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Product listing: ATF-4 (E4Q4E) Mouse mAb, UniProt ID P18848 #97038 to Tox Antibody, UniProt ID O94900 #99036

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: ATF-4, an activating transcription factor/cAMP-response element-binding protein family member, functions in the PERK and eIF2α ER stress responsive pathway (1-3). ER stress represses the translation of the majority of mRNAs, but selectively stimulates the translation of certain mRNAs including that of ATF-4 (2). Induced expression of ATF-4 increases the expression of genes critical for the recovery from ER stress (4).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse cells and tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CD45 (D3F8Q) Rabbit mAb #70257.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) catalyzes the synthesis of asparagine from aspartate and glutamine. Research studies have shown that intracellular asparagine can suppress apoptosis in a large number of human tumors. In addition, ASNS expression levels have been associated with the progression of gliomas and neuroblastomas in patients (1). Furthermore, acute lymphocytic leukemia cells frequently depend upon serum asparagine for their viability, as they lack ASNS (2). Deprivation of asparagine by L-asparaginase has therefore been developed as a therapeutic treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia (2-3). In subsets of gastric and hepatic cancers, ASNS promoter hypermethylation correlates with low ASNS expression, sensitizing these cancers to the asparaginase treatment (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Synaptogyrin, or SYNGR, are a family of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including neuronal SYNGR1 and SYNGR3 that are found in synaptic vesicles and contribute to the proper synapse function. Synaptogyrin-2 (SYNGR2) expresses ubiquitously and it is not only associated with synaptic vesicles, but also plays an important role in exocytosis processes (1,3). In addition, it has been shown that SYNGRs modulate calcium currents in excitable cells during potassium chloride-dependent exocytosis (3). SYNGR3 and SYNGR1 specifically localize in synaptic vesicles. SYNGR1 modulates synaptic vesicle function similar to SYNGR3 (2,3). SYNGR1 and SYNGR3 contribute to the neurotransmitter release in neurons by interactions with the GABA and VGLUT transporters in primary neurons and in C. elegans (4-6). SYNGRs are associated with disease including Schizophrenia (7,8) and Alzheimer's disease (9,10).

$239
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is comprised of two protein subunits, CD127/IL-7Rα (IL-7Ralpha) and the common gamma chain (CD132), which is the major signaling component for several cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 (1). CD127/IL-7Rα is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor homology class 1 (CRH1) and is expressed by a wide variety of cells including immature B cells, thymic natural killer cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and T cells (5-6). On its own, CD127/IL-7Rα functions as a receptor for two cytokine receptor complex signaling cascades: IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) (2). IL-7 signaling contributes to T cell development and homeostasis whereas TSLP receptor signaling contributes to dendritic cell activation and B cell development.  IL-7 signaling is an essential component in regulating the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells as differential expression of CD127/IL-7Rα is observed on naive and activated T cells, which occurs following TCR activation. Specifically, CD127/IL-7Rα expression is downregulated on activated T cells and the subsequent re-expression of CD127/IL-7Rα on these cells is indicative of cells that will differentiate into memory T cells (3-4).

