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Product listing: β-Tubulin (D2N5G) Rabbit mAb (HRP Conjugate), UniProt ID P07437 #56739 to Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated), UniProt ID Q15910 #12408

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated β-Tubulin (D2N5G) Rabbit mAb #15115.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The synthetic compound dinitrophenol (DNP) is a small hapten molecule that can be conjugated to proteins for use in immunoassays (1). Antibodies that recognize dinitrophenol will display strong binding affinity to DNP conjugated molecules, including nucleic acids and proteins. These DNP-conjugated compounds can be used in in situ hybridization, western, northern, and Southern blotting (1,2). Dinitrophenol is a commonly used insecticide and has been used as a treatment for weight loss (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p38 MAPK (D13E1) XP® Rabbit mAb #8690.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), also called RK (1) or CSBP (2), is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast HOG kinase that participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress (1-4). Four isoforms of p38 MAPK, p38α, β, γ (also known as Erk6 or SAPK3), and δ (also known as SAPK4) have been identified. Similar to the SAPK/JNK pathway, p38 MAPK is activated by a variety of cellular stresses including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), UV light, and growth factors (1-5). MKK3, MKK6, and SEK activate p38 MAPK by phosphorylation at Thr180 and Tyr182. Activated p38 MAPK has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 (3) and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF-2 (5), Max (6), and MEF2 (5-8). SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-imidazole) is a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. This compound inhibits the activation of MAPKAPK-2 by p38 MAPK and subsequent phosphorylation of HSP27 (9). SB203580 inhibits p38 MAPK catalytic activity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket, but does not inhibit phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by upstream kinases (10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Btk Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Btk protein. A Btk rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the Btk protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Btk mouse detection mAb is added to detect captured Btk protein. Anti-mouse, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of Btk protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Btk/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Like other Btk family members, it contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and Src homology SH3 and SH2 domains. Btk plays an important role in B cell development (1,2). Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). The membrane-localized Btk is active and associated with transient phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr551 and Tyr223. Tyr551 in the activation loop is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases, leading to autophosphorylation at Tyr223 within the SH3 domain, which is necessary for full activation (6,7). The activation of Btk is negatively regulated by PKCβ through phosphorylation of Btk at Ser180, which results in reduced membrane recruitment, transphosphorylation, and subsequent activation (8). The PKC inhibitory signal is likely to be a key determinant of the B cell receptor signaling threshold to maintain optimal Btk activity (8).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Mono-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) (D1A9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5326.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® BRCA1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit BRCA1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 are frequently mutated in cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers and have roles in multiple processes related to DNA damage, repair, cell cycle progression, transcription, ubiquitination, and apoptosis (1-4). BRCA2 has been shown to be required for localization of Rad51 to sites of double stranded breaks (DSBs) in DNA, and cells lacking BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot repair DSBs through the Rad51-dependent process of homologous recombination (HR) (5). Numerous DNA damage-induced phosphorylation sites on BRCA1 have been identified, including Ser988, 1189, 1387, 1423, 1457, 1524, and 1542, and kinases activated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, including Aurora A and CDK2, can also phosphorylate BRCA1 at Ser308 and Ser1497, respectively (6-10). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of BRCA2 at Ser3291 by CDKs has been proposed as a mechanism to switch off HR as cells progress beyond S-phase by blocking the carboxy terminal Rad51 binding site (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Secretory proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after their synthesis where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. To reach their native conformation, many secretory proteins require the formation of intra- or inter-molecular disulfide bonds (1). This process is called oxidative protein folding. Disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two thioredoxin homology domains and catalyzes the formation and isomerization of these disulfide bonds (2). Other ER resident proteins that possess the thioredoxin homology domains, including endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44), constitute the PDI family (2). ERp44 is induced upon ER stress and is linked to Ero1-Lα and Ero1-Lβ through mixed disulfide bonds (3). ERp44 was shown to mediate the ER localization of Ero1-Lα (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Glucocorticoid Receptor siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit glucocorticoid receptor expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Glucocorticoid hormones control cellular proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism