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Product listing: SEK1 (5C10) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P45985 #3346 to CA12 (D78E4) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID O43570 #5865

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SAPK/Erk kinase (SEK1), also known as MKK4 or Jun kinase kinase (JNKK), activates the MAP kinase homologues SAPK and JNK in response to various cellular stresses and inflammatory cytokines (1-3). Activation of SEK1 occurs through MEKK phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at positions 257 and 261, respectively. Like MEK, SEK is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates SAPK/JNK at a conserved T*PY* site in its activation loop (4). Phosphorylation by Akt at Ser80 inhibits SEK1 and suppresses stress-activated signal transduction (5).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Beclin-1 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Beclin-1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2) and 4 (SMC4) proteins are subunits of the condensin complex, which enables chromosome condensation and maintains the compaction of chromosomes as they separate to opposite poles during anaphase (1-3). In addition to regulating chromosome condensation, condensin is a general regulator of chromosome architecture and may function to regulate gene expression and DNA repair. SMC proteins contain a hallmark bipartite ATPase domain of the ABC ATPase superfamily, which consists of an N-terminal Walker A motif nucleotide-binding domain and C-terminal Walker B motif catalytic domain that interact to form a functional ATPase (1-3). The two ATPase domains are connected by two coiled coil domains separated by a central hinge region that facilitates protein-protein interactions between partnering SMC proteins. In the case of the condensin complex, SMC2 and SMC4 interact to form a functional ATPase required for chromatin condensation; however, the mechanism by which this ATPase activity regulates chromsome architecture is still being determined. In addition to SMC proteins, condensin contains three auxiliary subunits, which function to regulate condensin ATPase activity. Higher eukaryotes contain two distinct condensin complexes (condensin I and II), both of which contain SMC2 and SMC4 (1-3). Condensin I also contains the auxiliary subunits CAP-D2, CAP-G and CAP-H, while condensin II contains the related auxiliary proteins CAP-D3, CAP-G2 and CAP-H2. The two condensin complexes show different localization patterns during the cell cycle and on chromosomes and both are required for successful mitosis, suggesting distinct functions for each complex (1-3).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-YAP (Ser127) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of YAP protein phosphorylated at Ser127. A YAP rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and non-phospho-YAP proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-YAP (Ser127) biotinylated mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-YAP protein. An HRP-linked Streptavidin is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of YAP phosphorylated at Ser127.Antibodies in this kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: YAP (Yes-associated protein, YAP65) was identified based on its ability to associate with the SH3 domain of Yes. It also binds to other SH3 domain-containing proteins such as Nck, Crk, Src, and Abl (1). In addition to the SH3 binding motif, YAP contains a PDZ interaction motif, a coiled-coil domain, and WW domains (2-4). While initial studies of YAP all pointed towards a role in anchoring and targeting to specific subcellular compartments, subsequent studies showed that YAP is a transcriptional co-activator by virtue of its WW domain interacting with the PY motif (PPxY) of the transcription factor PEBP2 and other transcription factors (5). In its capacity as a transcriptional co-activator, YAP is now widely recognized as a central mediator of the Hippo Pathway, which plays a fundamental and widely conserved role in regulating tissue growth and organ size. Phosphorylation at multiple sites (e.g., Ser109, Ser127) by LATS kinases promotes YAP translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is sequestered through association with 14-3-3 proteins (6-8). These LATS-driven phosphorylation events serve to prime YAP for subsequent phosphorylation by CK1δ/ε in an adjacent phosphodegron, triggering proteosomal degradation of YAP (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. During neurotransmission, glutamate is released from vesicles of the pre-synaptic cell, and glutamate receptors (e.g. NMDA Receptor, AMPA Receptor) bind glutamate for activation at the opposing post-synaptic cell. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels. In addition, glutamate transporters may limit the duration of synaptic excitation by an electrogenic process in which the transmitter is cotransported with three sodium ions and one proton, followed by countertransport of a potassium ion. Five EAATs (EAAT1-5) are characterized: EAAT2 (GLT-1) is primarily expressed in astrocytes but is also expressed in neurons of the retina and during fetal development (1). Homozygous EAAT2 knockout mice have spontaneous, lethal seizures and an increased predisposition to acute cortical injury (2). PKC phosphorylates Ser113 of EAAT2 and coincides with glutamate transport (3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: B cell linker protein (BLNK), also known as SLP-65 or BASH, is an adaptor molecule that plays key roles in B cell activation and B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement. BLNK acts at the interface between BCR-associated Syk and downstream signaling cascades (1,2). BLNK has multiple SH2 binding motifs (YXXP) at its amino terminus and an SH2 domain at its carboxy terminus. After BCR ligation, BLNK is phosphorylated by Syk at multiple YXXP motifs including Tyr72, Tyr84, Tyr96, and Tyr178 (1). These phosphorylated motifs provide docking sites for signaling molecules, such as BTK, PLCγ, and Vav. These signaling molecules bind to BLNK through their SH2 domains and together activate downstream signaling pathways (3,4). Through