$229
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP-Cy5.5® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is comprised of two protein subunits, CD127/IL-7Rα (IL-7Ralpha) and the common gamma chain (CD132), which is the major signaling component for several cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 (1). CD127/IL-7Rα is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor homology class 1 (CRH1) and is expressed by a wide variety of cells including immature B cells, thymic natural killer cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and T cells (5-6). On its own, CD127/IL-7Rα functions as a receptor for two cytokine receptor complex signaling cascades: IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) (2). IL-7 signaling contributes to T cell development and homeostasis whereas TSLP receptor signaling contributes to dendritic cell activation and B cell development.  IL-7 signaling is an essential component in regulating the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells as differential expression of CD127/IL-7Rα is observed on naive and activated T cells, which occurs following TCR activation. Specifically, CD127/IL-7Rα expression is downregulated on activated T cells and the subsequent re-expression of CD127/IL-7Rα on these cells is indicative of cells that will differentiate into memory T cells (3-4).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in mouse cells and tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CD45 (D3F8Q) Rabbit mAb #70257.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: The protein phosphatase (PTP) receptor CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein comprised of a pair of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains and a variable extracellular domain generated by alternative splicing (1). The catalytic activity of CD45 is a function of the first phosphatase domain (D1) while the second phosphatase domain (D2) may interact with and stabilize the first domain, or recruit/bind substrates (2,3). CD45 interacts directly with antigen receptor complex proteins or activates Src family kinases involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling (1). Specifically, CD45 dephosphorylates Src-family kinases Lck and Fyn at their conserved negative regulatory carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues and upregulates kinase activity. Conversely, studies indicate that CD45 can also inhibit Lck and Fyn by dephosphorylating their positive regulatory autophosphorylation site. CD45 appears to be both a positive and a negative regulator that conducts signals depending on specific stimuli and cell type (1). Human leukocytes including lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils, and neutrophils express CD45, while erythrocytes and platelets are negative for CD45 expression (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: AlkB is an oxidative dealkylating DNA repair enzyme first characterized in E.coli (1-5). Nine AlkB homologs exist in mammals, with the first eight designated as ALKBH1-ALKBH8, and the ninth as FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein) (6). ALKBH1, which features the highest sequence identity to E.coli AlkB, is an Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that acts upon nucleic acids such as DNA and tRNA and carries out a wide range of enzymatic functions (6-7). Similar to other AlkB proteins, ALKBH1 is able to repair alkylated single-stranded DNA and RNA containing 3-methylcytosine (m3C), albeit with weak activity (8). Perhaps more importantly, it has also been shown to catalyze the demethylation of N1-methyladenosine on tRNAs to regulate translation (9). ALKBH1 functions in the mitochondria as well, recognizing and oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) on mitochondrial tRNAMet to generate 5-formylcytosine, consequently enhancing mitochondrial translation (10). Interestingly, ALKBH1 has also been shown to possess apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity, cleaving both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA at abasic sites, with greatest affinity towards double-stranded DNA with two abasic sites (11). Lastly, ALKBH1 has been reported to possess N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) demethylase activity, suggesting a role in epigenetic regulation (12-13). However, an additional study was unable to show definitive ALKBH1 6mA demethylase activity using both biochemistry assays and knockout mice (9), so this enzymatic function remains controversial.

$159
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is comprised of two protein subunits, CD127/IL-7Rα (IL-7Ralpha) and the common gamma chain (CD132), which is the major signaling component for several cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 (1). CD127/IL-7Rα is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor homology class 1 (CRH1) and is expressed by a wide variety of cells including immature B cells, thymic natural killer cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and T cells (5-6). On its own, CD127/IL-7Rα functions as a receptor for two cytokine receptor complex signaling cascades: IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) (2). IL-7 signaling contributes to T cell development and homeostasis whereas TSLP receptor signaling contributes to dendritic cell activation and B cell development.  IL-7 signaling is an essential component in regulating the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells as differential expression of CD127/IL-7Rα is observed on naive and activated T cells, which occurs following TCR activation. Specifically, CD127/IL-7Rα expression is downregulated on activated T cells and the subsequent re-expression of CD127/IL-7Rα on these cells is indicative of cells that will differentiate into memory T cells (3-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: EEA1 is an early endosomal marker and a Rab5 effector protein essential for early endosomal membrane fusion and trafficking (1-2). The carboxy terminus of EEA1 contains a FYVE domain which binds to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), targeting EEA1 to early endosomes (3). The stable association of EEA1 with the endosomal membrane is regulated by PI3 kinase, Rab5 and calcium/calmodulin (4-6). Once on the membrane, EEA1 interacts with Rab5, NSF and syntaxin 13 to promote early endosomal membrane docking and fusion (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Set1 histone methyltransferase protein was first identified in yeast as part of the Set1/COMPASS histone methyltransferase complex, which methylates histone H3 at Lys4 and functions as a transcriptional co-activator (1). While yeast contain only one known Set1 protein, six Set1-related proteins exist in mammals: SET1A, SET1B, MLL1, MLL2, MLL3, and MLL4, all of which assemble into COMPASS-like complexes and methylate histone H3 at Lys4 (2,3). These Set1-related proteins are each found in distinct protein complexes, all of