through their association with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/NR3C1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors (1). GR is composed of several conserved structural elements, including a carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain (which also contains residues critical for receptor dimerization and hormone-dependent gene transactivation), a neighboring hinge region containing nuclear localization signals, a central zinc-finger-containing DNA-binding domain, and an amino-terminal variable region that participates in ligand-independent gene transcription. In the absence of hormone, a significant population of GR is localized to the cytoplasm in an inactive form via its association with regulatory chaperone proteins, such as HSP90, HSP70, and FKBP52. On hormone binding, GR is released from the chaperone complex and translocates to the nucleus as a dimer to associate with specific DNA sequences termed glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), thereby enhancing or repressing transcription of specific target genes (2). It was demonstrated that GR-mediated transcriptional activation is modulated by phosphorylation (3-5). Although GR can be basally phosphorylated in the absence of hormone, it becomes hyperphosphorylated upon binding receptor agonists. It has been suggested that hormone-dependent phosphorylation of GR may determine target promoter specificity, cofactor interaction, strength and duration of receptor signaling, receptor stability, and receptor subcellular localization (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: FE65, FE65L1 and FE65L2 are members of the FE65 protein family. FE65 is an adaptor protein with protein-protein interaction domains including a WW domain followed by two phosphotyrosine interaction domains (PID1 and PID2) (1). Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) binds to PID2 and undergoes sequential cleavage. First alpha-/beta secretases cleave and release the ectodomain into the extracellular environment. Subsequent processing by the gamma-secretase complex results in the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the beta-amyloid peptides. The latter A-beta fragments form the main components of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (2). FE65 family members can regulate APP processing, resulting in elevated levels of A-beta (3). Double knock-out mice of FE65 and FE65L1 display a phenotype that occurs in animals lacking APP family members, supporting a functional interaction between FE65 and APP (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Eph receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). They can be divided into two groups based on sequence similarity and on their preference for a subset of ligands. While EphA receptors bind to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ephrin A ligand, EphB receptors bind to ephrin B proteins that have a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain (1,2). Research studies have shown that Eph receptors and ligands may be involved in many diseases including cancer (3). Both ephrin A and B ligands have dual functions. As RTK ligands, ephrins stimulate the kinase activity of Eph receptors and activate signaling pathways in receptor-expressing cells. The ephrin extracellular domain is sufficient for this function as long as it is clustered (4). The second function of ephrins has been described as "reverse signaling", whereby the cytoplasmic domain becomes tyrosine phosphorylated, allowing interactions with other proteins that may activate signaling pathways in the ligand-expressing cells (5).The EphA7 receptor preferentially binds ephrin-A5 as a ligand. This ligand-receptor interaction stimulates EphA7 signaling and induces apoptotic cell death through TNFR1 and caspase-8 pathway (6,7). EphA7 plays a critical role in organ development during neural tube closure, cortical dendritic development and spine maturation as well as urine tract insertion (8-10). Secreted EphA7 has been shown to promote somatic cell reprogramming through ERK activity reduction (11). Silencing of the secreted form of EphA7 is associated with germinal center B cell lymhomas. The secreted form of EphA7 has been proposed as a soluble tumor suppresor in lymphoma (12-14).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® SP1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit SP1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor belonging to the family of C2H2-type zinc finger containing DNA-binding proteins. SP1 binds GC-rich motifs with high affinity and regulates the expression of numerous mammalian genes (1,2). It interacts with many other transcription factors, such as c-Myc, EGR1, and Stat1, and with basal transcription machinery components. SP1 interacts with chromatin-modifying factors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and p300 in chromatin remodeling. Transcriptional activity and stability of SP1 are regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and glycosylation (3). Glycosylation of SP1 following insulin treatment leads to increased nuclear localization, while glucagon treatment increases cytoplasmic SP1 levels (4-6). Investigators have found high levels of SP1 in patients with Alzheimer's disease (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TRAFs (TNF receptor-associated factors) are a family of multifunctional adaptor proteins that bind to surface receptors and recruit additional proteins to form multiprotein signaling complexes capable of promoting cellular responses (1-3). Members of the TRAF family share a common carboxy-terminal "TRAF domain", which mediates interactions with associated proteins; many also contain amino-terminal Zinc/RING finger motifs. The first TRAFs identified, TRAF1 and TRAF2, were found by virtue of their interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of TNF-receptor 2 (TNFRII) (4). The six known TRAFs (TRAF1-6) act as adaptor proteins for a wide range of cell surface receptors and participate in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses.

