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Product listing: ACTL6A/BAF53A Antibody, UniProt ID O96019 #76682 to NDRG1 (D10F8) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q92597 #9395

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The modulation of chromatin structure is an essential component in the regulation of transcriptional activation and repression. Modifications can be made by at least two evolutionarily conserved strategies, through the disruption of histone-DNA contacts by ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, or by histone tail modifications including methylation and acetylation. One of the four classes of ATP-dependent histone remodelers is the SWI/SNF complex, the central catalytic subunit of which is Brg1 or the highly related protein hBRM (1). This SWI/SNF complex contains varying subunits but its association with either Brg1 or hBRM remains constant (1). SWI/SNF complexes have been shown to regulate gene activation, cell growth, the cell cycle and differentiation (1). Brg1/hBRM have been shown to regulate transcription through enhancing transcriptional activation of glucocorticoid receptors (2). Although usually associated with transcriptional activation, Brg1/hBRM have also been found in complexes associated with transcriptional repression including with HDACs, Rb and Tif1β (3-5). Brg1/hBRM plays a vital role in the regulation of gene transcription during early mammalian embryogenesis. In addition, Brg1/hBRM also play a role as a tumor suppressors and Brg1 is mutated in several tumor cell lines (6-8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Chk1 when phosphorylated at Ser345. A Chk1 Mouse Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Chk1 (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) Rabbit Detection Antibody is added to detect phosphorylation of Ser345 on the captured Chk1 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Chk1 phosphorylated at Ser345.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Chk1 kinase acts downstream of ATM/ATR kinase and plays an important role in DNA damage checkpoint control, embryonic development, and tumor suppression (1). Activation of Chk1 involves phosphorylation at Ser317 and Ser345 by ATM/ATR, followed by autophosphorylation of Ser296. Activation occurs in response to blocked DNA replication and certain forms of genotoxic stress (2). While phosphorylation at Ser345 serves to localize Chk1 to the nucleus following checkpoint activation (3), phosphorylation at Ser317 along with site-specific phosphorylation of PTEN allows for re-entry into the cell cycle following stalled DNA replication (4). Chk1 exerts its checkpoint mechanism on the cell cycle, in part, by regulating the cdc25 family of phosphatases. Chk1 phosphorylation of cdc25A targets it for proteolysis and inhibits its activity through 14-3-3 binding (5). Activated Chk1 can inactivate cdc25C via phosphorylation at Ser216, blocking the activation of cdc2 and transition into mitosis (6). Centrosomal Chk1 has been shown to phosphorylate cdc25B and inhibit its activation of CDK1-cyclin B1, thereby abrogating mitotic spindle formation and chromatin condensation (7). Furthermore, Chk1 plays a role in spindle checkpoint function through regulation of aurora B and BubR1 (8). Research studies have implicated Chk1 as a drug target for cancer therapy as its inhibition leads to cell death in many cancer cell lines (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) is a component of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins (1). AUP1 protein contains four conserved domains, with a long, amino-terminal stretch of hydrophobic amino acids followed by an acyltransferase domain (2). Amino-terminal protein sequences direct localization of AUP1 to both the ER and to cytosolic lipid droplets (3). The AUP1 CUE domain binds ubiquitin (4), while the G2BR domain allows for association between AUP1 and E2 conjugating enzyme UBE2G2 (5,6). The presence of these binding domains suggests a central role for AUP1 in the ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation (2). Research studies indicate that AUP1 recruits UBE2G2 to cytosolic lipid droplets, ER-derived organelles that are sites for storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids. Inhibition of AUP1 protein function results in decreased ubiquitin-mediated degradation of several proteins, including the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG-CoA-reductase and the cholesterol synthesis regulator INSIG1 (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: T cell differentiation antigen CD6 is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on immature thymocytes and mature T cells, and has also been detected on a subset of B cells and NK cells within the immune system (1-4). CD6 mediates cell-cell interactions through it’s binding partner CD166/ALCAM (2), and contributes to the formation and maturation of the immunological synapse (3,4). CD6 functions as a co-stimulatory receptor, promoting T cell activation and proliferation through the TCR/CD3 complex signaling cascade (3-6). Studies have shown CD6 can be glycosylated (7), hyperphosphorylated on serine and threonine residues (8), and phosphorylated on tyrosine residues (6,9), each of which can differentially effect the function and signaling of this molecule. CD6 also functions as a calcium-dependent pattern receptor that binds and aggregates Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In response to lipopolysaccharide, CD6 mediates activation of the inflammatory response and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CHD8 belongs to the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins (1). The CHD family of proteins has been shown to play an important role in regulating gene expression by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to alter chromatin architecture (1,2). The nine CHD family members are characterized by the presence of two tandem chromodomains in the N-terminal region and an SNF2-like ATPase domain near the central region of the protein (2-4). In addition, CHD8 contains three CR (conserved region) domains, a SANT (switching-defective protein 3, adaptor 2, nuclear receptor co-repressor, transcription factor IIB)-like domain, two BRK (brahma and kismet) domains, and a DNA-binding domain (2). The chromatin remodeling activity of CHD8 has been shown to be important for the regulation of a wide variety of genes, such as the HOX genes (5) and genes that are driven by β-catenin (6), p53 (7), estrogen receptor (8), or androgen receptor (9). CHD8 can also interact with the insulator binding protein CTCF and is required for CTCF insulator activity at multiple gene loci (10).

