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Product listing: Phospho-c-Abl (Thr735) Antibody, UniProt ID P00519 #2864 to Phospho-Stat3 (Ser754) Antibody, UniProt ID P40763 #98543

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Proteins in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex are integral membrane proteins involved in vesicle transport and membrane fusion by pairing of vesicular SNAREs (v-SNAREs) with cognate target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) (reviewed in 1,2). Vesicle associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8), also known as endobrevin, is a v-SNARE originally found preferentially localized to early endosomes (3). VAMP8 knockout mice did not show abnormal endosomal vesicular trafficking, perhaps having a redundant role with other VAMP family members (4). Instead, research studies have shown that VAMP8 is widely expressed in exocrine tissues and has a critical role in the exocytosis pathways of a variety of cells (4-9). In addition, lysosome localized VAMP8 has been shown to play a role in autophagosome/lysosome fusion during antimicrobial (xenophagy) and canonical starvation induced autophagy (10).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated FGF Receptor 1 (D8E4) XP® Rabbit mAb #9740.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The MAPK and CDK families of serine/threonine protein kinases play important roles in proliferation and cell cycle control. These kinases phosphorylate threonine or serine followed by a proline residue (1-3). MAPK phosphorylates substrates with the consensus sequence PX(S/T)P, and CDKs phosphorylate substrates containing the consensus sequence (S/T)PXR/K. Cell Signaling Technology has developed antibodies that bind to phospho-threonine followed by proline, motifs PXS*/T*P and/or S*PXR/K, for use in the study and discovery of new MAPK and CDK substrates (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The SHANK family proteins, also known as proline-rich synapse-associated proteins, consist of SHANK1, SHANK2, and SHANK3. SHANK proteins act as scaffolds at the neuronal post-synaptic density (PSD) (1), where they play a critical role in PSD assembly of excitatory synapses during development (2). While recruitment of SHANK proteins to the synapse is independent of their interaction with Homer (3), proper synaptic targeting of SHANK1 is mediated by interactions between its PDZ domain and PSD proteins (4). At the synapse, SHANK proteins interact with NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor complexes (5). Research studies have proposed the involvement of SHANK proteins in autism and neurodegenerative diseases (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) catalyzes the ligation of the fatty acid to CoA to form fatty acyl-CoA in a two-step reaction (1). Five isoforms of ACSL have been identified (1). These isoforms have different substrate preferences and subcellular localizations (1). Overexpression of ACSL1 results in changes to fatty acid metabolism in rat primary hepatocytes (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Human enhancer of filamentation protein 1 (HEF1), also known as neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD9), is part of the Cas family of proteins, which include HEF1/NEDD9, p130Cas and Efs (1). HEF1 is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein, localizing to focal adhesions during interphase, and centrosomes and other parts of the mitotic apparatus during G2/M phase of the cell cycle (2). HEF1 is a docking protein that plays a central coordinating role for tyrosine kinase-based signaling related to cell adhesion, motility, growth and apoptosis (1). Phosphorylation of HEF1 is induced by a number of factors, including FAK, TGF-β, PDGFR, Abl, and BCR-ABL, which leads to coordinate binding of multiple downstream effector proteins via 15 known SH2 domain-binding sites (1). HEF1 is a key regulator of cancer metastasis. It is required for the invasive activity of glioblastomas (3), is linked to the promotion of metastasis in melanoma (4), and is found to be up-regulated in lung cancer metastasis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MKK3 and MKK6 are two closely related dual-specificity protein kinases that activate p38 MAP kinase (1-5). MKK3 and MKK6 both phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase at its activation site, Thr-Gly-Tyr, but do not phosphorylate or activate Erk1/2 or SAPK/JNK. Phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase dramatically stimulates its ability to phosphorylate protein substrates such as ATF-2 and Elk-1. MKK3 and MKK6 are both activated by different forms of cellular stress and inflammatory cytokines (4,5). Activation of MKK3 and MKK6 occurs through phosphorylation at Ser189 and Thr222 on MKK3 (2) and Ser207 and Thr211 on MKK6 (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

The Epitope Tag Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to analyze the expression of a variety of epitope tagged proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blots per primary antibody.