$364
50 assays
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Di-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) (D85B4) XP® Rabbit mAb #4658.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: During translation, eIF4E binds to the 5' cap structure of mRNA and helps mRNA bind to the ribosome. There are several factors that associate with eIF4E. One of these factors is eIF4E-Transporter (4E-T) (1). 4E-T has an eIF4E binding site, a nuclear localization signal and two nuclear export signals (1). Studies demonstrate that 4E-T functions as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein mediating the import of eIF4E into the nucleus (1). Recent findings indicate that 4E-T, along with eIF4E, is concentrated in the processing bodies (P-bodies) in the cytoplasm (2). Furthermore, 4E-T decreases mRNA stability (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an Ig superfamily member that negatively regulates early T cell activation (1-4). The CTLA-4 protein is primarily expressed on T cells, including CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ helper T cells, and CD4+/FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (1,2). CTLA-4 protein competes with CD28 for B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) binding at the cell surface, which results in the down regulation of T cell activity (5). The activation of SHP-2 and PP2A downstream of CTLA-4 attenuates TCR signaling (6). Research studies indicate that CTLA4 knockout mice display lymphoproliferative disorders leading to early death, confirming the role of CTLA-4 as a negative regulator of T cells (7). Mutations in the corresponding CTLA4 gene are associated with multiple disorders, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type V autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (8,9). Additional studies demonstrate that CTLA-4 blockade is an effective strategy for tumor immunotherapy (10-12).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Numb contains an amino-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and carboxy-terminal endocytic binding motifs for α-adaptin and EH (Eps15 homology) domain-containing proteins, indicating a role in endocytosis (1,2). There are four mammalian Numb splicing isoforms that are differentially expressed and may have distinct functions (3-5). Numb acts as a negative regulator of Notch signaling by promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Notch (6). The protein is asymmetrically segregated into one daughter cell during cell division, producing two daughter cells with different responses to Notch signaling and different cell fates (7,8). The localization of Numb can also be regulated by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and PKC signaling (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1, hTAL1) is a multi-domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-ligase involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. The LSRAM1 protein contains amino-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR), an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) domain, a coiled-coil region, a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and a carboxy-terminal RING finger domain. Research studies demonstrate that LRSAM1 participates in the endosomal sorting of proteins by regulating the ubiquitination of Tsg101, a component of the ESCRT-I endosomal sorting complex (1). LSRAM1 ubiquitin ligase activity plays a critical role in promoting the ubiquitin-dependent autophagic clearance of pathogenic bacteria (2). Mutations in the corresponding LRSAM1 gene can contribute to a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2P) disease that is characterized by peripheral nervous system axonal neuropathy (3,4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved heterohexameric protein complex that associates with DNA at or near initiation of DNA replication sites. All six ORC subunits are essential for initiation of DNA replication (1-3), and ORC may be involved in regulation of gene expression in response to stress (4). ORC binding to DNA permits the ordered binding of other proteins such as cdc6 and MCMs to form pre-replication complexes (Pre-RCs). Pre-RCs form between telophase and early G1 phase of the cell cycle and are inactivated at the onset of DNA synthesis, allowing coordinated regulation of DNA replication and cell division (5). Modification of one or more of the six ORC subunits may be responsible for its inactivation during S phase, but the chromatin binding behavior of the ORC subunits during the cell division cycle is still under investigation (6-7).