which share the common subunits WDR5, RBBP5, ASH2L, CXXC1 and DPY30. These subunits are required for proper complex assembly and modulation of histone methyltransferase activity (2-6). MLL1 and MLL2 complexes contain the additional protein subunit, menin (6). Like yeast Set1, all six Set1-related mammalian proteins methylate histone H3 at Lys4 (2-6). MLL translocations are found in a large number of hematological malignancies, suggesting that Set1/COMPASS histone methyltransferase complexes play a critical role in leukemogenesis (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, TMEM173, MITA) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is a critical component of the cellular innate immune response to pathogenic cytoplasmic DNA (1,2). STING is a ubiquitously expressed protein found predominantly in the ER (1). The enzyme cGAMP synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in response to cytoplasmic DNA (3,4). cGAMP binds and activates STING (3,4). In addition, detection of cytoplasmic DNA by nucleic acid sensors, including DDX41 or IFI16, results in STING activation (5,6). Following activation, STING translocates with TBK1 to perinuclear endosomes (7). The TBK1 kinase phosphorylates and activates interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and NF-κB, which leads to the induction of type I interferon and other immune response genes (1,2,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The 21 kDa guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (K-Ras, H-Ras, and N-Ras) cycle between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) forms (1). Receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors activate Ras, which then stimulates the Raf-MEK-MAPK pathway (2-4). GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) normally facilitate the inactivation of Ras. However, research studies have shown that in 30% of human tumors, point mutations in Ras prevent the GAP-mediated inhibition of this pathway (5). The most common oncogenic Ras mutation found in tumors is Gly12 to Asp12 (G12D), which prevents Ras inactivation, possibly by increasing the overall rigidity of the protein (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Lysozymes are secreted proteins that have bacteriolytic function which are critical for mammalian innate immune function. All lysozymes function to defend host animals from microbial infection by hydrolyzing bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (1). Conventional-type lysozymes (Lysozyme C) are one of three types of lysozymes; each family member is categorized based on amino acid sequence and biochemical properties. Lysozyme C is expressed in mammalian secretions like tears, urine, and milk, but are also expressed by phagocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. Lysozyme C is encoded in humans by a single LYZ gene. The mouse orthologs of Lysozyme C are encoded by two genes, Lyz1 and Lyz2, which encode Lysozyme C-1 and Lysozyme C-2 (Lysozyme C-1/2). Interestingly, Lyz2 is upregulated in microglia of Alzheimer's disease mouse model brains that have been stimulated by specific forms of activity (2). Lyz1 and Lyz2 are uniquely expressed in microglia, and increased Lyz2 correlates with microglia-mediated β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance, suggesting that Lysozyme C-1/2 may directly contribute to microglial-clearance of Aβ or act as a marker for certain microglial activity states in the brain (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme that is involved in the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate (1). Mammalian enolase has three subunits: α, β, and γ, that can form homo and heterodimers. Homodimers of γ enolase are neuronal-specific (2). Research studies have shown elevated levels of neuro-specific enolase-2 in neuroblastoma (2) and small-cell lung cancer (3,4).

$159
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is comprised of two protein subunits, CD127/IL-7Rα (IL-7Ralpha) and the common gamma chain (CD132), which is the major signaling component for several cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 (1). CD127/IL-7Rα is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor homology class 1 (CRH1) and is expressed by a wide variety of cells including immature B cells, thymic natural killer cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and T cells (5-6). On its own, CD127/IL-7Rα functions as a receptor for two cytokine receptor complex signaling cascades: IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) (2). IL-7 signaling contributes to T cell development and homeostasis whereas TSLP receptor signaling contributes to dendritic cell activation and B cell development.  IL-7 signaling is an essential component in regulating the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells as differential expression of CD127/IL-7Rα is observed on naive and activated T cells, which occurs following TCR activation. Specifically, CD127/IL-7Rα expression is downregulated on activated T cells and the subsequent re-expression of CD127/IL-7Rα on these cells is indicative of cells that will differentiate into memory T cells (3-4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$199
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD11c (integrin αX, ITGAX) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that forms an α/β heterodimer with CD18 (integrin β2), which interacts with a variety of extracellular matrix molecules and cell surface proteins (1). CD11c is primarily used as a dendritic cell marker. Dendritic cells can be classified into two major types: CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells that specialize in antigen presentation, and CD11c- plasmacytoid dendritic cells that specialize in type I interferon production (2, 3). CD11c expression has also been observed on activated NK cells, subsets of B cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and some B cell malignancies including hairy cell leukemia (4-7).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) proteins contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, stem cell self-renewal, cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis by maintaining the silenced state of genes that promote cell lineage specification, cell death and cell-cycle arrest (1-4). PcG proteins exist in two complexes that cooperate to maintain long-term gene silencing through epigenetic chromatin modifications. The first complex, EED-EZH2, is recruited to genes by DNA-binding transcription factors and methylates histone H3 on Lys27. Methylation of Lys27 facilitates the recruitment of the second complex, PRC1, which ubiquitinylates histone H2A on Lys119 (5). Embryonic ectoderm development protein (EED) is a component of the PRC2 complex, which together with Ezh2 and SUZ12 is absolutely required for histone methyl-transferase activity (6). EED, SUZ12 and EZH2 are overexpressed in various types of cancer, including tumors of the colon, breast, prostate and ovary (7-9).