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining techniques. Because of their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein’s biochemical properties.

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® NF-kappaB p65 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit NF-kappaB p65 expression using RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/Rel family play a pivotal role in inflammatory and immune responses (1,2). There are five family members in mammals: RelA, c-Rel, RelB, NF-κB1 (p105/p50), and NF-κB2 (p100/p52). Both p105 and p100 are proteolytically processed by the proteasome to produce p50 and p52, respectively. Rel proteins bind p50 and p52 to form dimeric complexes that bind DNA and regulate transcription. In unstimulated cells, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by IκB inhibitory proteins (3-5). NF-κB-activating agents can induce the phosphorylation of IκB proteins, targeting them for rapid degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and releasing NF-κB to enter the nucleus where it regulates gene expression (6-8). NIK and IKKα (IKK1) regulate the phosphorylation and processing of NF-κB2 (p100) to produce p52, which translocates to the nucleus (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) generates hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, a rate-limiting step in ketogenesis (1). Starvation or a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet increases the levels of hepatic FGF21, which in turn up-regulates HMGCS2 expression (2). Furthermore, mTORC1 inhibition was shown to be required for the increase of HMGCS2 expression mediated by PPARα in response to fasting (3). In addition, studies on mice lacking HMGCS2 suggest that ketogenesis plays a role in the prevention of diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a hematopoietic phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (1). SHIP1 is a cytosolic phosphatase with an SH2 domain in its amino terminus and two NPXY Shc binding motifs in its carboxy terminus (1,2). Upon receptor cross-linking, SHIP is first recruited to the membrane junction through binding of its SH2 domain to the phospho-tyrosine in the ITIM motif (2), followed by tyrosine phosphorylation on the NPXY motif (2). The membrane relocalization and phosphorylation on the NPXY motif is essential for the regulatory function of SHIP1 (3-5). Its effect on calcium flux, cell survival, growth, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis is mediated through the PI3K and Akt pathways (3-5). Tyr1021 is located in one of the NPXY motifs in SHIP1, and its phosphorylation is important for SHIP1 function (6).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DC-SIGN (CD209, CLEC4L) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) (1,2). The DC-SIGN transcript can undergo several splicing events to generate at least thirteen different transmembrane and soluble isoforms (3). DC-SIGN responds to a broad range of pathogens due to its ability to recognize both mannose and fructose carbohydrates, and is well studied for its role in HIV infection. Recognition of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 by DC-SIGN leads to internalization of HIV by DCs and facilitates transmission of the virus to CD4+ T cells (2,4). DC-SIGN also mediates adhesion to T cells through interaction with ICAM-3, as well as transmigration across the endothelium by binding to ICAM-2 (1,5). The DC-SIGN receptor can modulate TLR signaling by activating the kinase Raf-1 (6,7). The closely related molecule DC-SIGNR (L-SIGN, CLEC4M) is 77% homologous to DC-SIGN and likely arose through a gene duplication event (8). Like DC-SIGN, DC-SIGNR binds mannose carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens (8,9). However, the expression patterns of the two receptors differ, as DC-SIGNR expression is restricted to endothelial cells of the liver, lymph node, and placenta (10). Murine cells contain a set of related molecules, SIGNR1-SIGNR8 (11). Based on sequence analysis, there is no clear murine ortholog to human DC-SIGN, however SIGNR3 is the most functionally similar due to its ability to recognize both mannose and fructose structures (11).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total PDGF Receptor α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total PDGF receptor α protein. A PDGF receptor α Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho and nonphospho PDGF receptor α proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Biotinylated PDGF Receptor α Rabbit mAb is added to detect both the captured phospho and nonphospho PDGF receptor α protein. HRP-linked Streptavidin is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total PDGF receptor α protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) family proteins exist as several disulphide-bonded, dimeric isoforms (PDGF AA, PDGF AB, PDGF BB, PDGF CC, and PDGF DD) that bind in a specific pattern to two closely related receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) and PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRα and PDGFRβ share 75% to 85% sequence homology between their two intracellular kinase domains, while the kinase insert and carboxy-terminal tail regions display a lower level (27% to 28%) of homology (1). PDGFRα homodimers bind all PDGF isoforms except those containing PDGF D. PDGFRβ homodimers bind PDGF BB and DD isoforms, as well as the PDGF AB heterodimer. The heteromeric PDGF receptor α/β binds PDGF B, C, and D homodimers, as well as the PDGF AB heterodimer (2). PDGFRα and PDGFRβ can each form heterodimers with EGFR, which is also activated by PDGF (3). Various cells differ in the total number of receptors present and in the receptor subunit composition, which may account for responsive differences among cell types to PDGF binding (4). Ligand binding induces receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation, followed by binding and activation of cytoplasmic SH2 domain-containing signal transduction molecules, such as GRB2, Src, GAP, PI3 kinase, PLCγ, and NCK. A number of different signaling pathways are initiated by activated PDGF receptors and lead to control of cell growth, actin reorganization, migration, and differentiation (5). Tyr751 in the kinase-insert region of PDGFRβ is the docking site for PI3 kinase (6). Phosphorylated pentapeptides derived from Tyr751 of PDGFRβ (pTyr751-Val-Pro-Met-Leu) inhibit the association of the carboxy-terminal SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase with PDGFRβ (7). Tyr740 is also required for PDGFRβ-mediated PI3 kinase activation (8).