$499
4 x 40 µl
1 Kit
The SignalStain® Akt Pathway IHC Sampler Kit from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to examine paraffin-embedded tissues or cells with antibodies directed against proteins involved in Akt signaling. Multiple approaches are used to validate each antibody for use in immunohistochemical assays. Also included in the kit are control slides that can be used to verify the performance of each antibody and a primary antibody diluent. Please see the above table for the recommended antibody diluent for each kit antibody.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated UCHL1 (D3T2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #13179.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) family of DUBs, which all possess a conserved catalytic UCH domain of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique, extended carboxy-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule.UCHL1 (PGP 9.5/PARK5) functions as a deubiquitinating enzyme and monoubiquitin stabilizer. In vitro studies have demonstrated that UCHL1 can hydrolyze isopeptide bonds between the carboxy-terminal glycine of Ub and the ε-amino group of lysine on target proteins. UCHL1 is also involved in the cotranslational processing of pro-ubiquitin and ribosomal proteins translated as ubiquitin fusions (5-7). Mice deficient in UCHL1 experience spasticity, suggesting that UCHL1 activity is required for the normal neuromuscular junction structure and function (5-7). Research studies have described loss of UCHL1 expression in numerous human malignancies, such as prostate, colorectal, renal, and breast carcinomas. Investigators have shown that loss of UCHL1 expression in breast carcinomas can be attributed to hyper-methylation of the UCHL1 gene promoter (8). While loss of UCHL1 expression is implicated in human carcinogenesis, mutation of UCHL1 has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (6,7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CDC37 is an important component of the HSP90 chaperone complex (1,2). It was initially identified for its involvement in cell-cycle progression and was later found to have a much broader role as a chaperone for a wide variety of kinases and other proteins (1-3). CDC37 protein has an amino-terminal kinase binding domain followed by a central HSP90 binding domain. It recruits and stabilizes kinases in the HSP90 complex by protecting the newly synthesized kinase peptide chain from degradation and promoting the next step of protein maturation (4,5). CDC37 also suppresses the ATPase activity of HSP90, thereby leading to conformational changes in the complex that preclude target kinase loading (6). CDC37 has been proposed as a therapeutic target because of its important role in multiple kinase pathways involved in proliferation and cancer cell survival, including Raf, Akt, Src, and ErbB2 pathways (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PICK1, or Protein interacting with C-kinase 1, is a cytosolic adaptor protein composed of an N-terminus PDZ domain and a C-terminus BAR domain that allow protein and membrane interactions, respectively (1,2). PICK1 regulates endosomal trafficking and surface expression of AMPA receptors and is therefore involved in synaptic plasticity (3). PICK1 is a negative regulator of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization and also for the development of neuronal architecture (4). Finally, increasing evidence indicates that PICK1 expression is upregulated in a number cancers (5), and that PICK1 interacts with proteins involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis such as Ephrin receptors, Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), and ErbB2/Her2 (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Fos family of nuclear oncogenes includes c-Fos, FosB, Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1), and Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) (1). While most Fos proteins exist as a single isoform, the FosB protein exists as two isoforms: full-length FosB and a shorter form, FosB2 (Delta FosB), which lacks the carboxy-terminal 101 amino acids (1-3). The expression of Fos proteins is rapidly and transiently induced by a variety of extracellular stimuli including growth factors, cytokines, neurotransmitters, polypeptide hormones, and stress. Fos proteins dimerize with Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) to form Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), a transcription factor that binds to TRE/AP-1 elements and activates transcription. Fos and Jun proteins contain the leucine-zipper motif that mediates dimerization and an adjacent basic domain that binds to DNA. The various Fos/Jun heterodimers differ in their ability to transactivate AP-1 dependent genes. In addition to increased expression, phosphorylation of Fos proteins by Erk kinases in response to extracellular stimuli may further increase transcriptional activity (4-6). Phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser32 and Thr232 by Erk5 increases protein stability and nuclear localization (5). Phosphorylation of FRA1 at Ser252 and Ser265 by Erk1/2 increases protein stability and leads to overexpression of FRA1 in cancer cells (6). Following growth factor stimulation, expression of FosB and c-Fos in quiescent fibroblasts is immediate, but very short-lived, with protein levels dissipating after several hours (7). FRA1 and FRA2 expression persists longer, and appreciable levels can be detected in asynchronously growing cells (8). Deregulated expression of c-Fos, FosB, or FRA2 can result in neoplastic cellular transformation; however, Delta FosB lacks the ability to transform cells (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The electroneutral cation-chloride-coupled co-transporter (SLC12) gene family comprises bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/Cl- (NKCC), thiazide-sensitive Na+/Cl-, and K+/Cl- (KCC) co-transporters. SLC12A1/NKCC2 and SLC12A2/NKCC1 regulate cell volume and maintain cellular homeostasis in response to osmotic and oxidative stress (1). The broadly expressed NKCC1 is thought to play roles in fluid secretion (i.e. salivary gland function), salt balance (i.e. maintenance of renin and aldosterone levels), and neuronal development and signaling (2-7). During neuronal