$249
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP-Cy5.5® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD11c (integrin αX, ITGAX) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that forms an α/β heterodimer with CD18 (integrin β2), which interacts with a variety of extracellular matrix molecules and cell surface proteins (1). CD11c is primarily used as a dendritic cell marker. Dendritic cells can be classified into two major types: CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells that specialize in antigen presentation, and CD11c- plasmacytoid dendritic cells that specialize in type I interferon production (2, 3). CD11c expression has also been observed on activated NK cells, subsets of B cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and some B cell malignancies including hairy cell leukemia (4-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ARID4A/RbBP1 was originally identified as an RB binding protein, which could repress E2F-mediated transcription through the recruitment of the mSIN3A complex (1-3). Like other AT-rich interacting domain (ARID) containing proteins, ARID4A/RbBP1 functions as a tumor suppressor, and is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer (4-6). ARID4A/RbBP1 and ARID4B/RbBP1L1 are mainly expressed in Sertoli cells in the testes, where they form a complex and serve as coactivators for androgen receptors to regulate spermatogenesis (7).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule, CD56) is an adhesion glycoprotein with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III repeats. Structural diversity is introduced by alternative splicing resulting in different cytoplasmic domains (1). NCAM mediates neuronal attachment, neurite extension and cell-cell interactions through homo and heterophilic interactions. PSA (polysialic acid) post-translationally modifies NCAM and increases the metastatic potential of small cell lung carcinoma, Wilms+ tumor, neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma (2). CD56 and CD16 are commonly used to identify NK cells although some cells with the T cell markers CD3 and CD4 also express CD56 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ATPase family AAA domain containing protein 2 (ATAD2) is an oncogenic protein that was originally identified as a coactivator for estrogen receptor (ESR1), and later identified as a coactivator for other transcription factors including c-Myc and E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3 proteins (1-4). ATAD2 is highly expressed and associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer, including breast, uterine, colon, ovarian, stomach, non-small cell lung carcinoma, osteosarcoma, and cervical cancer (1,5-14). In cancer cells, overexpressed ATAD2 interacts with transcription factors and chromatin modifier proteins to induce the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, ultimately promoting tumor growth (15,16). Indeed, knockdown of ATAD2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines has been shown to promote apoptosis, limit cell migration and invasion, and inhibit anchorage-independent growth (17). ATAD2 is a member of the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) family of proteins and contains a functional AAA domain in its central region, as well as a bromodomain near the C-terminus. The bromodomain binds to acetylated lysine residues on histone proteins, targeting ATAD2 protein to areas of active transcription, where it modulates chromatin structure and recruits additional transcription factors (18,19). Current efforts are underway to better characterize and develop inhibitors to the ATAD2 bromodomain for the treatment of various cancers (16,20-23).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 (IRGM, LRG-47) belongs to the p47 family of immunity related guanosine triphosphatases (IRGs) that regulate innate immune responses to intracellular pathogens (1-3). Research studies indicate that IRGM plays a role in autophagy during clearance of intracellular bacteria (4). Expression of IRGM in mice, but not in humans, is induced by inflammatory signals that include interferon and LPS (2,3). Polymorphisms in the corresponding IRGM gene are associated with some cases of tuberculosis (5-7), Crohn’s disease (8,9), and severe sepsis (10). Additional studies indicate that IRGM functions through regulation of autophagy (4). Mitochondrial IRGM plays a role in mitochondrial fission, membrane polarization, and mitophagy (11). Knockout mice for IRGM show increased susceptibility to infection as well as intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell abnormalities (12,13). Knockout mice against IRGM are also resistant to neuronal autophagy following stroke (14). RNA viruses commonly target IRGM in order to suppress autophagy and enhance infection (15).