its SH2 domain, BLNK can also interact with tyrosine-phosphorylated targets, such as HPK1, thereby recruiting them to the BCR complex for signaling (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ron is a member of the Met protooncogene family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which also includes Stk, c-Met, and c-Sea. The functional Ron is a heterodimer composed of a 40 kDa α chain and a 150 kDa β chain. Ron is initially synthesized in the cells as a single-chain, pro-Ron precursor that is cleaved into the two active chains. The α chain is completely extracellular, whereas the β chain traverses the cell membrane and contains the intracellular tyrosine kinase and regulatory elements (1,2). Ron mediates multiple signaling cascades that involve cell motility, adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis. The signaling pathways activated downstream of Ron include the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathways. Ron activation can also significantly increase c-Src activity, a signaling intermediate involved in cell cycle progression, motility, angiogenesis and survival (3,4). The function of Ron has been shown to be important for embryological development as well as implicated in the progression and metastasis of tumors (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: E2A is a member of the E-protein family of transcription factors, a subclass of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that bind specifically to E-box consensus sequences (1,2). Alternative splicing generates two E2A isoforms (E47 and E12) that are actively involved in B cell lineage commitment, B cell maturation, IgK V-J rearrangement, peripheral B cell development, and tumor suppression (3). E2A acts in cis during G1 to promote immunoglobulin gene diversification (4). Research studies have shown that chromosomal translocations involving the E2A gene result in the expression of multiple fusion proteins and are associated with many cases of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® ADAM9 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit ADAM9 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The ADAM (A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease) family of multidomain membrane proteins influences cell signaling and adhesion by shedding cell surface proteins such as cytokines and growth factors, by influencing cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by directly remodeling the ECM. Conserved domains in ADAM family members include a prodomain, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin domain, a cysteine-rich domain, an EGF-like sequence, and a short cytoplasmic tail (1,2).The prodomain is thought to aid in protein folding. Disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains mediate adhesion, at least in part, through binding to integrins. Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail as well as its interaction with other signaling proteins may influence intra- and extracellular signaling (1). ADAM9 is widely distributed and has been shown to affect migration in skin keratinocytes (3,4). Research studies have shown that ADAM9 is overexpressed in prostate cancer (5), pancreatic cancer (6), gastric cancer (7), and has been linked to invasion and metastasis in small cell lung cancer (8). Research has also shown that an alternatively spliced short (50 kDa) form of ADAM9 containing protease activity is involved in tumor cell invasion (9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® ULK1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit ULK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Two related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1, ULK2), were discovered as mammalian homologs of the C. elegans gene UNC-51 in which mutants exhibited abnormal axonal extension and growth (1-4). Both proteins are widely expressed and contain an amino-terminal kinase domain followed by a central proline/serine rich domain and a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain. The roles of ULK1 and ULK2 in axon growth have been linked to studies showing that the kinases are localized to neuronal growth cones and are involved in endocytosis of critical growth factors, such as NGF (5). Yeast two-hybrid studies found ULK1/2 associated with modulators of the endocytic pathway, SynGAP and syntenin (6). Structural similarity of ULK1/2 has also been recognized with the yeast autophagy protein Atg1/Apg1 (7). Knockdown experiments using siRNA demonstrated that ULK1 is essential for autophagy (8), a catabolic process for the degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (9,10). It appears that Atg1/ULK1 can act as a convergence point for multiple signals that control autophagy (11), and can bind to several autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, regulating phosphorylation states and protein trafficking (12-16).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1,2). Histone acetylation occurs mainly on the amino-terminal tail domains of histones H2A (Lys5), H2B (Lys5, 12, 15, and 20), H3 (Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, 36 and 56), and H4 (Lys5, 8, 12, and 16) and is important for the regulation of histone deposition, transcriptional activation, DNA replication, recombination, and DNA repair (1-3). Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). In addition, acetylation of specific lysine residues creates docking sites for a protein module called the bromodomain, which binds to acetylated lysine residues (6). Many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins contain bromodomains and may be recruited to gene promoters, in part, through binding of acetylated histone tails. Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CBP/p300, GCN5L2, PCAF, and Tip60, which are recruited to genes by DNA-bound protein factors to facilitate transcriptional activation (3). Deacetylation, which is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDAC and sirtuin proteins), reverses the effects of acetylation and generally facilitates transcriptional repression (7,8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: p27 Kip1 is a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Like its relatives, p57 Kip2 and p21 Waf1/Cip1, the ability to enforce the G1 restriction point is derived from its inhibitory binding to CDK2/cyclin E and other CDK/cyclin complexes. Expression levels of p27 are upregulated in quiescent cells and in cells treated with cAMP or other negative cell cycle regulators. Downregulation of p27 can be induced by treatment with interleukin-2 or other mitogens; this involves phosphorylation of p27 and its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (1-4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides (1,2, reviewed in 3). This process is catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS), a homodimer composed of two 30 kDa subunits. TS is an intracellular enzyme that provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate, making it a required enzyme in DNA biosynthesis with activity highest in proliferating cells (1). Being the exclusive source of dTMP, investigators have concluded that TS is also an important target for anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (1-5). 5-FU acts as a TS inhibitor and is active against solid tumors such as colon, breast, head, and neck. Research studies have demonstrated that patients with metastases expressing lower levels of TS have a higher response rate to treatment with 5-FU than patients with tumors that have increased levels of TS (5). Researchers continue to investigate TS expression in different types of cancers (6-10).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Beclin-1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Beclin-1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The type 6 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B6, 17-β-HSD 6) regulates cellular hydroxysteroids by catalyzing the conversion of androsterone to epiandrosterone (1). This enzyme displays both oxidoreductase and epimerase activities, and is also known as 3(α->β)-hydroxysteroid epimerase. The interaction between HSD17B6 and hydroxysteroid compounds has an important effect on steroid activity as these compounds typically act in a stereo-specificity manner (1). Research studies show that the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor in prostate cell lines treated by androstanediol correlates with HSD17B6 protein level, which suggests an important role for enzyme in prostate cancer growth (2).

$84
100 µl
Ghost Dye™ Red 780 Viability Dye is used to discriminate viable from non-viable mammalian cells in flow cytometry applications. Ghost Dye™ Red 780 Viability Dye irreversibly binds free amines available on the cell surface as well as intracellular free amines exposed in cells with compromised cell membranes. Non-viable cells with loss of membrane integrity will react with significantly more Ghost Dye™ Red 780 Viability Dye than healthy cells in the same sample. Cells that exhibit increased fluorescence intensity can be excluded from analysis.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: In Drosophila, lethal giant larvae (lgl), discs large (dlg), and scribble (scrib) act as tumor suppressor genes. Their loss of function in flies causes neoplastic overgrowth of larval brain tissue and imaginal epithelial cells hallmarked by disruption of the cytoskeletal network and cellular polarity (1,2). The human homolog of the Drosophila lgl protein, lethal giant larvae protein homolog 1(LLGL1), is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in regulating cellular organization, migration, and cell polarity (3). As in Drosophila, decreased expression of LLGL1 correlates with an increased incidence of cellular overgrowth and malignant transformation (4-6). In mammalian epithelial cells, LLGL1 redistributes from the cytoplasm to regions of cell-cell contact, allowing the establishment and maintainence of a polarized morphology (7). LLGL1 also plays a role in the formation of epithelial junctions via its direct interactions with PAR6 and aPKC, the latter of which has been shown to phosphorylate LLGL1 at Ser663, thus restricting its localization to the basolateral region of the cell (8). LLGL1 may also play an additional, unrealized role in cellular development and differentiation as indicated by the fact that Drosophila lgl has been implicated in controlling self-renewal and differentiation of progenitor cells (9). Recent studies in mice have suggested that a mammalian LLGL1 homolog that does not have tumor suppressor-like acitvity, LLGL2, is required for proper polarized invasion of trophoblasts and efficient branching morphogenesis during placental development (10).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. The unconjugated antibody #2258 reacts with human and mouse PU.1 protein. CST expects that PU.1 (9G7) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) will also recognize PU.1 in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: PU.1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and activates target genes through the purine-rich PU-box (1). PU.1 plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes and is expressed in several hematopoietic cells including B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, early erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes (1,2). The concentration of PU.1 is critical for both the determination of hematopoietic cell lineage and the regulation of differentiation versus stem cell proliferation (3,4). In addition, PU.1 activity is influenced by phosphorylation and interactions with other hematopoietic transcription factors. Phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser146 by CK2 promotes binding to IRF4 and synergistic activation through the immunoglobulin κ 3' enhancer (5). Treatment of pro-B cells with IL-3 leads to phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser140, resulting in increased PU.1 activity and activation of the anti-apoptotic gene MCL-1 (6). GATA1 binding blocks PU.1 activity during erythroid cell development (7). Overexpression of PU.1 resulting from proviral insertion during Friend virus infection can induce erythroleukemia, while reduced expression has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1/BAM32) is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that mediates