$118
10 western blots
150 µl
Nonphosphorylated c-Jun Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from NIH/3T3 cells, serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.Phosphorylated c-Jun Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from NIH/3T3 cells, treated with 50 mJ UV light and a 30 minute recovery, serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rab6 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small Rab GTPases implicated in endocytosis (1). The three distinct members of the Rab6 subfamily (Rab6A, Rab6A', and Rab6B) are structurally similar but likely exhibit non-overlapping functions (2,3). Rab6 localized to the Golgi (4) regulates retrograde transport of membrane-bound target proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (5-7) or from the Golgi to the endosome during exocytotic transport (8). Rab6 interacts with microtubule motor proteins such as rabkinesin-6 (KIF20A) and dynein/dynactin complexes; Rab6-mediated transport requires a functionally intact microtubule system (9,10). Rab6 also regulates cytokinesis and cell cycle check point through interactions with Rab6 effector proteins, including the dynein/dynactin protein DCTN1 and the GTPase activating protein RABGAP1 (11,12).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cyclin D1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit cyclin D1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 is regulated by T-loop phosphorylation, by the abundance of their cyclin partners (the D-type cyclins), and by association with CDK inhibitors of the Cip/Kip or INK family of proteins (1). The inactive ternary complex of cyclin D/CDK4 and p27 Kip1 requires extracellular mitogenic stimuli for the release and degradation of p27 concomitant with a rise in cyclin D levels to affect progression through the restriction point and Rb-dependent entry into S-phase (2). The active complex of cyclin D/CDK4 targets the retinoblastoma protein for phosphorylation, allowing the release of E2F transcription factors that activate G1/S-phase gene expression (3). Levels of cyclin D protein drop upon withdrawal of growth factors through downregulation of protein expression and phosphorylation-dependent degradation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters (ISC) are cofactors for many proteins that display a wide range of biological functions, such as DNA maintenance, transcription, translation, cellular metabolism, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation (1). While structurally simple, the synthesis and insertion of ISC into Fe-S proteins are complex processes that involve many different proteins. The cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly component 1 (CIAO1) protein is a key component of the cytosolic ISC assembly machinery that incorporates ISC into cytoplasmic and nuclear Fe-S proteins in eukaryotic cells (1,2). CIAO1, along with MMS19, XPD, FAM96B, and ANT2, comprise a complex that localizes to the mitotic spindle during mitosis, which suggests a role in chromosome segregation (3-6). The CIAO1 protein interacts with Wilms' tumor suppressor protein (WT1) and may affect its transactivation activity (7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® β-Catenin siRNA I (Mouse Specific) from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit β-catenin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OCRL1 is an inositol 5-phosphatase that selectively dephosphorylates the 5 position of the inositol ring. Its substrates include phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (1). Research studies indicate that mutations in OCRL1 are linked to Oculocerebrorenal syndrome or Lowe syndrome, an X-linked disorder distinguished by mental retardation and congenital cataracts, as well as Dent's disease (2,3). OCRL1 interacts with several endocytic proteins, including clathrin, AP-2, and RabGTPases (4-7). OCRL1 is localized to the Golgi complex, endosomes, and late stage clathrin-coated pits (6,8). OCRL1 controls early endosome function (8), regulating membrane traffic from endosomes to the Golgi. It is also involved in cytokinesis (9) and cilia assembly (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Double stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) are the most toxic of DNA lesions. They occur in response to genotoxic stress, and they are also an obligate intermediate in the V(D)J recombination events in the immune system. In mammalian cells, the most prominent mechanism by which cells deal with DSBs is known as NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining), and involves a core group of proteins that includes Ku, DNA-PK, XRCC4, and XLF (1).PAXX, (PAralog of XRCC4 and XLF, also known as C9orf142 or XLS), is a more recently identified component of the NHEJ machinery whose crystal structure resembles that of XRCC4 (2). PAXX directly interacts with Ku, and promotes accumulation of Ku at DSBs (2,3). Depletion of PAXX impairs cellular DSB repair (2-4,5). Paxx -/- mice develop normally with mild radiosensitivity, but a Paxx/Xlf double knockout is embryonic lethal in mice, indicating synthetic lethality between Paxx and Xlf (6). Paxx/Xlf double knockout have increased apopotosis in post-mitotic motor neurons, as well as impaired development of the adaptive immune system (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)-associated protein 1 (DMAP1) is a nuclear protein that functions in transcriptional repression and DNA repair. DMAP1 was first identified as an activator of DNMT1 methyltransferase activity (1). Both DMAP1 and DNMT1 are targeted to replication foci during S phase and function to transfer proper methylation patterns to newly synthesized DNA during replication (1). In late S phase, DMAP1-DNMT1 co-operate with a p33ING1-Sin3-HDAC2 complex to maintain pericentric heterochromatin by deacetylating histones, methylating histone H3 at Lys9, and methylating DNA (1,2). The DMAP1 protein is also part of the TIP60-p400 complex, a histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and chromatin-remodeling complex that functions in DNA repair (3,4). Upon DNA damage, the TIP60-p400 complex acetylates histone H4 at Lys16 to induce chromatin relaxation and activation of the ATM kinase. DMAP1 is required for DNA-damage induced TIP60-p400-mediated histone acetylation, and deletion of DMAP1 impairs AMT function (5). DMAP1-DNMT1 may also methylate DNA at sites of DNA damage during homologous recombination, which results in gene silencing (6).