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Product listing: Catalase (D4P7B) XP® Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P04040 #12980 to Brd2 (D89B4) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P25440 #5848

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Catalase catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (1). Research studies show that overexpression of this antioxidant enzyme increases the ability of pancreatic β-cells to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting pancreatic β-cells from oxidative stress (2). The pancreatic β-cells overexpressing this enzyme are also protected from hydrogen peroxide-mediated lipotoxicity, providing further evidence for the importance of catalase in the pathogenesis of diabetes (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, FRAP, RAFT) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase (1-3) that functions as an ATP and amino acid sensor to balance nutrient availability and cell growth (4,5). When sufficient nutrients are available, mTOR responds to a phosphatidic acid-mediated signal to transmit a positive signal to p70 S6 kinase and participate in the inactivation of the eIF4E inhibitor, 4E-BP1 (6). These events result in the translation of specific mRNA subpopulations. mTOR is phosphorylated at Ser2448 via the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway and autophosphorylated at Ser2481 (7,8). mTOR plays a key role in cell growth and homeostasis and may be abnormally regulated in tumors. For these reasons, mTOR is currently under investigation as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy (9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Nonmuscle myosin is an actin-based motor protein essential to cell motility, cell division, migration, adhesion, and polarity. The holoenzyme consists of two identical heavy chains and two sets of light chains. The light chains (MLCs) regulate myosin II activity and stability. The heavy chains (NMHCs) are encoded by three genes, MYH9, MYH10, and MYH14, which generate three different nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, IIa, IIb, and IIc, respectively (reviewed in 1). While all three isoforms perform the same enzymatic tasks, binding to and contracting actin filaments coupled to ATP hydrolysis, their cellular functions do not appear to be redundant and they have different subcellular distributions (2-5). The carboxy-terminal tail domain of myosin II is important in isoform-specific subcellular localization (6). Research studies have shown that phosphorylation of myosin IIa at Ser1943 contributes to the regulation of breast cancer cell migration (7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase (AceCS1) catalyzes the conversion of acetate and CoA to acetyl-CoA (1, 2). Acetyl-CoA synthesized by AceCS1 is used for fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis (1, 2). Studies suggest that this enzyme is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (2). It was also shown that this enzyme is acetylated by protein acetyltransferases in cells (3, 4). SIRT1 deacetylates this enzyme at Lys661 resulting in its activation and the increase of fatty acid synthesis (3, 4).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells and immunofluorescence analysis in human cells and rat tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb #9198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA cap structure to mediate the initiation of translation (1,2). eIF4E interacts with eIF4G, a scaffold protein that promotes assembly of eIF4E and eIF4A into the eIF4F complex (2). eIF4B is thought to assist the eIF4F complex in translation initiation. Upon activation by mitogenic and/or stress stimuli mediated by Erk and p38 MAPK, Mnk1 phosphorylates eIF4E at Ser209 in vivo (3,4). Two Erk and p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites in mouse Mnk1 (Thr197 and Thr202) are essential for Mnk1 kinase activity (3). The carboxy-terminal region of eIF4G also contains serum-stimulated phosphorylation sites, including Ser1108, Ser1148, and Ser1192 (5). Phosphorylation at these sites is blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 and by the FRAP/mTOR inhibitor rapamycin.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chromosomal translocations result in misregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 in patients with B cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The BCL6 gene is selectively expressed in mature B cells and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors (2,3). BCL6 protein can bind to target DNA sequences of Stat6 and, analogous to Stat6, modulate the expression of interleukin-4-induced genes (4). Furthermore, BCL6 restrains p53-dependent senescence, making BCL6-active tumors functionally p53-negative (5). The mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk1 and Erk2, but not JNK, phosphorylate BCL6 at multiple sites. Phosphorylation of BCL6 at Ser333 and Ser343 results in degradation of BCL6 by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in B cells (6,7). In addition, BCL6 is acetylated and its transcriptional repressor function is inhibited by the transcriptional co-activator p300 (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HDAC6 is a class II histone deacetylase enzyme localized to the cytoplasm and associated with the microtubule network (1). It is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell migration, immune synapse formation, viral infection, and degradation of misfolded proteins (1). HDAC6 contains two tandem catalytic domains that facilitate the deacetylation of multiple protein substrates, including histones and non-histone proteins such as tubulin, cortactin, and HSP90. Despite the ability to deacetylate histone