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Product listing: LC3B (E5Q2K) Mouse mAb, UniProt ID Q9GZQ8 #83506 to PathScan® Phospho-IKKα (Ser176/180) Sandwich ELISA Kit, UniProt ID O15111 #7073

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).

$260
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule, CD56) is an adhesion glycoprotein with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III repeats. Structural diversity is introduced by alternative splicing resulting in different cytoplasmic domains (1). NCAM mediates neuronal attachment, neurite extension and cell-cell interactions through homo and heterophilic interactions. PSA (polysialic acid) post-translationally modifies NCAM and increases the metastatic potential of small cell lung carcinoma, Wilms+ tumor, neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma (2). CD56 and CD16 are commonly used to identify NK cells although some cells with the T cell markers CD3 and CD4 also express CD56 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Exportins are a family of seven proteins that are responsible for intracellular transport. Exportin-1, also known as chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1), is a protein essential for nuclear export of hundreds of proteins, mRNAs, and rRNAs (1-3). Exportin-1 binds to substrates with nuclear export signals (NESs) rich in leucine and other hydrophobic amino acids (4). These hydrophobic sequences form an alpha-helix-loop that can bind to the exportin-1 hydrophobic groove (5). Studies have shown that these NESs can be modified either by protein modifications or by mutation to regulate exportin-1 binding (6-7). Targets of exportin-1 include many tumor suppressors, such as Rb, p53, FoxO1, BAF47, as well as oncoproteins, such as p21 and p27 (1). In addition, Myc can upregulate exportin-1 during biogenesis, where it can export newly formed 40S and 60S subunits from the nucleoli (8-9).Inhibition of nuclear export has been pursued for therapeutic application since the finding that leptomycin B could suppress HIV replication by suppressing the ability of exportin-1 to export the HIV-1 protein Rev (2, 10). Overexpression of exportin-1 has been associated with poor prognosis in various cancer types (11-13). Genomic approaches and development of inhibitors have identified exportin-1 as a druggable target (14-16). The use of various inhibitors of exportin-1 is also being explored in various antiviral therapies (17-18).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The transport of the glycolytic end product pyruvate into mitochondria and the decarboxylation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation under aerobic conditions (1,2). Two inner mitochondrial membrane proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) and mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (MPC2), form a 150 kDa complex and are essential proteins in the facilitated transport of pyruvate into mitochondria (1,2). Mutations in the corresponding MPC1 gene are associated with deficient pyruvate transport and may result in lactic acidosis, developmental delay, and premature death (2,3). Altered MPC1/MPC2 expression or activity may result in significant metabolic disorders and contribute to the increase in aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (a.k.a., the Warburg effect) (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and referred to as autophagy-related (Atg) genes. Formation of the autophagosome involves a ubiquitin-like conjugation system in which Atg12 is covalently bound to Atg5 and targeted to autophagosome vesicles (4-6). This conjugation reaction is mediated by the ubiquitin E1-like enzyme Atg7 and the E2-like enzyme Atg10 (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PHD1 (Egln2), PHD-2 (Egln1), and PHD3 (Egln3) are members of the Egln family of proline hydroxylases. They function as oxygen sensors that catalyze the hydroxylation of HIF on prolines 564 and 402, initiating the first step of HIF degradation through the VHL/ubiquitin pathway (1,2). PHD1 is highly expressed in a wide array of tissues whereas PHD2 and PHD3 are expressed mainly in heart and skeletal muscle (1,3). The mRNA levels of PHD are upregulated by HIF through the hypoxia-response element under low oxygen conditions (4-7). These three enzymes also exhibit different peptide specificity target proteins, PHD1 and PHD2 can hydroxylate both proline 402 and proline 564, but PHD3 can only hydroxylate proline 564 (2,8). In addition to HIF, PHD enzymes have also has been shown to catalyze the hydroxylation of RNA polymerase subunits and myogenin (3,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box protein A1 (FoxA1, HNF3α) is a transcription factor required for the development of endoderm-derived organs, such as liver, lung, and prostate (1). FoxA1 functions as a pioneer factor that is recruited primarily