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Product listing: Phospho-FoxM1 (Thr600) (D9M6G) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q08050 #14655 to MX1 (D3W7I) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P20591 #37849

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a forkhead box family transcription factor that regulates a number of genes throughout the cell cycle to help control DNA replication, mitosis, and cell proliferation. FoxM1 expression increases during G1 and S and reaches maximum levels in G2/M (1-3). Nuclear translocation occurs just before entry into G2/M and is associated with FoxM1 phosphorylation (4). Phosphorylation of FoxM1 by MAPK (Ser331, Ser704), Cyclin/Cdk (Ser4, Ser35, Thr600, Thr611, Thr620, Thr627, Ser638), Plk1 (Ser715, Ser724), and Chk2 (Ser376) stabilizes and activates FoxM1 (4-8). Forkhead box M1 is expressed in all embryonic tissues but is restricted to proliferating tissues in adults (9). Research studies show that FoxM1 expression is negatively regulated by p53 (10,11). Upregulation of FoxM1 is associated with many human cancers, including prostate, breast, lung, ovary, colon, pancreas, stomach, bladder, liver, and kidney, and may be associated with p53 mutations in some tumors (11,12). As a result, FoxM1 inhibitors have become a topic of interest for potential cancer therapy (13).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Galectins are a family of β-galactose binding proteins that are characterized by an affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and a carbohydrate-binding site (1,2). Members of the galectin family have been implicated in a variety of biological functions including cell adhesion (3), growth regulation (4), cytokine production (5), T-cell apoptosis (6), and immune responses (7).Galectin-3/LGALS3 is involved in several diverse biological functions. Galectin-3/LGALS3 binds IgE (8). Galectin-3/LGALS3 is an unusual protein in that can be found both extracellularly and intracellularly. Intracellularly, galectin-3/LGALS3 can localize to the cytoplasm, nucleus, or both, depending on cell type and experimental conditions. Nuclear galectin-3/LGALS3 has been identified as a pre-mRNA splicing factor (9). Galectin-3/LGALS3 production has been shown to increase during inflammation and in obesity, and the protein itself can have an inflammatory effect under certain conditions (10). Galectin-3/LGALS3 forms a complex with α3, β1 integrin to act as a surface receptor on endothelial cells for the NG2 proteoglycan, which triggers cell motility and angiogenesis (11). In addition to these functions, galectin-3/LGALS3 is also a required factor for the terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 (CD38) is a transmembrane protein involved in several important biological processes, including immune response, insulin secretion, and social behavior. Originally described as a glycosylated immune cell surface marker, additional research determined that CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) from NAD (1,2). Under acidic conditions, CD38 also catalyzes the synthesis of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from NADP+. Both cADPR and NAADP act as calcium ion mobilizing messengers that target different intracellular Ca2+ stores (3-6). Since CD38 is the primary mammalian NAD+ glycohydrolase responsible for NAD+ metabolism, CD38 may be a valuable therapeutic target for treatment of metabolic diseases regulated by NAD+-dependent pathways (7,8). CD38 has also been considered a possible therapeutic target for antibody-mediated therapy for myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Damaged DNA-Binding Protein (DDB) consists of a 127 kDa subunit (DDB-1) and a 48 kDa subunit (DDB-2) that contribute to the formation of the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein complex (UV-DDB) (1-3). In conjunction with CUL4A and ROC-1, the UV-DDB complex forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, 6-4 photoproducts, apurinic sites and short mismatches. The complex polyubiquitinates components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway (4-6). Loss of DDB activity has been identified in a subset of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) patients and has been linked to the deficient repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in cells derived from these patients (7-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Modulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in the regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. The nucleosome, made up of DNA wound around eight core histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin (1). The amino-terminal tails of core histones undergo various post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (2-5). These modifications occur in response to various stimuli and have a direct effect on the accessibility of chromatin to transcription factors and, therefore, gene expression (6). In most species, histone H2B is primarily acetylated at Lys5, 12, 15, and 20 (4,7). Histone H3 is primarily acetylated at Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, and 56. Acetylation of H3 at Lys9 appears to have a dominant role in histone deposition and chromatin assembly in some organisms (2,3). Phosphorylation at Ser10, Ser28, and Thr11 of histone H3 is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis (8-10). Phosphorylation at Thr3 of histone H3 is highly conserved among many species and is catalyzed by the kinase haspin. Immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies in mammalian cells reveals mitotic phosphorylation at Thr3 of H3 in prophase and its dephosphorylation during anaphase (11).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian cells synthesize serine de novo by diverting a portion of the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into the phosphorylated pathway of serine synthesis. This shift supports anabolism by providing precursors for the biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides, creatine, porphyrins, phospholipids, and glutathione. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) catalyzes the first step in the serine biosynthesis pathway by converting 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxy pyruvate (1).Research studies demonstrate that an increase in serine biosynthesis supports growth and proliferation of cancer cells (2-4), which is supported by amplification and overexpression of PHGDH in a subset of melanoma and breast cancers (5,6). Suppression of PHGDH expression in cell lines with elevated PHGDH levels causes a strong decrease in cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth in vivo (5). Additional evidence suggests that PHGDH interacts with and stabilizes FoxM1, which promotes the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenicity of glioma cells (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: CD47 is a five-pass transmembrane protein expressed on all normal cells. It binds to the SIRPa that is expressed on myeloid cells including macrophages, and neuronal cells in the central nervous system. Binding of CD47 to SIRPα promotes phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) within theSIRPα cytoplasmic tail, inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis towards CD47-expressing cells. In this way, CD47 serves as "don't eat me" signal or a marker of "self", functioning as an innate immune checkpoint. Additionally, CD47 was reported to modulate lymphocyte cell activation and proliferation (1-3). CD47 is over-expressed in many types of cancer. The expression level of CD47 on cancer cells is negatively associated with the response to therapies, and low expression on tumor cells is associated with a better prognosis and survival. Reagents that can block CD47-SIRPα interaction are being actively pursued for therapeutic applications (4,5). In addition to SIRPα, other proteins have been reported to bind to CD47. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) competes with SIRPα to bind to CD47 in the extracellular region and activates signaling pathways downstream CD47 (6). CD47 can laterally associate with VEGFR2, FAS, and certain integrins in different contexts, and influences their downstream signaling (7-9). CD47 can be shed from the cell surface by proteolytic cleavage. In addition, CD47 is present on extracellular vesicles including exosomes, suggesting additional extracellular signaling potential (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tyk2 is a member of the Jak family of protein tyrosine kinases. It associates with and is activated by receptors for many cytokines including IL-13, the IL-6 family, IL-10, and IFN-α and β (1-3). Following ligand binding, Tyk2 is activated by phosphorylation of Tyr1054 and/or Tyr1055 (4). Tyk2 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 in the IFN-β signaling cascade (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a member of the hnRNP A/B family of related RNA binding proteins that bind pre-mRNA and are involved in the processing, metabolism, and transport of nuclear pre-mRNA transcripts (1). hnRNP A1 regulates the alternative splicing of c-Src and c-H-Ras (2,3) and modifies initiation of translation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA (4). hnRNP A1 expression level is elevated in many cancers; knockdown of hnRNP A1 leads to apoptosis in various cancer cells (5). Although predominantly nuclear, hnRNP A1 is continually transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it disassociates from mRNA and is rapidly re-imported into the nucleus (6,7). hnRNP A1 binds to cis-acting repressive sequences (CRS) of HIV-1 to influence HIV-1 production (8,9). HIV-1 enhances hnRNP A1 expression and promotes the relocalization of hnRNP A1 to the cytoplasm (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement (1). This family of serine/threonine kinases includes MST1 (STK4) and MST2 (STK3), two functionally related proteins with conserved amino-terminal kinase domains and carboxy-terminal regulatory domains that contain nuclear export signals (1-3). During apoptosis, caspase-mediated cleavage of MST1/2 removes the inhibitory regulatory domain, triggering autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain, which is translocated to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of the active kinase induces chromatin condensation and other events associated with apoptotic progression (4).Research studies indicate that MST1/2 are orthologous to Drosophila Hippo (Hpo), one of the core regulatory proteins in the Hippo signaling pathway. This evolutionarily conserved program controls tissue growth and organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. The mammalian Hippo signaling pathway involves a kinase cascade, where the MST1/2 kinases and the SAV1 scaffold protein form a complex that leads to phosphorylation and activation of LATS1/2. The LATS1/2 kinases phosphorylate YAP and TAZ, promoting cytoplasmic sequestration and inhibition of these transcription coactivators (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as Class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT2, a mammalian homolog of Sir2, deacetylates α-tubulin at Lys40 and histone H4 at Lys16 and has been implicated in cytoskeletal regulation and progression through mitosis (2,3). SirT2 protein is mainly cytoplasmic and is associated with microtubules and HDAC6, another tubulin deacetylase (2). Deacetylation of α-tubulin decreases its stability and may be required for proper regulation of cell shape, intracellular transport, cell motility, and cell division (2,4). The abundance and phosphorylation state of SirT2 increase at the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, and SirT2 relocalizes to chromatin during mitosis when histone H4 Lys16 acetylation levels decrease (3,5). Overexpression of SirT2 prolongs mitosis, while overexpression of the CDC14B phosphatase results in both decreased phosphorylation and abundance of SirT2, allowing for proper mitotic exit (5). Thus, the deacetylation of both histone H4 and α-tubulin by SirT2 may be critical for proper chromatin and cytoskeletal dynamics required for completion