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: ATPase family AAA domain containing protein 2 (ATAD2) is an oncogenic protein that was originally identified as a coactivator for estrogen receptor (ESR1), and later identified as a coactivator for other transcription factors including c-Myc and E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3 proteins (1-4). ATAD2 is highly expressed and associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer, including breast, uterine, colon, ovarian, stomach, non-small cell lung carcinoma, osteosarcoma, and cervical cancer (1,5-14). In cancer cells, overexpressed ATAD2 interacts with transcription factors and chromatin modifier proteins to induce the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, ultimately promoting tumor growth (15,16). Indeed, knockdown of ATAD2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines has been shown to promote apoptosis, limit cell migration and invasion, and inhibit anchorage-independent growth (17). ATAD2 is a member of the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) family of proteins and contains a functional AAA domain in its central region, as well as a bromodomain near the C-terminus. The bromodomain binds to acetylated lysine residues on histone proteins, targeting ATAD2 protein to areas of active transcription, where it modulates chromatin structure and recruits additional transcription factors (18,19). Current efforts are underway to better characterize and develop inhibitors to the ATAD2 bromodomain for the treatment of various cancers (16,20-23).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: C/EBPβ is a member of the transcription factor family of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) that are critical for cellular differentiation and function (1). There are various N-terminally truncated C/EBPβ isoforms: full-length C/EBPβ, C/EBPβ-LAP (liver-enriched activator protein), and C/EBPβ-LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein). In triple-negative breast cancer cells, aerobic glycolysis was shown to control the expression of C/EBPβ-LAP, which in turn stimulates the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). These factors are secreted from the cancer cells to promote myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) development in the tumor microenvironment, thereby suppressing anti-tumor immunity (2). In addition, research studies showed that decreased C/EBPβ-LIP expression delays age-related phenotypes in mice, suggesting a potential role for C/EBPβ-LIP in aging (3).

$299
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is comprised of two protein subunits, CD127/IL-7Rα (IL-7Ralpha) and the common gamma chain (CD132), which is the major signaling component for several cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 (1). CD127/IL-7Rα is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor homology class 1 (CRH1) and is expressed by a wide variety of cells including immature B cells, thymic natural killer cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and T cells (5-6). On its own, CD127/IL-7Rα functions as a receptor for two cytokine receptor complex signaling cascades: IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) (2). IL-7 signaling contributes to T cell development and homeostasis whereas TSLP receptor signaling contributes to dendritic cell activation and B cell development.  IL-7 signaling is an essential component in regulating the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells as differential expression of CD127/IL-7Rα is observed on naive and activated T cells, which occurs following TCR activation. Specifically, CD127/IL-7Rα expression is downregulated on activated T cells and the subsequent re-expression of CD127/IL-7Rα on these cells is indicative of cells that will differentiate into memory T cells (3-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: ZEB family proteins are zinc finger and homeobox domain containing transcription factors. There are two members in mammals, ZEB1 (δ-EF1, TCF8, AREB6) and ZEB2 (SIP1). Zeb1 and Zeb2 contain two separate Zinc-finger domain and a homeodomain (1). While ZEB proteins mainly function as transcriptional suppressors, they are able to activate transcription, dependent on DNA-context and cell type (1). One of the targets suppressed by ZEB proteins is E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin is one of the hallmarks of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical feature of normal embryonic development, which is also utilized by malignant epithelial tumors to spread beyond their origin (2-4). ZEB1 mutations are associated with posterior corneal dystrophy, and ZEB2 mutations were reported to be associated with Hirschsprung (HSCR) disease (5-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein (Tox) is a DNA-binding nuclear factor and member of the evolutionarily conserved high-motility group (HMG)-box superfamily. Tox also defines a small subfamily of proteins that include Tox2, Tox3, and Tox4, all of which are highly conserved in vertebrate species but have unique tissue expression patterns and functions (1,2).Tox plays a key role in T cell development in the thymus during positive selection (3-5). A study in Tox-deficient mice also revealed a requirement for Tox in CD4 T cell and NK cell lineage development, including NKT cells, FoxP3+ T regulatory T cells, and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells (6-8). Although Tox expression is primarily restricted to developing immune cells in normal tissues, Tox is induced by high antigen stimulation during chronic viral infection or cancer, regulating T cell persistence and exhaustion (9-12). Tox has also been shown to be aberrantly expressed in cutaneous T cell lymphomas (13-14).