to the distant enhancers to change chromatin structure for transcription in a cell type-specific manner (2,3). The FoxA1 transcription factor is implicated in various diseases, playing a role in hormone-dependent disorders such as breast and prostate cancers (4). The treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with IFN-β results in FoxA1-induced stimulation of a novel population of FoxA1(+) regulatory T-cells, suggesting a possible immunosuppressive role for FoxA1 (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), also called RK (1) or CSBP (2), is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast HOG kinase that participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress (1-4). Four isoforms of p38 MAPK, p38α, β, γ (also known as Erk6 or SAPK3), and δ (also known as SAPK4) have been identified. Similar to the SAPK/JNK pathway, p38 MAPK is activated by a variety of cellular stresses including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), UV light, and growth factors (1-5). MKK3, MKK6, and SEK activate p38 MAPK by phosphorylation at Thr180 and Tyr182. Activated p38 MAPK has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 (3) and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF-2 (5), Max (6), and MEF2 (5-8). SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-imidazole) is a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. This compound inhibits the activation of MAPKAPK-2 by p38 MAPK and subsequent phosphorylation of HSP27 (9). SB203580 inhibits p38 MAPK catalytic activity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket, but does not inhibit phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by upstream kinases (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, VISA) contributes to innate immunity by triggering IRF-3 and NF-κB activation in response to viral infection, leading to the production of IFN-β (1). The MAVS protein contains an N-terminal CARD domain and a C-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane domain. The MAVS adaptor protein plays a critical and specific role in viral defenses (2). MAVS acts downstream of the RIG-I RNA helicase and viral RNA sensor, leading to the recruitment of IKKε, TRIF and TRAF6 (3,4). Some viruses have evolved strategies to circumvent these innate defenses by using proteases that cleave MAVS to prevent its mitochondrial localization (5,6).

$118
10 western blots
100 µl
Stat1/2/3/5 Control Cell Extracts (HeLa untreated): Total cell extracts from serum-starved HeLa cells serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.Stat1/2/3/5 Control Cell Extracts (HeLa + IFN-alpha): Total cell extracts from serum-starved HeLa cells treated with 100 ng/ml interferon-alpha for 5 minutes serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Jaks (Janus Kinases) and Stats (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are utilized by receptors for a wide variety of ligands including cytokines, hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Jaks, activated via autophosphorylation following ligand-induced receptor aggregation, phosphorylate tyrosine residues on associated receptors, Stat molecules and other downstream signaling proteins (1,2). The phosphorylation of Stat proteins at conserved tyrosine residues activates SH2-mediated dimerization followed rapidly by nuclear translocation. Stat dimers bind to IRE (interferon response element) and GAS (gamma interferon-activated sequence) DNA elements, resulting in the transcriptional regulation of downstream genes (1,2). The remarkable range and specificity of responses regulated by the Stats is determined in part by the tissue-specific expression of different cytokine receptors, Jaks and Stats (2,3), and by the combinatorial coupling of various Stat members to different receptors. Serine phosphorylation in the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain has been shown to regulate the function of Stat1, -2, -3, -4 and -5 (1). Phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 via MAPK or mTOR pathways is required for optimal transcriptional activation in response to growth factors and cytokines including IFN-gamma and CNTF (4,5). Jak/Stat pathways also play important roles in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis, cell motility, immune responses and stem cell differentiation (6-11).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Pacific Blue™ fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4858.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated c-Myc (D84C12) Rabbit mAb #5605.