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Mitofusin-1 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit mitofusin-1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Mitofusins are mitochondrial transmembrane GTPases that function to regulate mitochondrial fusion, a process that occurs in concert with mitochondrial division and is necessary for the maintenance of structural and genetic mitochondrial integrity (1,2). Two mitofusins have been described in mammals, mitofusin-1 and -2, which share 60% amino acid identity and appear to function coordinately to regulate mitochondrial fusion (3). Mitochondrial fusion is widely recognized as important for normal cell growth and development (4), and may have evolved as a mechanism to offset the deleterious effects of mtDNA mutations (3). Null mutations in either mitofusin are embryonic lethal in mice, whereas conditional knockout studies have shown that combined deletion of mitofusin-1 and mitofusin-2 in skeletal muscle results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$469
Reagents for 4 x 96 well plates
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total IκBα Sandwich ELISA Antibody Pair is offered as an economical alternative to our PathScan® Total IκBα Sandwich ELISA Kit #7360. Capture and Detection antibodies (100X stocks) and HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1000X stock) are supplied. Sufficient reagents are supplied for 4 x 96 well ELISAs. The IκBα Capture Antibody is coated in PBS overnight in a 96 well microplate. After blocking, cell lysates are added followed by an IκBα Detection Antibody and anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP conjugated antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added for color development. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total IκBα protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Bad siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Bad expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death by displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (1,2). Survival factors, such as IL-3, inhibit the apoptotic activity of Bad by activating intracellular signaling pathways that result in the phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and Ser136 (2). Phosphorylation at these sites promotes binding of Bad to 14-3-3 proteins to prevent an association between Bad with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (2). Akt phosphorylates Bad at Ser136 to promote cell survival (3,4). Bad is phosphorylated at Ser112 both in vivo and in vitro by p90RSK (5,6) and mitochondria-anchored PKA (7). Phosphorylation at Ser155 in the BH3 domain by PKA plays a critical role in blocking the dimerization of Bad and Bcl-xL (8-10).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® ERK5 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit ERK5 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Erk5 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7, Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) is a member of the MAPK superfamily implicated in the regulation numerous cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and survival (1-4). Like other MAPK family members, Erk5 contains a canonical activation loop TEY motif (Thr218/Tyr220) that is specifically phosphorylated by MAP2K5 (MEK5) in a growth-factor-dependent, Ras-independent mechanism (5-7). For example, EGF stimulation promotes Erk5 phosphorylation that induces its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates MEF2C and other transcriptional targets (5,6). Erk5 is also activated in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in hematopoietic progenitor cells where it promotes survival and proliferation (7). In neuronal cells, Erk5 is required for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, neuronal homeostasis, and survival (8,9). Erk5 is thought to play a role in blood vessel integrity via maintenance of endothelial cell migration and barrier function (10-12). Although broadly expressed, research studies have shown that mice lacking erk5 display numerous cardiac defects, suggesting Erk5 plays a critical role in vascular development and homeostasis (1,2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: FNIP1 and FNIP2 were identified as proteins interacting with tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) (1-3). FNIP1 and FNIP2 directly associate with AMPK, which indicates that they play roles in the energy and nutrient sensing pathways (1, 2). Further studies show that the FLCN/FNIP2 complex functions as a GTPase-activating protein for Rag GTPase C and Rag GTPase D (4). FLCN/FNIP2 complex thus promotes the binding of mTORC1 to Rag heterodimers, leading to the mTORC1 activation (4). In addition, along with FLCN, both FNIP1 and FNIP2 contribute to kidney tumor suppression (5).

