome translocation and inversion (1) and is also implicated in solid tumor formation (2). Evi-1 is a zinc finger transcription factor which also plays an important role in animal development (3). It has many isoforms due to alternative usage of 5'-ends (4), alternative splicing (5), and intergenic splicing which results in the formation of a fusion protein with MDS1 in normal tissues (6).

$209
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methyltransferase-like protein 3 (METTL3) and methytransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14) are the two catalytic subunits of an N6-methyltransferase complex that methylates adenosine residues in RNA (1). Methylation of adenosine residues regulates mRNA splicing, processing, translation efficiency, editing and stability, in addition to regulating primary miRNA processing, and is critical for proper regulation of the circadian clock, embryonic stem cell self-renewal, immune tolerance, response to various stimuli, meiosis and mouse fertility (2,3). In this complex, METTL3 functions as the catalytic methyltransferase subunit and METTL14 functions as the target recognition subunit by binding to RNA (4). In addition, the Wilms tumor 1-associated protein (WTAP) functions as a regulatory subunit and is required for accumulation of the complex to nuclear speckles, which are sites of RNA processing (5). Several studies suggest a role for this complex in cancer. METTL3 expression is elevated in lung adenocarcinoma where it promotes growth, survival and invasion of human lung cancer cells (6). In addition, WTAP is over-expressed in a number of different cancers and positively regulates cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma and cholangiocarcinoma (7,8).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Tau (Thr205) (E7D3E) Rabbit mAb #49561.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$239
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP-Cy5.5® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) catalyzes adenosine degradation (1). Lack of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), an autosomal recessive disorder. Differentiation and function of T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells are impaired in ADA-SCID patients leading to recurrent infections (1,2). Gene therapies for ADA-SCID were reported to correct the metabolic defect and restore the deficient immune function (1-3).

$165
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to allophycocyanin (APC) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein composed of an amino-terminal extracellular domain (four domains: D1-D4 with Ig-like structures), a transmembrane part and a short cytoplasmic tail. CD4 is expressed on the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, and plays an important role in the development and activation of T cells. On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen–Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Specifically, the D1 domain of CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of the MHC class II molecule. CD4 ensures specificity of the TCR–antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP/RNF31), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the catalytic subunit of the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) that is associated with TNF-R1 (1). Research studies have shown that the LUBAC consists of three subunits: HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin that facilitate canonical NF-kB activation in response to pro inflammatory cytokines through M1-linked linear ubiquitination of NEMO and RIP1 (2-6). As part of the LUBAC, HOIP has also been implicated in the negative regulation of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling through the suppression of RIG-I activation (7). The role of HOIP in LUBAC function and human disease is underscored by naturally occurring mutations in HOIP that impair LUBAC assembly and NF-kb activation. Patients that are homozygous for this mutation in HOIP have multi organ auto inflammation and immunodeficiency (8).

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy5® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits (1). CD11b is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia (2). CD11b is phosphorylated at Ser1126 (cytoplasmic tail) in neutrophils. Research has shown that this phosphorylation event plays a role for leukocytes traveling from the blood stream to tissues (3). Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have linked CD11b to autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin specific protease 39 (USP39) is a 65 kDa protein that plays an important role in pre-mRNA splicing, as well as mitotic spindle formation. It displays significant homology with ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase proteins (UCHs), containing both an N-terminal zinc finger domain as well as UCH-1 and UCH-2-like domains also observed in the UCH2 family of proteins (1). However, USP39 lacks a catalytic cysteine residue found in UCHs and has been shown experimentally to lack peptidase activity (2). USP39 associates with the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP) complex and is necessary for the formation of the mature spliceosome. Silencing of USP39 has been shown to adversely affect chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in U2OS cells, likely due to improper splicing of Aurora B and other mRNAs necessary for mitotic spindle formation and checkpoint function (2). In addition, USP39 has been found to be overexpressed in many types of cancers, and in most cases is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Overexpression has been observed in pancreatic (3), prostate (4), colorectal (5,6), lung (6,7), gastric (8), and triple negative breast cancers (9), as well as melanoma (10) and hepatocellular carcinoma (11,12).

$89
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits (1). CD11b is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia (2). CD11b is phosphorylated at Ser1126 (cytoplasmic tail) in neutrophils. Research has shown that this phosphorylation event plays a role for leukocytes traveling from the blood stream to tissues (3). Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have linked CD11b to autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (4).