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Members of the Myc/Max/Mad network function as transcriptional regulators with roles in various aspects of cell behavior including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis (1). These proteins share a common basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP) motif required for dimerization and DNA-binding. Max was originally discovered based on its ability to associate with c-Myc and found to be required for the ability of Myc to bind DNA and activate transcription (2). Subsequently, Max has been viewed as a central component of the transcriptional network, forming homodimers as well as heterodimers with other members of the Myc and Mad families (1). The association between Max and either Myc or Mad can have opposing effects on transcriptional regulation and cell behavior (1). The Mad family consists of four related proteins; Mad1, Mad2 (Mxi1), Mad3 and Mad4, and the more distantly related members of the bHLH-ZIP family, Mnt and Mga. Like Myc, the Mad proteins are tightly regulated with short half-lives. In general, Mad family members interfere with Myc-mediated processes such as proliferation, transformation and prevention of apoptosis by inhibiting transcription (3,4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MKK7 is a MAP kinase kinase that serves as a specific activator of the SAPK/JNK pathway (1,2). MKK7 is strongly activated by TNF-α, as well as other environmental stresses, whereas SEK1/MKK4, which activates both p38 and SAPK/JNK pathways, is not activated by TNF-α (2). Sequence alignment of the activation loop of the MAP kinase kinase family members indicates that Ser271 and Thr275 are potential phosphorylation sites that are crucial for the kinase acivity.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation

Background: Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (E10) Mouse mAb #9106.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TAK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that can be activated by TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein and other cytokines including IL-1 (1,2). In vivo activation of TAK1 requires association with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), which triggers phosphorylation of TAK1 (3,4). Another adaptor protein, TAB2, links TAK1 with TRAF6 and mediates TAK1 activation upon IL-1 stimulation (5). Once activated, TAK1 phosphorylates MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK3/6, which activate p38 MAPK and JNK, respectively. In addition, TAK1 activates the NF-κB pathway by interacting with TRAF6 and phosphorylating the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) (2).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is highly conserved from yeast to plants and animals and plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis (1). AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, each of which is encoded by two or three distinct genes (α1, 2; β1, 2; γ1, 2, 3) (2). The kinase is activated by an elevated AMP/ATP ratio due to cellular and environmental stress, such as heat shock, hypoxia, and ischemia (1). The tumor suppressor LKB1, in association with accessory proteins STRAD and MO25, phosphorylates AMPKα at Thr172 in the activation loop, and this phosphorylation is required for AMPK activation (3-5). AMPKα is also phosphorylated at Thr258 and Ser485 (for α1; Ser491 for α2). The upstream kinase and the biological significance of these phosphorylation events have yet to be elucidated (6). The β1 subunit is post-translationally modified by myristoylation and multi-site phosphorylation including Ser24/25, Ser96, Ser101, Ser108, and Ser182 (6,7). Phosphorylation at Ser108 of the β1 subunit seems to be required for the activation of AMPK enzyme, while phosphorylation at Ser24/25 and Ser182 affects AMPK localization (7). Several mutations in AMPKγ subunits have been identified, most of which are located in the putative AMP/ATP binding sites (CBS or Bateman domains). Mutations at these sites lead to reduction of AMPK activity and cause glycogen accumulation in heart or skeletal muscle (1,2). Accumulating evidence indicates that AMPK not only regulates the metabolism of fatty acids and glycogen, but also modulates protein synthesis and cell growth through EF2 and TSC2/mTOR pathways, as well as blood flow via eNOS/nNOS (1).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Mcl-1 (D2W9E) Rabbit mAb #94296.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family originally isolated from the ML-1 human myeloid leukemia cell line during phorbol ester-induced differentiation along the monocyte/macrophage pathway (1). Similar to other Bcl-2 family members, Mcl-1 localizes to the mitochondria (2), interacts with and antagonizes pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (3), and inhibits apoptosis induced by a number of cytotoxic stimuli (4). Mcl-1 differs from its other family members in its regulation at both the transcriptional and post-translational level. First, Mcl-1 has an extended amino-terminal PEST region, which is responsible for its relatively short half-life (1,2). Second, unlike other family members, Mcl-1 is rapidly transcribed via