$263
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) is a Muscle Segment Homeobox (Msh) gene family member that acts as a transcriptional repressor during embryonic development, playing an important role in limb pattern formation, craniofacial development, and tooth development (1-3). Msx1 is expressed in the mesenchyme of the developing nail bed (2) and in fetal hair follicles, epidermis and fibroblasts; reduced expression is seen in adult epithelial-derived tissues (4). Msx1 acts in concert with the Wnt1 network to establish the midbrain dopaminergic progenator domain, a region that gives rise to neurons that are critical for normal brain function and are the cells affected in Parkinson disease (5). Mutation in the corresponding Msx1 gene correlates with abnormal tooth development in patients diagnosed with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (6). Other genetic changes in the Msx1 gene result in Witkop Syndrome ("tooth and nail syndrome") and cases of abnormal tooth development associated with non-syndromic orofacial clefting (2,7).

Each control slide contains formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets, LNCaP (LKB1 positive) and A549 (LKB1 negative), that serve as a control for LKB1 immunostaining.

Background: LKB1 (STK11) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor that helps control cell structure, apoptosis and energy homeostasis through regulation of numerous downstream kinases (1,2). A cytosolic protein complex comprised of LKB1, putative kinase STRAD, and the MO25 scaffold protein, activates both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and several AMPK-related kinases (3). AMPK plays a predominant role as the master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, controlling downstream effectors that regulate cell growth and apoptosis in response to cellular ATP concentrations (4). LKB1 appears to be phosphorylated in cells at several sites, including human LKB1 at Ser31/325/428 and Thr189/336/363 (5).Mutation in the corresponding LKB1 gene causes Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign GI tract polyps and dark skin lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet (6). A variety of other LKB1 gene mutations have been associated with the formation of sporadic cancers in several tissues (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The COP9 Signalosome (CSN) is a ubiquitously expressed multiprotein complex that is involved in a vast array of cellular and developmental processes, which is thought to be attributed to its control over the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Typically, the CSN is composed of eight highly conserved subunits (CSN1-CSN8), each of which is homologous to one of the eight subunits that form the lid of the 26S proteasome particle, suggesting that these complexes have a common evolutionary ancestor (1). CSN was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with a light-grown seedling phenotype when grown in the dark (2-4). The subsequent cloning of the constitutive morphogenesis 9 (cop9) mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana was soon followed by the biochemical purification of the COP9-containing multiprotein complex (4). It is now widely accepted that the CSN directly interacts with cullin-RING ligase (CRL) families of ubiquitin E3 complexes, and that CSN is required for their proper function (5). In addition, CSN may also regulate protein homeostasis through its association with protein kinases and deubiquitinating enzymes. Collectively, these activities position the CSN as a pivotal regulator of the DNA-damage response, cell-cycle control, and gene expression (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TNFSF15 (TL1A), a member of the TNF superfamily of proteins, is a splice variant of the TL1/VEGI gene (1). Endothelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells express TL1A, which is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, microorganisms, and AMPK activation (1-4). TL1A activates the NF-κB and JNK pathways through its receptor, DR3 (1,5). TL1A may function as a costimulatory signal for T cell activation, specifically regulating Th17 cell development and proliferation (1,2,6). Mouse models suggest a role for TL1A as a driver for the inflammation and pathogenesis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Telomeres, the linear ends of chromosomes, are organized into T-loops to prevent them from being recognized by the cell as DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) (1). The telomeric repeat binding factor proteins TRF1 and TRF2 bind to double-stranded telomeres to allow formation of T-loops (2). A large number of proteins involved in the DNA damage response are found physically associated with TRF2 within telomeres (3). Interestingly, TRF2 can transiently localize to DNA damage-induced DSBs, but overexpression of TRF2 prevents ATM-dependent signaling (4). Phosphorylation of TRF2 at Ser323 has been reported in vivo, but no upstream kinase or role has been established for this phosphorylation site (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene 1 (RAIG1), also called RAI3 and GPRC5A, belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are the largest and most abundant receptor family in mammals, composed of more than one thousand members (1). Retinoic acids (RA) are a group of pleiotropic signaling molecules that regulate a broad range of physiologic and developmental processes. It is thought that RAIG1 may be a downstream target of RA signaling (2). RAIG1 is expressed in lung tissue and in several lung cancer cell lines, and encodes a seven-transmembrane glycoprotein presumed to be a lung tumor suppressor gene (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SOAT1 (Sterol O-acyltransferase 1; ACAT1) is an O-acyltransferase that functions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to catalyze the formation of cholesterol esters from free cholesterol and long chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. The cholesterol esters are incorporated into cytoplasmic lipid droplets, thereby preventing excess free cholesterol from inducing lipid-mediated cell toxicity, including ER stress (1). Research studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of SOAT1 in tumor cells induced lipid-mediated cell toxicity that suppressed tumor cell growth and promoted tumor cell apoptosis (2-3). Pharmacological SOAT1 inhibition was also shown to stimulate autophagy-mediated proteolysis in microglia, leading to enhanced clearance of amyloid peptide Aβ42 (4, 5). Collectively, these findings suggest that SOAT1 inhibition may have therapeutic potential in both cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-p53 (Ser15) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Phospho-p53 (Ser15) protein. A p53 Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both nonphospho- and phospho-p53 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-p53 (Ser15) Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-p53 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-p53 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a major role in cellular response to DNA damage and other genomic aberrations. Activation of p53 can lead to either cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or apoptosis (1). p53 is phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo and by several different protein kinases in vitro (2,3). DNA damage induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and Ser20 and leads to a reduced interaction between p53 and its negative regulator, the oncoprotein MDM2 (4). MDM2 inhibits p53 accumulation by targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (5,6). p53 can be phosphorylated by ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK at Ser15 and Ser37. Phosphorylation impairs the ability of MDM2 to bind p53, promoting both the accumulation and activation of p53 in response to DNA damage (4,7). Chk2 and Chk1 can phosphorylate p53 at Ser20, enhancing its tetramerization, stability, and activity (8,9). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser392 in vivo (10,11) and by CAK in vitro (11). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 is increased in human tumors (12) and has been reported to influence the growth suppressor function, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation of p53 (10,13,14). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser6 and Ser9 by CK1δ and CK1ε both in vitro and in vivo (13,15). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 regulates the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis (16). Acetylation of p53 is mediated by p300 and CBP acetyltransferases. Inhibition of deacetylation suppressing MDM2 from recruiting HDAC1 complex by p19 (ARF) stabilizes p53. Acetylation appears to play a positive role in the accumulation of p53 protein in stress response (17). Following DNA damage, human p53 becomes acetylated at Lys382 (Lys379 in mouse) in vivo to enhance p53-DNA binding (18). Deacetylation of p53 occurs through interaction with the SIRT1 protein, a deacetylase that may be involved in cellular aging and the DNA damage response (19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The Bcl-2 family regulates apoptosis in response to a wide range of stimuli through control of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation (1-3). Cytosolic Apaf-1 forms a complex with caspase-9 in the presence of cytochrome c and dATP, ultimately leading to caspase-9 activation and subsequent activation of caspase-3. A large number of proteins have been found to interact with Bcl-2 and other family members that have been shown to help regulate apoptosis. Aven was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as a bcl-xL interacting protein (4). It also interacts with other anti-apoptotic family members, including Bcl-2, but fails to interact with pro-apopotic proteins Bax and Bak. Aven inhibits apoptosis and enhances anti-apopotic activity of Bcl-xL. It interferes with association with Apaf-1 and activation of caspase-9. Aven overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.