the recruitment and interaction of molecules required for signal transduction downstream of the B cell receptor (BCR) (1). The DAPP1/BAM32 protein contains an amino-terminal SH2 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to PI3K-derived phosphoinositides (i.e., PIP3). Upon BCR activation, DAPP1/BAM32 is phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues and translocated from the cytoplasm to the membrane. Research studies indicate that phosphorylation and translocation of DAPP1/BAM32 is strongly dependent upon PI3K signaling (2,3). The amino-terminal SH2 domain binds to PLCγ2 and other tyrosine-phosphorylated targets. As a result of these interactions, DAPP1/BAM32 can adjust the response to receptor activation by coordinating membrane-localized interactions among proteins of distinct signal transduction pathways (1,4). DAPP1/BAM32 is expressed most abundantly in B lymphocytes; high expression during dendritic cell (DC) maturation and localization to contact sites between DC and allogenic T cells suggest that the DAPP1/BAM32 adaptor may play a role in the activation of T cells through MHC class I-mediated signaling pathways (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters (ISC) are cofactors for many proteins that display a wide range of biological functions, such as DNA maintenance, transcription, translation, cellular metabolism, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation (1). While structurally simple, the synthesis and insertion of ISC into Fe-S proteins are complex processes that involve many different proteins. The cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly component 1 (CIAO1) protein is a key component of the cytosolic ISC assembly machinery that incorporates ISC into cytoplasmic and nuclear Fe-S proteins in eukaryotic cells (1,2). CIAO1, along with MMS19, XPD, FAM96B, and ANT2, comprise a complex that localizes to the mitotic spindle during mitosis, which suggests a role in chromosome segregation (3-6). The CIAO1 protein interacts with Wilms' tumor suppressor protein (WT1) and may affect its transactivation activity (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 26S proteasome is a highly abundant proteolytic complex involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It consists largely of two sub-complexes, the 20S catalytic core particle (CP) and the 19S/PA700 regulatory particle (RP) that can cap either end of the CP. The CP consists of two stacked heteroheptameric β-rings (β1-7) that contain three catalytic β-subunits and are flanked on either side by two heteroheptameric α-rings (α1-7). The RP includes a base and a lid, each having multiple subunits. The base, in part, is composed of a heterohexameric ring of ATPase subunits belonging to the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family. The ATPase subunits function to unfold the substrate and open the gate formed by the α-subunits, thus exposing the unfolded substrate to the catalytic β-subunits. The lid consists of ubiquitin receptors and DUBs that function in recruitment of ubiquitinated substrates and modification of ubiquitin chain topology (1,2). Other modulators of proteasome activity, such as PA28/11S REG, can also bind to the end of the 20S CP and activate it (1,2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1), an oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, hydrolyzes potentially mutagenic oxidized nucleotide triphosphates, preventing their accumulation in nucleotide pools and their incorporation into DNA and RNA (1). In addition to its function in sanitizing the cell’s nucleotide pool, MTH1 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in RAS-transformed tumors (2). Researchers have shown that, while not essential in normal cells, MTH1 is required for cancer cell survival due to increased oxidative damage, and that inhibition of MTH1 activity suppresses cancer growth (3,4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase 1, also known as CD39) is a multi-pass membrane ectoenzyme that metabolizes adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) to regulate purinergic signaling. Purinergic signaling by extracellular ATP and its metabolites regulate many biological processes, including vascular tone, digestion, neuronal function, and inflammation in both normal and diseased states (1). NTPDase 1 is expressed in endothelial cells in the vasculature to regulate local platelet purinergic signaling via metabolism of ATP to adenosine (2). Accordingly, NTPDase 1 regulates platelet activation aggregation and contributes to the antithrombotic properties of endothelial cells (3). ATP and its metabolites also finely modulate the activity of T cells and macrophages (4, 5). Immunomodulation is regulated, in part, by the availability of extracellular ATP and adenosine, suggesting that NTPdase 1 (CD39) may play an immunosuppressive role in the tumor microenvironment.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MAPKAPK-3 has a single potential SH3-binding site in the proline-rich amino terminus, a putative ATP-binding site, 2 MAP kinase phosphorylation site motifs, and a putative nuclear localization signal. It shares 72% nucleotide and 75% amino acid identity with MAPKAPK-2 (1). MAPKAPK-3 has been shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Erk, p38 MAP kinase, and Jun amino-terminal kinase are able to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAPK-3, which suggested a role for this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses (2). MAPKAPK-3 was reported to interact with, phosphorylate, and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation (3). MAPKAPK-3 may also support luteal maturation through the phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are a family of ancient zinc metalloenzymes found in almost all living organisms. All CA can be divided into 3 distinct classes (α, β, and γ) that evolved independently and have no significant homology in sequence and overall folding. All functional CA catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 into HCO3- and H+ and contain a zinc atom in the active sites essential for catalysis. There are many isoforms of CA in mammals and they all belong to the α class (1,2).