a PI3K/Akt dependent pathway, resulting in its increased expression during myeloid differentiation and cytokine stimulation (1,5-7). Mcl-1 is phosphorylated in response to treatment with phorbol ester, microtubule-damaging agents, oxidative stress, and cytokine withdrawal (8-11). Phosphorylation at Thr163, the conserved MAP kinase/ERK site located within the PEST region, slows Mcl-1 protein turnover (10) but may prime the GSK-3 mediated phosphorylation at Ser159 that leads to Mcl-1 destabilization (11). Mcl-1 deficiency in mice results in peri-implantation lethality (12). In addition, conditional disruption of the corresponding mcl-1 gene shows that Mcl-1 plays an important role in early lymphoid development and in the maintenance of mature lymphocytes (13).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a widely expressed cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase involved in integrin-mediated signal transduction. It plays an important role in the control of several biological processes, including cell spreading, migration, and survival (1). Activation of FAK by integrin clustering leads to autophosphorylation at Tyr397, which is a binding site for the Src family kinases PI3K and PLCγ (2-5). Recruitment of Src family kinases results in the phosphorylation of Tyr407, Tyr576, and Tyr577 in the catalytic domain, and Tyr871 and Tyr925 in the carboxy-terminal region of FAK (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is an important factor in the repair of double-stranded breaks in DNA. Cells lacking DNA-PK or in which DNA-PK is inhibited fail to show proper nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (1-7). DNA-PK is composed of two DNA-binding subunits (Ku70 and Ku86) and one 450 kDa catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) (8). It is thought that a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku86 binds to double-stranded DNA broken ends before DNA-PKcs binds and is activated (1,9). Activated DNA-PKcs is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to phosphorylate a number of proteins in vitro, including p53, transcription factors, RNA polymerase, and Ku70/Ku86 (10,11). DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation at multiple sites, including Thr2609 and Ser2056, results in an inactivation of DNA-PK kinase activity and NHEJ ability (12,13). It has been demonstrated, however, that DNA-PK preferentially phosphorylates substrates before it autophosphorylates, suggesting that DNA-PK autophosphorylation may play a role in disassembly of the DNA repair machinery (14,15). Autophosphorylation at Thr2609 has also been shown to be required for DNA-PK-mediated double strand break repair, and phosphorylated DNA-PK co-localizes with H2A.X and 53BP1 at sites of DNA damage (16). Phosphorylation at Ser2056 occurs in response to double-stranded DNA breaks and ATM activation (17).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and citruline from L-arginine, oxygen and cofactors. Three family members have been characterized: neuronal NOS (nNOS), which is found primarily in neuronal tissue; inducible NOS (iNOS), which is induced by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharides in the kidney and cardiovascular system; and endothelial NOS (eNOS), which is expressed in blood vessels (1). NO is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body including the maintenance of vascular integrity, homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, learning, and memory (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Triglycerides form an important energy store in many living organisms. Adipose tissue serves as the primary storage depot for triglycerides in mammals. Lipolytic enzymes mobilize triglycerides during periods of starvation to provide organisms with necessary energy. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the first identified lipolytic enzyme, hydrolyzes triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissues (1-3). Additional lipolytic enzymes, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), have also been discovered. The primary function of ATGL is to catalyze the hydrolysis of the first ester bond of lipid molecules. This enzyme may provide diglyceride substrates for HSL hydrolysis. ATGL is abundantly expressed in murine white and brown adipose tissue, and is highly substrate specific (4). ATGL was independently identified as desnutrin (5) and the TG-hydrolace inducible phospholipase-A2-ζ (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: There are three members of the steroid receptor co-activator (SRC) family of proteins: SRC-1 (NCoA-1), SRC-2 (TIF2/GRIP1/NCoA-2), and SRC-3 (ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM-1/AIB1). All SRC family members share significant structural homology and function to stimulate transcription mediated by nuclear hormone receptors and other transcriptional