proteins in vitro, there is no evidence for HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of histones in vivo (2,3). The acetylation/deacetylation of tubulin on Lys40 regulates binding and motility of the kinesin-1 motor protein and subsequent transport of cargo proteins such as JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) (4). The acetylation/deacetylation of cortactin regulates cell motility by modulating the binding of cortactin to F-actin (5). Acetylation/deacetylation of HSP90 modulates chaperone complex activity by regulating the binding of an essential cochaperone protein, p23 (6,7). In addition to its role as a protein deacetylase, HDAC6 functions as a component of the aggresome, a proteinaceous inclusion body that forms in response to an accumulation of misfolded or partially denatured proteins (8). Formation of the aggresome is a protective response that sequesters cytotoxic protein aggregates for eventual autophagic clearance from the cell. HDAC6 contains a zinc finger ubiquitin-binding domain that binds both mono- and poly-ubiquitinated proteins (8). HDAC6 binds to both poly-ubiquitinated misfolded proteins and dynein motors, facilitating the transport of misfolded proteins to the aggresome (9,10). HDAC6 is also required for subsequent recruitment of the autophagic machinery and clearance of aggresomes from the cell (11). Thus, HDAC6 plays a key role in the protection against the deleterious effects of pathological protein aggregation that occurs in various diseases, such as neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease (11).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of various cell functions. Substrate specificity is determined by the binding of a regulatory subunit to the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). It is estimated that over fifty different regulatory subunits exist (1).The myosin phosphatase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: PP1c, a targeting/regulatory subunit (MYPT/myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), and a 20 kDa subunit of unknown function (M20). MYPT binding to PP1cδ alters the conformation of the catalytic cleft and increases enzyme activity and specificity (2). Two MYPT isoforms that are 61% identical have been described. MYPT1 is widely expressed, while MYPT2 expression appears to be exclusive to heart and brain (3). Related family members include MBS85, MYPT3, and TIMAP (4).Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin in response to signaling through the small GTPase Rho. Rho activity inhibits myosin phosphatase via Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 and Thr853 results in phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization (5,6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind to fatty acids and other lipids to function as cytoplasmic lipid chaperones (1). They participate in the transport of fatty acids and other lipids to various cellular pathways (2). The predominant fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes is FABP4, also called adipocyte fatty acid binding protein or aP2. FABP4 is also expressed in macrophages (3). FABP4 knockout mice fed a high-fat and high-calorie diet become obese but develop neither insulin resistance nor diabetes, suggesting that this protein might be a link between obesity and insulin resistance and diabetes (4). Mice deficient in both FABP4 and ApoE show protection against atherosclerosis when compared with mice deficient only in ApoE (3). Mice carrying a FABP4 genetic variant exhibit both reduced FABP4 expression and a reduced potential for developing type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. A related study in humans indicated a similar pattern, suggesting that FABP4 may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders (1).

$232
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PD-L1 (E1L3N®) XP® Rabbit mAb #13684.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).

$168
50 µg
Molecular Weight:540.73 g/mol
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-SLP-76 (Ser376) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of SLP-76 protein phosphorylated at Ser376. A SLP-76 rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and non-phospho-SLP-76 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-SLP-76 (Ser376) mouse antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-SLP-76 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of SLP-76 phosphorylated at Ser376.Antibodies in this kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is a hematopoietic adaptor protein that is important in multiple biochemical signaling pathways and necessary for T cell development and activation (1). ZAP-70 phosphorylates SLP-76 and LAT as a result of TCR ligation. SLP-76 has amino-terminal tyrosine residues followed by a proline rich domain and a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Phosphorylation of Tyr113 and Tyr128 result in recruitment of the GEF Vav and the adapter protein Nck (2). TCR ligation also leads to phosphorylation of Tyr145, which mediates an association between SLP-76 and Itk, which is accomplished in part via the proline rich domain of SLP-76 and the SH3 domain of ITK (3). Furthermore, the proline rich domain of SLP-76 binds to the SH3 domains of Grb2-like adapter Gads (3,4). In resting cells, SLP-76 is predominantly in the cytosol. Upon TCR ligation, SLP-76 translocates to the plasma membrane and promotes the assembly of a multi-protein signaling complex that includes Vav, Nck, Itk and PLCγ1 (1). The expression of SLP-76 is tightly regulated; the protein is detected at very early stages of thymocyte development, increases as thymocyte maturation progresses, and is reduced as cells mature to CD4+ CD8+ double-positive thymocytes (5).