$99
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits (1). CD11b is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia (2). CD11b is phosphorylated at Ser1126 (cytoplasmic tail) in neutrophils. Research has shown that this phosphorylation event plays a role for leukocytes traveling from the blood stream to tissues (3). Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have linked CD11b to autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (4).

The Human Reactive Inflammasome Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means of detecting multiple inflammasome components. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments.

Background: The innate immune system works as the first line of defense in protection from pathogenic microbes and host-derived signals of cellular distress. One way in which these “danger” signals trigger inflammation is through activation of inflammasomes, which are multiprotein complexes that assemble in the cytosol after exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 (Reviewed in 1-6). Inflammasome complexes typically consist of a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR; a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat [NLR] or AIM2-like receptor [ALR] family member), an adaptor protein (ASC/TMS1), and pro-caspase-1. A number of distinct inflammasome complexes have been identified, each with a unique PRR and activation triggers. The best characterized is the NLRP3 complex, which contains NLRP3, ASC/TMS1, and pro-caspase-1. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in a two-step process. First, NF-κB signaling is induced through PAMP- or DAMP-mediated activation of TLR4 or TNFR, resulting in increased expression of NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18 (priming step, signal 1). Next, indirect activation of NLRP3 occurs by a multitude of signals (whole pathogens, PAMPs/DAMPs, potassium efflux, lysosomal-damaging environmental factors [uric acid, silica, alum] and endogenous factors [amyloid-β, cholesterol crystals], and mitochondrial damage), leading to complex assembly and activation of caspase-1 (signal 2). The complex inflammasome structure is built via domain interactions among the protein components. Other inflammasomes are activated by more direct means: double-stranded DNA activates the AIM2 complex, anthrax toxin activates NLRP1, and bacterial flagellin activates NLRC4. Activated caspase-1 induces secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and -18, but also regulates metabolic enzyme expression, phagosome maturation, vasodilation, and pyroptosis, an inflammatory programmed cell death. Inflammasome signaling contributes to the onset of a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and autoimmune disorders.

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Tau (D1M9X) XP® Rabbit mAb #46687.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$119
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits (1). CD11b is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia (2). CD11b is phosphorylated at Ser1126 (cytoplasmic tail) in neutrophils. Research has shown that this phosphorylation event plays a role for leukocytes traveling from the blood stream to tissues (3). Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have linked CD11b to autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1) is a component of the CYFIP1/EIF4E/FMR1 complex which mediates translational repression by binding to the mRNA cap (1). CYFIP1 also plays a role in neuronal axonal growth dynamics by binging to the WAVE complex to regulate remodeling of actin filaments (2). Mutations in the gene encoding CYFIP1 has been linked to multiple neural development and psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia (3-6). The specific mechanism by which CYFIP1, which is enriched in synapses, contributes to these neurological diseases is unknown, but may involve regulating the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition to maintain neuronal circuit homeostasis during development and in mature brains (7).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LAT, a transmembrane adaptor protein expressed in T, NK and mast cells, is an important mediator for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling (1). Upon TCR engagement, activated Zap-70 phosphorylates LAT at multiple conserved tyrosine residues within SH2 binding motifs, exposing these motifs as the docking sites for downstream signaling targets (2,3). The phosphorylation of LAT at Tyr171 and Tyr191 enables the binding of Grb2, Gads/SLP-76, PLCγ1 and PI3 kinase through their SH2 domain and translocates them to the membrane. This process eventually leads to activation of the corresponding signaling pathways (1-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tight junctions, or zonula occludens, form a continuous barrier to fluids across the epithelium and endothelium. They function in regulation of paracellular permeability and in the maintenance of cell polarity, blocking the movement of transmembrane proteins between the apical and the basolateral cell surfaces. Tight junctions are composed of claudin and occludin proteins, which join the junctions to the cytoskeleton (1,2). The claudin family is composed of 23 integral membrane proteins, and their expression, which varies among tissue types, may determine both the strength and properties of the epithelial barrier. Alteration in claudin protein expression pattern is associated with several types of cancer (2,3). Claudin-1 is expressed primarily in keratinocytes (4) and normal mammary epithelial cells, but is absent or reduced in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines (5,6).

$209
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 450 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits (1). CD11b is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia (2). CD11b is phosphorylated at Ser1126 (cytoplasmic tail) in neutrophils. Research has shown that this phosphorylation event plays a role for leukocytes traveling from the blood stream to tissues (3). Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have linked CD11b to autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (4).