activators such as Stat3, NF-κB, E2F1, and p53 (1-4). Two SRC proteins, SRC-1 and SRC-3, function as histone acetyltransferases (5,6). In addition, all three family members can recruit other histone acetyltransferases (CBP/p300, PCAF) and histone methyltransferases (PRMT1, CARM1) to target promoters and cooperate to enhance expression of many genes (5-8). The SRC proteins play important roles in multiple physiological processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, somatic cell growth, mammary gland development, female reproductive function, and vasoprotection (9). SRC-1 and SRC-3 are conduits for kinase-mediated growth factor signaling to the estrogen receptor and other transcriptional activators. Seven SRC-1 phosphorylation sites and six SRC-3 phosphorylation sites have been identified, which are induced by steroids, cytokines, and growth factors and involve multiple kinase signaling pathways (9-11). Research has shown that all three SRC family members are associated with increased activity of nuclear receptors in breast, prostate, and ovarian carcinomas. According to the literature, SRC-3 is frequently amplified or overexpressed in a number of cancers (12), and SRC-1/PAX3 and SRC-2/MYST3 translocations are found associated with rhabdomyosarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively (13,14).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chk2 is the mammalian orthologue of the budding yeast Rad53 and fission yeast Cds1 checkpoint kinases (1-3). The amino-terminal domain of Chk2 contains a series of seven serine or threonine residues (Ser19, Thr26, Ser28, Ser33, Ser35, Ser50, and Thr68) each followed by glutamine (SQ or TQ motif). These are known to be preferred sites for phosphorylation by ATM/ATR kinases (4,5). After DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), UV irradiation, or hydroxyurea treatment, Thr68 and other sites in this region become phosphorylated by ATM/ATR (5-7). The SQ/TQ cluster domain, therefore, seems to have a regulatory function. Phosphorylation at Thr68 is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation step, which is attributable to autophosphorylation of Chk2 at residues Thr383 and Thr387 in the activation loop of the kinase domain (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TRAFs (TNF receptor-associated factors) are a family of multifunctional adaptor proteins that bind to surface receptors and recruit additional proteins to form multiprotein signaling complexes capable of promoting cellular responses (1-3). Members of the TRAF family share a common carboxy-terminal "TRAF domain", which mediates interactions with associated proteins; many also contain amino-terminal Zinc/RING finger motifs. The first TRAFs identified, TRAF1 and TRAF2, were found by virtue of their interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of TNF-receptor 2 (TNFRII) (4). The six known TRAFs (TRAF1-6) act as adaptor proteins for a wide range of cell surface receptors and participate in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses.

Molecular Weight:258.24 g/mol

Background: AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside) is an adenosine analog taken up by muscle and phosphorylated to form 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1--D-ribofuranosyl-5'-monophosphate (ZMP), which stimulates AMPK activity and glucose transport in skeletal muscle (1). AICAR has been used in studies measuring glucose uptake, diabetes and insulin resistance, and energy regulation during exercise. AICAR acts by entering nucleoside pools and significantly increasing levels of adenosine during periods of ATP breakdown (2).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-IKKα (Ser176/180) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of IKKα when phosphorylated at Ser176/180. A phospho-IKKα (Ser176/180) rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-IKKα (Ser176/180) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an IKKα mouse detection mAb is added to detect the captured IKKα protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of IKKα phosphorylated at Ser176/180.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state, complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Most agents that activate NF-κB do so through a common pathway based on phosphorylation-induced, proteasome-mediated degradation of IκB (3-7). The key regulatory step in this pathway involves activation of a high molecular weight IκB kinase (IKK) complex whose catalysis is generally carried out by three tightly associated IKK subunits. IKKα and IKKβ serve as the catalytic subunits of the kinase and IKKγ serves as the regulatory subunit (8,9). Activation of IKK depends upon phosphorylation at Ser177 and Ser181 in the activation loop of IKKβ (Ser176 and Ser180 in IKKα), which causes conformational changes, resulting in kinase activation (10-13).