$380
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunofluorescence (Paraffin), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is a 170 kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase that belongs to the HER/ErbB protein family. Research studies have shown that somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGF receptor (EGFR) are present in a subset of lung adenocarinomas that respond to EGFR inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib (1-3). Two types of mutations account for approximately 90% of mutated cases: a specific point mutation, L858R, that occurs in exon 21 and short in-frame deletions in exon 19 (4,5). The most frequent exon 19 deletion is E746-A750, accounting for 90% of lesions at this site, although some rare variants occur.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Btk/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Like other Btk family members, it contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and Src homology SH3 and SH2 domains. Btk plays an important role in B cell development (1,2). Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). The membrane-localized Btk is active and associated with transient phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr551 and Tyr223. Tyr551 in the activation loop is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases, leading to autophosphorylation at Tyr223 within the SH3 domain, which is necessary for full activation (6,7). The activation of Btk is negatively regulated by PKCβ through phosphorylation of Btk at Ser180, which results in reduced membrane recruitment, transphosphorylation, and subsequent activation (8). The PKC inhibitory signal is likely to be a key determinant of the B cell receptor signaling threshold to maintain optimal Btk activity (8).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$115
100 µl
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunofluorescence (Paraffin), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation

Background: Isotype control antibodies are used to estimate the nonspecific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions. An isotype control antibody should have the same immunoglobulin type and be used at the same concentration as the test antibody.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, D. melanogaster, Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: An important class of kinases, referred to as Arg-directed kinases or AGC-family kinases, includes cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), protein kinase C, Akt, and RSK. These kinases share a substrate specificity characterized by Arg at position -3 relative to the phosphorylated Ser or Thr (1,2). Akt plays a central role in mediating critical cellular responses including cell growth and survival, angiogenesis, and transcriptional regulation (3-5). While a number of Akt substrates are known (such as GSK-3, Bad, and caspase-9) many important substrates await discovery. Akt phosphorylates substrates only at Ser/Thr in a conserved motif characterized by Arg at positions -5 and -3 (6). Phospho-Akt substrate-specific antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology are powerful tools for investigating the regulation of phosphorylation by Akt and other Arg-directed kinases, as well as for high throughput kinase drug discovery.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$307
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) family proteins exist as several disulphide-bonded, dimeric isoforms (PDGF AA, PDGF AB, PDGF BB, PDGF CC, and PDGF DD) that bind in a specific pattern to two closely related receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) and PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRα and PDGFRβ share 75% to 85% sequence homology between their two intracellular kinase domains, while the kinase insert and carboxy-terminal tail regions display a lower level (27% to 28%) of homology (1). PDGFRα homodimers bind all PDGF isoforms except those containing PDGF D. PDGFRβ homodimers bind PDGF BB and DD isoforms, as well as the PDGF AB heterodimer. The heteromeric PDGF receptor α/β binds PDGF B, C, and D homodimers, as well as the PDGF AB heterodimer (2). PDGFRα and PDGFRβ can each form heterodimers with EGFR, which is also activated by PDGF (3). Various cells differ in the total number of receptors present and in the receptor subunit composition, which may account for responsive differences among cell types to PDGF binding (4). Ligand binding induces receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation, followed by binding and activation of cytoplasmic SH2 domain-containing signal transduction molecules, such as GRB2, Src, GAP, PI3 kinase, PLCγ, and NCK. A number of different signaling pathways are initiated by activated PDGF receptors and lead to control of cell growth, actin reorganization, migration, and differentiation (5). Tyr751 in the kinase-insert region of PDGFRβ is the docking site for PI3 kinase (6). Phosphorylated pentapeptides derived from Tyr751 of PDGFRβ (pTyr751-Val-Pro-Met-Leu) inhibit the association of the carboxy-terminal SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase with PDGFRβ (7). Tyr740 is also required for PDGFRβ-mediated PI3 kinase activation (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family consists of an evolutionarily conserved group of apoptosis inhibitors containing a conserved 70 amino acid BIR (baculovirus inhibitor repeat) domain (1,2). Human members of this family include c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, survivin, livin, and NAIP. Overexpression of IAP family members, particularly survivin and livin, in cancer cell lines and primary tumors suggests an important role for these proteins in cancer progression (3-5). In general, the IAP proteins function through direct interactions to inhibit the activity of several caspases, including caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 (5,6). In addition, binding of IAP family members to the mitochondrial protein Smac blocks their interaction with caspase-9, thereby allowing the processing and activation of the caspase (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GLI was first identified as a gene amplified in a malignant glioma (1) capable of transforming primary cells in cooperation with adenovirus E1A (2). GLI belongs to the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins that includes three mammalian GLI proteins: GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 (3). These GLI proteins are similar to the Drosophila homolog Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and function as transcription factors activated by the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Hedgehog signaling plays an important role in animal development, and research studies have shown that this pathway is aberrantly activated in many types of cancers (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$261
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-12 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is responsible for ER-stress-induced apoptosis, such as high calcium concentration, low oxygen and low glucose levels (1,2). One of the mechanisms for caspase-12 activation is related to calpain mediated cleavage at T132 and K158, both of which are located at the amino-terminal region of the caspase-12 (2,3). Caspase-12 also has a putative caspase cleavage site located at the carboxy-terminal region of the protein (3). In cortical neurons, caspase-12 is involved at least partially in the amyloid-beta neurotoxicity process (1).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is distinguished by multiple cysteine-rich ligand-binding domains, a single transmembrane sequence and a noncatalytic cytoplasmic domain (1). p75NTR displays paradoxical functions when acting alone or with other receptor proteins. Working in concert with Trk receptors, p75NTR recognizes neurotrophins and transmits trophic signals into the cell. Both p75NTR and TrkA are required to activate PI3K-Akt signaling, while TrkA can individually activate the MAP kinase pathway. In contrast, p75NTR, possibly through JNK, ensures appropriate apoptosis of injured neurons and improperly targeted neonatal neurons (2).The p75NTR protein undergoes sequential cleavage similar to APP and Notch. First, α-secretase removes the p75NTR ectodomain, eliminating ligand-mediated signaling. At this point, the membrane-tethered cleavage product can still fine-tune Trk-mediated trophic actions. γ-secretase cleaves within the transmembrane domain to liberate the cytoplasmic tail from its membrane anchor and allow the p75NTR intracellular domain to translocate to the nucleus (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1(HPK1) is a member of the germinal center kinases that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. HPK1 is a key component linking T or B cell receptors to SAPK/JNK and IkappaB kinase pathways in lymphocytes (1-3). Through its proline-rich motif, HPK1 associates with multiple SH3 domain-containing adaptor proteins, including GRB2, Nck, Crk, SLP-76, and BLNK. Phosphorylation of Tyr379 by Syk is necessary for HPK1 association with BLNK and SLP-76, as well as for HPK1 activity (4,5). Caspase cleavage of HPK1 also modulates the the biological function of HPK1 (3,6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Western Blotting

Background: Brd2 is a highly conserved member of the BET subfamily of bromodomain proteins that contain two tandem N-terminal bromodomains and a single C-terminal extra-terminal (ET) domain (1). In addition to its involvement in guiding the expression of cell cycle genes through its binding to multiple E2Fs (2), Brd2 has been shown to be associated with several regulators of transcription, including TFIID and Swi/Snf complexes (3,4). First identified as a nuclear serine/threonine kinase (5), Brd2, like other bromodomain proteins, is thought to function in mammalian development by regulating chromatin structure and transcription (6). Brd2 has been shown to bind to histone H4 via acetylated Lys12, a substrate of several histone acetyltransferase transcriptional coactivators (7). In mouse, Brd2 has the highest levels of expression during embryogenesis and in the adult testis, ovaries, and brain (8,9,10). Brd2-deficient mouse embryos exhibit delayed development and eventual death due to neural tube closure defects (11). Mutations in the promoter of the Brd2 gene have been associated with increased susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (12).