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Product listing: MMP-9 (D6O3H) XP® Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated), UniProt ID P14780 #15561 to 4F2hc/CD98 (D3F9D) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID P08195 #66871

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated MMP-9 (D6O3H) XP® Rabbit mAb #13667.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Met (D1C2) XP® Rabbit mAb #8198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Met, a high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor) is a disulfide-linked heterodimer made of 45 kDa α- and 145 kDa β-subunits (1,2). The α-subunit and the amino-terminal region of the β-subunit form the extracellular domain. The remainder of the β-chain spans the plasma membrane and contains a cytoplasmic region with tyrosine kinase activity. Interaction of Met with HGF results in autophosphorylation at multiple tyrosines, which recruit several downstream signaling components, including Gab1, c-Cbl, and PI3 kinase (3). These fundamental events are important for all of the biological functions involving Met kinase activity. The addition of a phosphate at cytoplasmic Tyr1003 is essential for Met protein ubiquitination and degradation (4). Phosphorylation at Tyr1234/1235 in the Met kinase domain is critical for kinase activation. Phosphorylation at Tyr1349 in the Met cytoplasmic domain provides a direct binding site for Gab1 (5). Research studies have shown that altered Met levels and/or tyrosine kinase activities are found in several types of tumors, including renal, colon, and breast. Thus, investigators have concluded that Met is an attractive potential cancer therapeutic and diagnostic target (6,7).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IKKε (D61F9) XP® Rabbit mAb #3416.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state, complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Most agents that activate NF-κB do so through a common pathway based on phosphorylation-induced, proteasome-mediated degradation of IκB (3-7). The key regulatory step in this pathway involves activation of a high molecular weight IκB kinase (IKK) complex whose catalysis is generally carried out by three tightly associated IKK subunits. IKKα and IKKβ serve as the catalytic subunits of the kinase and IKKγ serves as the regulatory subunit (8,9). Activation of IKK depends upon phosphorylation at Ser177 and Ser181 in the activation loop of IKKβ (Ser176 and Ser180 in IKKα), which causes conformational changes, resulting in kinase activation (10-13).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IGF-I Receptor β (D23H3) XP® Rabbit mAb #9750.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in many cell lines and cell types within fetal and postnatal tissues (1-3). Receptor autophosphorylation follows binding of the IGF-I and IGF-II ligands. Three tyrosine residues within the kinase domain (Tyr1131, Tyr1135, and Tyr1136) are the earliest major autophosphorylation sites (4). Phosphorylation of these three tyrosine residues is necessary for kinase activation (5,6). Insulin receptors (IRs) share significant structural and functional similarity with IGF-I receptors, including the presence of an equivalent tyrosine cluster (Tyr1146/1150/1151) within the kinase domain activation loop. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of IRs is one of the earliest cellular responses to insulin stimulation (7). Autophosphorylation begins with phosphorylation at Tyr1146 and either Tyr1150 or Tyr1151, while full kinase activation requires triple tyrosine phosphorylation (8).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IFN-γ (D3H2) XP® Rabbit mAb #8455.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: IFN-γ plays key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune response. IFN-γ activates the cytotoxic activity of innate immune cells, such as macrophages and NK cells (1,2). IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) promotes cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing class I and class II MHC expression, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. Binding of IFN-γ to the IFNGR1/IFNGR2 complex promotes dimerization of the receptor complexes to form the (IFNGR1/IFNGR2)2 -IFN-γ dimer. Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2, and Stat1 (3). The critical role of IFN-γ in amplification of immune surveillance and function is supported by increased susceptibility to pathogen infection by IFN-γ or IFNGR knockout mice and in humans with inactivating mutations in IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. IFN-γ also appears to have a role in atherosclerosis (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IFN-γ (D3H2) XP® Rabbit mAb #8455.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: IFN-γ plays key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune response. IFN-γ activates the cytotoxic activity of innate immune cells, such as macrophages and NK cells (1,2). IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) promotes cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing class I and class II MHC expression, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. Binding of IFN-γ to the IFNGR1/IFNGR2 complex promotes dimerization of the receptor complexes to form the (IFNGR1/IFNGR2)2 -IFN-γ dimer. Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2, and Stat1 (3). The critical role of IFN-γ in amplification of immune surveillance and function is supported by increased susceptibility to pathogen infection by IFN-γ or IFNGR knockout mice and in humans with inactivating mutations in IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. IFN-γ also appears to have a role in atherosclerosis (4).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HGF β (D6S7D) XP® Rabbit mAb #52445.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, also known as Scatter Factor) was initially discovered as a mitogenic cytokine that induced hepatocyte replication and proliferation (1-3). HGF is produced by stromal cells where it is processed by extracellular serine proteases into a heterodimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits (4). Through activation of its receptor, cMET, HGF has a wide range of effects beyond hepatocytes that includes angiogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and morphogenesis, and tissue protection and regeneration (5). The HGF-cMET axis has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, where HGF has been shown to promote invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance (6,7). These research studies suggest that HGF is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HER3/ErbB3 (D22C5) XP® Rabbit mAb #12708.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: HER3/ErbB3 is a member of the ErbB receptor protein tyrosine kinase family, but it lacks tyrosine kinase activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB3 depends on its association with other ErbB tyrosine kinases. Upon ligand binding, heterodimers form between ErbB3 and other ErbB proteins, and ErbB3 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by the activated ErbB kinase (1,2). There are at least 9 potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the carboxy-terminal tail of ErbB3. These sites serve as consensus binding sites for signal transducing proteins, including Src family members, Grb2, and the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, which mediate ErbB downstream signaling (3). Both Tyr1222 and Tyr1289 of ErbB3 reside within a YXXM motif and participate in signaling to PI3K (4).Investigators have found that ErbB3 is highly expressed in many cancer cells (5) and activation of the ErbB3/PI3K pathway is correlated with malignant phenotypes of adenocarcinomas (6). Research studies have demonstrated that in tumor development, ErbB3 may function as an oncogenic unit together with other ErbB members (e.g. ErbB2 requires ErbB3 to drive breast tumor cell proliferation) (7). Thus, investigators view inhibiting interaction between ErbB3 and ErbB tyrosine kinases as a novel strategy for anti-tumor therapy.