of mitosis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics regulated by environmental cues affect mitochondrial size and shape and have been shown to dramatically impact mitochondrial metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy (1). These processes are largely controlled by mitochondrial dynamin-related GTPases, including mitofusin-1, mitofusin-2, OPA1, and DRP1. DRP1 regulates mitochondrial fission, while the mitofusins and OPA1 control fusion at the outer and inner mitochondrial membrane, respectively.OPA1, or Optic Atrophy 1, was originally identified as a genetic cause for Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy, a neuropathy resulting in progressive visual loss (2,3). OPA1 is a widely expressed protein localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which regulates mitochondrial fusion and cristae morphology and protects against apoptosis (4-6). OPA1 activity is tightly regulated through alternative splicing and post-translational modifications including complex proteolytic processing by multiple proteases (7-12). In addition, OPA1 expression can be induced under conditions of metabolic demand through a pathway involving Parkin induced NF-κB activation (13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Syk is a protein tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction in hematopoietic cells (1-3). Syk interacts with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) located in the cytoplasmic domains of immune receptors (4). It couples the activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis (4). There is also evidence of a role for Syk in nonimmune cells and investigators have indicated that Syk is a potential tumor suppressor in human breast carcinomas (5). Tyr323 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site within the SH2-kinase linker region in Syk. Phosphorylation at Tyr323 provides a direct binding site for the TKB domain of Cbl (6,7). Tyr352 of Syk is involved in the association of PLCγ1 (8). Tyr525 and Tyr526 are located in the activation loop of the Syk kinase domain; phosphorylation at Tyr525/526 of human Syk (equivalent to Tyr519/520 of mouse Syk) is essential for Syk function (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PCK2 (PEPCK2 or PEPCK-M) encodes an isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) that is found in the mitochondria of renal and hepatic tissues (1). PEPCK is involved in gluconeogenesis, the process of generating glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates such as lactate and glycerol (2). PEPCK catalyzes the reaction whereby oxaloacetate becomes phosphoenolpyruvate, a rate limiting step in the metabolic process (2). The predominant function of PCK2 is to process the lactate that is continually produced by red blood cells in the liver and kidney (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The highly conserved receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), homologous to the β subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, was originally identified through its binding of active PKCβII and other classical PKC isoforms (1). RACK1 is a scaffold protein that recruits PKC and a wide range of other proteins to specific subcellular locations, promoting the formation of multiprotein complexes to induce and integrate various signaling pathways (reviewed in 2). One example of this is its enhancement of PKC-dependent JNK activation (3). RACK1 protein also resides in the eukaryotic ribosome, suggesting the possibility that RACK1 participates in the assembly of signaling complexes that regulate translation as well (reviewed in 4). RACK1 binds the SH2 domain of Src, and phosphorylation of RACK1 by Src occurs at Tyr228 after PKC activation (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Modulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in the regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. The nucleosome, made up of DNA wound around eight core histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin (1). The amino-terminal tails of core histones undergo various post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (2-5). These modifications occur in response to various stimuli and have a direct effect on the accessibility of chromatin to transcription factors and, therefore, gene expression (6). In most species, histone H2B is primarily acetylated at Lys5, 12, 15, and 20 (4,7). Histone H3 is primarily acetylated at Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, and 56. Acetylation of H3 at Lys9 appears to have a dominant role in histone deposition and chromatin assembly in some organisms (2,3). Phosphorylation at Ser10, Ser28, and Thr11 of histone H3 is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis (8-10). Phosphorylation at Thr3 of histone H3 is highly conserved among many species and is catalyzed by the kinase haspin. Immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies in mammalian cells reveals mitotic phosphorylation at Thr3 of H3 in prophase and its dephosphorylation during anaphase (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cyclophilins are a highly conserved family of peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerases (PPIA) that are targets of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) (1,2). The complex of cyclophilin and CsA can bind to and inhibit calcineurin which leads to inhibition of the transcription factor NFAT and decreased production of cytokines (3,4). As isomerases, cyclophilins have been proposed to aid in protein folding. Cyclophilin A can bind to the p55 Gag protein of HIV and appears necessary for HIV infection (5,6). There is also some evidence that cyclophilins have nuclease activity and play a role in apoptosis (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Notch proteins (Notch1-4) are a family of transmembrane receptors that play important roles in development and the determination of cell fate (1). Mature Notch receptors are processed and assembled as heterodimeric proteins, with each dimer comprised of a large extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a