$132
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Pacific Blue™ fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Isotype control antibodies are used to estimate the nonspecific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions. An isotype control antibody should have the same immunoglobulin type and be used at the same concentration as the test antibody.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4), also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), is a member of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) family of proteins, which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a guanidine nitrogen of arginine (1). There are two types of PRMT proteins. While both types catalyze the formation of mono-methyl arginine, type I PRMTs (PRMT1, 3, 4 and 6) add an additional methyl group to produce asymmetric di-methyl arginine and type II PRMTs (PRMT 5 and 7) produce symmetric di-methyl arginine (1). Mono-methyl arginine, but not di-methyl arginine, can be converted to citrulline through deimination performed by enzymes such as PADI4 (2). Most of the PRMTs methylate arginine residues found within glycine-arginine rich (GAR) domains of proteins, such as RGG, RG and RXR repeats (1). However, PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 instead methylate arginine residues within PGM (proline-, glycine-, methionine-rich) motifs (3). PRMT4 methylates Arg2, 17 and 26 of histone H3 and cooperates synergistically with p300/CBP and p160 coactivators to enhance transcriptional activation by nuclear receptor proteins (4). In addition, PRMT4 methylates many non-histone proteins, including transcriptional coactivators (p300/CBP, SRC-3) (5,6,7,8), splicing factors (SmB, CA150, SAP49, UIC) (3), RNA binding proteins (PABP1, Sam68, HuD, HuR) (9,10,11), and thymocyte cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (TARPP) (12), suggesting additional functions in transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and thymocyte maturation. Methylation of the splicing factor CA150 by PRMT4 facilitates an interaction with the Tudor domain of SMN, suggesting a role for PRMT4 in spinal muscular atrophy (3).