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Helios (D8W4X) XP® Rabbit mAb #42427.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Glucocorticoid Receptor (D6H2L) XP® Rabbit mAb #12041.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucocorticoid hormones control cellular proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism through their association with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/NR3C1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors (1). GR is composed of several conserved structural elements, including a carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain (which also contains residues critical for receptor dimerization and hormone-dependent gene transactivation), a neighboring hinge region containing nuclear localization signals, a central zinc-finger-containing DNA-binding domain, and an amino-terminal variable region that participates in ligand-independent gene transcription. In the absence of hormone, a significant population of GR is localized to the cytoplasm in an inactive form via its association with regulatory chaperone proteins, such as HSP90, HSP70, and FKBP52. On hormone binding, GR is released from the chaperone complex and translocates to the nucleus as a dimer to associate with specific DNA sequences termed glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), thereby enhancing or repressing transcription of specific target genes (2). It was demonstrated that GR-mediated transcriptional activation is modulated by phosphorylation (3-5). Although GR can be basally phosphorylated in the absence of hormone, it becomes hyperphosphorylated upon binding receptor agonists. It has been suggested that hormone-dependent phosphorylation of GR may determine target promoter specificity, cofactor interaction, strength and duration of receptor signaling, receptor stability, and receptor subcellular localization (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GATA-3 (D13C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5852.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated FcγRIIB (D8F9C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #96397.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: FcγRIIB (CD32B) is a low affinity, IgG Fc-binding receptor expressed on B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) (1-3). It is the inhibitory Fc receptor and signals through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) within its carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail (2). Binding of immune complexes to FcγRIIB results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITIM motif at Tyr292 and recruitment of the phosphatase SHIP, which mediates inhibitory effects on immune cell activation (2,4). In this way, FcγRIIB suppresses the effects of activating Fc-binding receptors (3). For example, mice deficient for FcγRIIB have greater T cell and DC responses following injection of immune complexes (5, 6). In addition, FcγRIIB plays a role in B cell affinity maturation (7). Signaling through FcγRIIB in the absence of signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is proapoptotic, while signaling through FcγRIIB and the BCR simultaneously attenuates the apoptotic signal and results in selection of B cells with higher antigen affinity (7).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated FcγRIIB (D8F9C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #96397.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: FcγRIIB (CD32B) is a low affinity, IgG Fc-binding receptor expressed on B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) (1-3). It is the inhibitory Fc receptor and signals through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) within its carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail (2). Binding of immune complexes to FcγRIIB results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITIM motif at Tyr292 and recruitment of the phosphatase SHIP, which mediates inhibitory effects on immune cell activation (2,4). In this way, FcγRIIB suppresses the effects of activating Fc-binding receptors (3). For example, mice deficient for FcγRIIB have greater T cell and DC responses following injection of immune complexes (5, 6). In addition, FcγRIIB plays a role in B cell affinity maturation (7). Signaling through FcγRIIB in the absence of signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is proapoptotic, while signaling through FcγRIIB and the BCR simultaneously attenuates the apoptotic signal and results in selection of B cells with higher antigen affinity (7).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated DJ-1 (D29E5) XP® Rabbit mAb #5933.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (intracellular inclusions) and by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Research studies have shown that mutations in α-synuclein, Parkin, and DJ-1 are linked to PD (1). α-synuclein is a major component of the aggregates found in Lewy bodies. Parkin is involved in protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and investigators have shown that mutations in Parkin cause early onset of PD (1). Loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of PD, but DJ-1 is associated with multiple functions: it cooperates with Ras to increase cell transformation, it positively regulates transcription of the androgen receptor, and it may function as an indicator of oxidative stress (2-5). Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated functions are greatly impaired in DJ-1 (-/-) mice, resulting in reduced long-term depression (6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated DC-SIGN (D7F5C) XP® Rabbit mAb #13193.