development, NKCC1 and KCC2 maintain a fine balance between chloride influx (NKCC1) and efflux (KCC2), which regulates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neurotransmission (3). Increased NKCC1 expression in immature neurons maintains high intracellular chloride levels that result in inhibitory GABAergic signaling; KCC2 maintains low intracellular chloride levels and excitatory GABAergic responses in mature neurons (4,5,8). Deletion of NKCC1 impairs NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC-12D cells while inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide inhibits re-growth of axotomized dorsal root ganglion cells (6,7). Defective chloride homeostasis in neurons is linked to seizure disorders that are ameliorated by butemanide treatment, indicating that abnormal NKCC1 and NKCC2 expression or signaling may play a role in neonatal and adult seizures (9-12). NKCC1 is found as a homodimer or within heterooligomers with other SLC12 family members. This transport protein associates with a number of oxidative- and osmotic-responsive kinases that bind, phosphorylate, and activate NKCC1 co-transporter activity (13-16). In response to decreased intracellular chloride concentrations, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) phosphorylates NKCC1 to increase co-transporter activity and promote chloride influx (16-19). Oxidative stress response kinase 1 (OSR1) also phosphorylates and activates NKCC1 in response to oxidative stress (14).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated ALK (D5F3®) XP® Rabbit mAb #3633.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor for pleiotrophin (PTN), a growth factor involved in embryonic brain development (1-3). In ALK-expressing cells, PTN induces phosphorylation of both ALK and the downstream effectors IRS-1, Shc, PLCγ, and PI3 kinase (1). ALK was originally discovered as a nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein produced by a translocation (4). Investigators have found that the NPM-ALK fusion protein is a constitutively active, oncogenic tyrosine kinase associated with anaplastic lymphoma (4). Research literature suggests that activation of PLCγ by NPM-ALK may be a crucial step for its mitogenic activity and involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic lymphomas (5).A distinct ALK oncogenic fusion protein involving ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) has been described in the research literature from a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, with corresponding fusion transcripts present in some cases of lung adenocarcinoma. The short, amino-terminal region of the microtubule-associated protein EML4 is fused to the kinase domain of ALK (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mannose-binding lectin-1 (LMAN1, ERGIC-53) is a type I transmembrane lectin protein localized to the intermediate compartment between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi body (ERGIC) (1). Interaction between the LMAN1 protein and MCFD2 forms an ERGIC cargo receptor that delivers proteins from the ER to the Golgi body (2,3). The LMAN1 protein contains an amino-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that binds target glycoproteins, a membrane proximal oligomerization domain required for cargo transport, a single transmembrane segment, and short cytoplasmic tail (3-5). LMAN1 functions as a cargo receptor responsible for transport of glycoproteins from the ER to ERGIC and Golgi body. Target proteins include coagulation factors V and VIII, cathepsin C, cathepsin Z, and α1-antitrypsin (6-8). Mutations in the corresponding LMAN1 gene can result in combined factors FV and FVIII deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by spontaneous bleeding (9). Inactivating frameshift mutations in LMAN1 are found at high frequency in colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability and may contribute to tumorigenesis (10).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Reelin signaling pathway plays a critical role in neuronal development. Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the lipoprotein receptors VLDLR and ApoER2 or alpha3beta1 integrin on the surface of neurons (1,2). Activation of these receptors induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Disabled 1 (Dab1), an intracellular adaptor. It is generally believed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 by Src family tyrosine kinases is the most critical downstream event in Reelin signaling. The phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain within its amino terminus enables Dab1 to recognize and bind to a conserved sequence motif within the cytoplasmic tail of the receptors. In addition, the PTB contains a Pleckstrin Homology-like subdomain that binds to phosphoinositides. The phosphoinositide-binding region within the Dab1 PTB domain is required for membrane localization and basal tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 independent of VLDLR and ApoER2 (3). It has been demonstrated that Src, CrkII, CrkL and Dock1 associate with tyrosine-phosphorylated Dab. The CrkII-Dab1 interaction requires tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 at residues 220 or 232 (4).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5246.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in maintaining the silenced state of several developmentally regulated genes and contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, cell cycle regulation, and oncogenesis (1,2). Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a member of this large protein family, contains four conserved regions including domain I, domain II, and a cysteine-rich amino acid stretch that precedes the carboxy-terminal SET domain (3). The SET domain has been linked with histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity. Moreover, mammalian Ezh2 is a member of a histone deacetylase complex that functions in gene silencing, acting at the level of chromatin structure (4). Ezh2 complexes methylate histone H3 at Lys9 and 27 in vitro, which is thought to be involved in targeting transcriptional regulators to specific loci (5). Ezh2 is deregulated in various tumor types, and its role, both as a primary effector and as a mediator of tumorigenesis, has become a subject of increased interest (6).