$260
100 µg
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a major role in cellular response to DNA damage and other genomic aberrations. Activation of p53 can lead to either cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or apoptosis (1). p53 is phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo and by several different protein kinases in vitro (2,3). DNA damage induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and Ser20 and leads to a reduced interaction between p53 and its negative regulator, the oncoprotein MDM2 (4). MDM2 inhibits p53 accumulation by targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (5,6). p53 can be phosphorylated by ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK at Ser15 and Ser37. Phosphorylation impairs the ability of MDM2 to bind p53, promoting both the accumulation and activation of p53 in response to DNA damage (4,7). Chk2 and Chk1 can phosphorylate p53 at Ser20, enhancing its tetramerization, stability, and activity (8,9). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser392 in vivo (10,11) and by CAK in vitro (11). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 is increased in human tumors (12) and has been reported to influence the growth suppressor function, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation of p53 (10,13,14). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser6 and Ser9 by CK1δ and CK1ε both in vitro and in vivo (13,15). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 regulates the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis (16). Acetylation of p53 is mediated by p300 and CBP acetyltransferases. Inhibition of deacetylation suppressing MDM2 from recruiting HDAC1 complex by p19 (ARF) stabilizes p53. Acetylation appears to play a positive role in the accumulation of p53 protein in stress response (17). Following DNA damage, human p53 becomes acetylated at Lys382 (Lys379 in mouse) in vivo to enhance p53-DNA binding (18). Deacetylation of p53 occurs through interaction with the SIRT1 protein, a deacetylase that may be involved in cellular aging and the DNA damage response (19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Disabled homologue 2 (Dab2) is a mitogen responsive phosphoprotein that exerts multiple functions through association with numerous proteins. Dab2 modulates signaling pathways through interactions with proteins such as Smads and TGF-β receptors (1,2), axin (3), GRB (4) and Src (5). Dab2 also serves as a cargo-specific adaptor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis via interaction with clathrin (6), AP2 (7), NPXY-containing cargo (8-10), and myosin VI (11,12). In addition, Dab2 regulates cell adhesion by directly binding integrins (13,14). The diverse functions of Dab2 enable it to coordinate cell adhesion, cell motility, membrane trafficking, and signaling. Research studies have shown Dab2 is down-regulated in a number of cancers, thereby suggesting a role as a tumor suppressor (15-17). Phosphorylation of Dab2 decreases its endocytotic function (18).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells is a highly coordinated process that ensures duplication of the genome only once per cell division cycle. Origins of replication are dispersed throughout the genome and their activities are regulated via the sequential binding of pre-replication and replication factors. The origin recognition complex (ORC) is thought to be bound to chromatin throughout the cell cycle (1,2). The pre-replication complex (pre-RC) forms in late mitosis/early G1 phase beginning with the binding of CDT1 and cdc6 to the origin, which allows binding of the heterohexameric MCM2-7 complex. Once this complex is formed, the origin is “licensed” for initiation of DNA replication. In order to ensure that replication occurs only once per cell cycle, geminin binds to and inhibits CDT1 during the S, G2 and M phases. This prevents the recruitment of the MCM complex to the origins of replication, which blocks the premature reformation of the Pre-RC. At the metaphase/anaphase transition, geminin is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) allowing for the formation of new pre-RC (3,4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Secretory proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after their synthesis where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. To reach their native conformation, many secretory proteins require the formation of intra- or inter-molecular disulfide bonds (1). This process is called oxidative protein folding. Disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two thioredoxin homology domains and catalyzes the formation and isomerization of these disulfide bonds (2). Other ER resident proteins that possess the thioredoxin homology domains, including endoplasmic reticulum stress protein 57 (ERp57), constitute the PDI family (2). ERp57 interacts with calnexin and calreticulin (3) and is suggested to play a role in the isomerization of disulfide bonds on certain glycoproteins (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase interacting proteins 1 and 2 (GIT-1 and GIT-2) are highly conserved, ubiquitous scaffold proteins involved in localized signaling to help regulate focal contact assembly and cytoskeletal dynamics. GIT proteins contain multiple interaction domains that allow interaction with small GTPases (including ARF, Rac and cdc42), kinases (such as PAK and MEK), the Rho family GEF PIX, and the focal adhesion protein paxillin (reviewed in 1). GIT-1 is localized to focal adhesions, cytoplasmic complexes and membrane protrusions, and regulates cell protrusion formation and cell migration (2). GIT-1 has also been implicated in neuronal functions including synapse formation (3) and the pathology of Huntington disease (4). Huntington disease is a genetic neurodegenerative condition involving a mutation in the huntington gene. The huntington gene product (htt) is ubiquitinated and degraded in human Huntington disease brains (5). Htt interacts directly with GIT-1 causing enhanced htt proteolysis, indicating that GIT-1 distribution and function may contribute to Huntington disease pathology (4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: IQGAPs are scaffolding proteins involved in mediating cytoskeletal function. They contain multiple protein interaction domains and bind to a growing number of molecules including actin, myosin light chain, calmodulin, E-cadherin, and β-catenin (reviewed in 1). Through their GAP-related domains, they bind the small GTPases Rac1 and cdc42. IQGAPs lack GAP activity, however, and regulate small GTPases by stabilizing their GTP-bound (active) forms (2,3). Research studies have shown that the function and distribution of the IQGAP proteins widely vary. IQGAP1 is ubiquitously expressed and has been found to interact with APC (4) and the CLIP170 complex (5) in response to small GTPases, promoting cell polarization and migration. Additional research studies have suggested that IQGAP1 could play a part in the invasiveness of some cancers (6-8). IQGAP2, which is about 60% identical to IQGAP1, is expressed primarily in liver (3), but lower levels have been detected in the prostate, kidney, thyroid, stomach, and testis (9,10). Research studies have shown that IQGAP2 displays tumor suppressor properties (11). Less is known about the function of IQGAP3, but this protein is present in the lung, brain, small intestine, and testis (9) and is only expressed in proliferating cells (12), suggesting a role in cell growth and division.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CD133 (A8N6N) Mouse mAb (Flow Specific) #60577.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD133, also known as Prominin, was first described as a cell surface marker recognized by monoclonal antibody AC133 on putative hematopoietic stem cells (1). Subsequent cDNA cloning indicated that CD133 is a five-transmembrane protein with a predicated molecular weight of 97 kDa. Due to heavy glycosylation, its apparent molecular weight is 130 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis (2). Besides blood stem cells, CD133 is expressed on and used to isolate other stem cells, including cancer stem cells (3-7). A deletion mutation in CD133 produces aberrant protein localization and may result in retinal degeneration in humans (8).