smaller cytoplasmic subunit (Notch intracellular domain, NICD) (2). Binding of Notch receptors to ligands of the Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) family triggers heterodimer dissociation, exposing the receptors to proteolytic cleavages; these result in release of the NICD, which translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription of downstream target genes (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Met, a high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor) is a disulfide-linked heterodimer made of 45 kDa α- and 145 kDa β-subunits (1,2). The α-subunit and the amino-terminal region of the β-subunit form the extracellular domain. The remainder of the β-chain spans the plasma membrane and contains a cytoplasmic region with tyrosine kinase activity. Interaction of Met with HGF results in autophosphorylation at multiple tyrosines, which recruit several downstream signaling components, including Gab1, c-Cbl, and PI3 kinase (3). These fundamental events are important for all of the biological functions involving Met kinase activity. The addition of a phosphate at cytoplasmic Tyr1003 is essential for Met protein ubiquitination and degradation (4). Phosphorylation at Tyr1234/1235 in the Met kinase domain is critical for kinase activation. Phosphorylation at Tyr1349 in the Met cytoplasmic domain provides a direct binding site for Gab1 (5). Research studies have shown that altered Met levels and/or tyrosine kinase activities are found in several types of tumors, including renal, colon, and breast. Thus, investigators have concluded that Met is an attractive potential cancer therapeutic and diagnostic target (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Class 3 secreted semaphorin (Sema3A) is a chemorepellent that acts upon a wide variety of axons. As such, it induces a dramatic redistribution and depolymerization of actin filaments that results in growth cone collapse. Plexins are single pass, transmembrane signaling proteins encompassing Plexin A1, A2, A3 and A4. Plexins form a complex with neuropilin-1 and -2 and the cell adhesion protein L1 to form a functional semaphorin receptor (1,2). The GTPase Rnd1 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Plexin A1 to trigger cytoskeletal collapse. In contrast, the GTPase RhoD blocks Rnd1-mediated Plexin A1 activation and repulsion of sympathetic axons by Sema3A (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved and abundant 97 kDa protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins. VCP assembles as a homo-hexamer, forming a ring with a channel at its center (1,2,3). VCP homo-hexamers associate with a variety of protein cofactors to form many distinct protein complexes, which act as chaperones to unfold proteins and transport them to specific cellular compartments or to the proteosome (4). These protein complexes participate in many cellular functions, including vesicle transport and fusion, fragmentation and reassembly of the golgi stacks during mitosis, nuclear envelope formation and spindle disassembly following mitosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, B- and T-cell activation, NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and protein degradation (4). VCP appears to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum; however, tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with relocalization to the centrosome during mitosis (5). In addition, following cellular exposure to ionizing radition, VCP is phosphorylated at Ser784 in an ATM-dependent manner and accumulates in the nucleus at sites of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) (6). Exposure to other types of DNA damaging agents such as UV light, bleomycin or doxorubicin results in phosphorylation of VCP by ATR and DNA-PK in an ATM-independent manner (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Btk/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Like other Btk family members, it contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and Src homology SH3 and SH2 domains. Btk plays an important role in B cell development (1,2). Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). The membrane-localized Btk is active and associated with transient phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr551 and Tyr223. Tyr551 in the activation loop is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases, leading to autophosphorylation at Tyr223 within the SH3 domain, which is necessary for full activation (6,7). The activation of Btk is negatively regulated by PKCβ through phosphorylation of Btk at Ser180, which results in reduced membrane recruitment, transphosphorylation, and subsequent activation (8). The PKC inhibitory signal is likely to be a key determinant of the B cell receptor signaling threshold to maintain optimal Btk activity (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator with both intra- and extracellular functions. Together with other sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes, SPHKs regulate the balance of the lipid mediators, ceramide, sphingosine, and S1P (1-4). Two distinct SPHK isoforms, SPHK1 and SPHK2, have been cloned and characterized (5,6). SPHK1 and SPHK2 are highly conserved and diversely expressed (7,8). The SPHKs are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, immunoglobulin receptors, cytokines, and other stimuli (9-12). The molecular mechanisms by which SPHK1 and SPHK2 are specifically regulated are complex and only partially understood.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MX1 (Myxovirus resistance protein 1/MxA) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that confers resistance to RNA viruses (1-4). MX1 has GTPase activity, and GTP-bound MX1 adopts a conformation that enables interaction with viral nucleocapsids (5-7). This interaction blocks transport of viral nucleocapsids to the nucleus, which prevents transcription of the viral genome (7,8). Structural studies suggest that the antiviral activity of MX1 involves the formation of MX1 oligomeric rings around viral nucleocapsids (9-12).