$178
100 µl
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a 65 kDa glycoprotein found in the mammalian fetal liver, yolk sac, and GI tract. While AFP expression in adult cells is low, it is aberrantly expressed in adult liver cancer cells (1,2). The tumor suppressor gene p53 and β-catenin are both involved in the regulation of AFP expression. In normal adult cells, p53 binds to the repressor region of the AFP gene, thereby blocking transcription. Mutations in both p53 and β-catenin are associated with aberrant expression of AFP. Research studies have shown that elevated serum AFP levels are predictive of hepatocellular carcinoma (3).

Each control slide contains formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded Jurkat cells, both untreated and treated with etoposide, that serve as a control for cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175) immunostaining. Western blot analysis was performed on extracts derived from the same cells to verify the efficacy of the etoposide treatment.To be used with antibodies: 9664, 9661, 9662, 2035, 9541.

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein) is the first obesity gene product identified by genome-wide association studies and it is associated with the largest effect size for this class of proteins (1-4). Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of the FTO gene have been associated with increased body weight and obesity. Further studies reported that FTO risk alleles were associated with an increase in energy intake, a reduction of activity, and possibly an increased daily fat intake (4).FTO is a DNA and RNA demethylase that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of thymidine and uracil. Among its targets is an mRNA subset involved in regulation of learning, reward behavior, motor functions, and feeding (5). Loss of the FTO gene in mice leads to postnatal growth retardation and a significant reduction in adipose tissue. Mice deficient in the FTO gene have lean body mass due to increased energy expenditure and systemic activation of sympathetic neurons, while overexpression of FTO in mice leads to increased food intake and results in obesity. These results demonstrate that FTO is functionally involved in energy homeostasis (6-8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).