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: DC-SIGN (CD209, CLEC4L) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) (1,2). The DC-SIGN transcript can undergo several splicing events to generate at least thirteen different transmembrane and soluble isoforms (3). DC-SIGN responds to a broad range of pathogens due to its ability to recognize both mannose and fructose carbohydrates, and is well studied for its role in HIV infection. Recognition of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 by DC-SIGN leads to internalization of HIV by DCs and facilitates transmission of the virus to CD4+ T cells (2,4). DC-SIGN also mediates adhesion to T cells through interaction with ICAM-3, as well as transmigration across the endothelium by binding to ICAM-2 (1,5). The DC-SIGN receptor can modulate TLR signaling by activating the kinase Raf-1 (6,7). The closely related molecule DC-SIGNR (L-SIGN, CLEC4M) is 77% homologous to DC-SIGN and likely arose through a gene duplication event (8). Like DC-SIGN, DC-SIGNR binds mannose carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens (8,9). However, the expression patterns of the two receptors differ, as DC-SIGNR expression is restricted to endothelial cells of the liver, lymph node, and placenta (10). Murine cells contain a set of related molecules, SIGNR1-SIGNR8 (11). Based on sequence analysis, there is no clear murine ortholog to human DC-SIGN, however SIGNR3 is the most functionally similar due to its ability to recognize both mannose and fructose structures (11).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cre Recombinase (D7L7L) Rabbit mAb #15036.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cre recombinase is a bacteriophage-P1 enzyme required for maintenance of the phage genome as a monomeric plasmid in the lysogenic state (1,2). This enzyme mediates a site-specific recombination between two 34-base pair loxP sites. This reaction can be carried out in vitro, indicating that it does not require accessory factors (3). The Cre/Lox system has been used for a number of in vitro and in vivo applications including targeted gene deletions (4) and gene-specific humanized animal models (5). Resolution of the crystal structure of the Cre-Lox complex revealed that two Cre molecules interact with a single Lox site (6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Coronin 1A (D6K5B) XP® Rabbit mAb #92904.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The coronin family of actin-binding proteins regulates a variety of cellular functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and cytokinesis. Coronin 1A is highly expressed in lymphocytes, and is required for appropriate immune regulation in mice and humans. Researchers are investigating coronin 1A as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers (1,2). Coronin 1A affects bone resorption through its regulation of lysosome fusion and secretion of cathepsin K in osteoclasts (3). In the nervous system, coronin 1A has been shown to regulate GPCR signaling and neurite outgrowth (4,5).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Coronin 1A (D6K5B) XP® Rabbit mAb #92904.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The coronin family of actin-binding proteins regulates a variety of cellular functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and cytokinesis. Coronin 1A is highly expressed in lymphocytes, and is required for appropriate immune regulation in mice and humans. Researchers are investigating coronin 1A as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers (1,2). Coronin 1A affects bone resorption through its regulation of lysosome fusion and secretion of cathepsin K in osteoclasts (3). In the nervous system, coronin 1A has been shown to regulate GPCR signaling and neurite outgrowth (4,5).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Coronin 1A (D6K5B) XP® Rabbit mAb #92904.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The coronin family of actin-binding proteins regulates a variety of cellular functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and cytokinesis. Coronin 1A is highly expressed in lymphocytes, and is required for appropriate immune regulation in mice and humans. Researchers are investigating coronin 1A as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers (1,2). Coronin 1A affects bone resorption through its regulation of lysosome fusion and secretion of cathepsin K in osteoclasts (3). In the nervous system, coronin 1A has been shown to regulate GPCR signaling and neurite outgrowth (4,5).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Caveolin-1 (D46G3) XP® Rabbit mAb #3267.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Dog, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 21-24 kDa integral proteins, caveolins, are the principal structural components of the cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae. Three members of the caveolin family (caveolin-1, -2, and -3) have been identified with different tissue distributions. Caveolins form hetero- and homo-oligomers that interact with cholesterol and other lipids (1). Caveolins are involved in diverse biological functions, including vesicular trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, and are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease (2). Caveolins interact with multiple signaling molecules such as Gα subunit, tyrosine kinase receptors, PKCs, Src family tyrosine kinases, and eNOS (1,2). It is believed that caveolins serve as scaffolding proteins for the integration of signal transduction. Phosphorylation at Tyr14 is essential for caveolin association with SH2 or PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB7 (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser80 regulates caveolin binding to the ER membrane and entry into the secretory pathway (6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cathepsin B (D1C7Y) XP® Rabbit mAb #31718.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cathepsin B (CSTB), part of the papain family of proteases, is a widely expressed lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase (1,2). Cathepsin B is produced from a larger precursor form, pro-cathepsin B, which runs at approximately 44 kDa on SDS-PAGE, and is proteolytically processed and glycosylated to form a mature two-chain protein containing a heavy chain (running at 27 and 24 kDa) and a light chain (5 kDa). High levels of cathepsin B are found in macrophages and osteoclasts, as well as various types of cancer cells, including lung, colon, prostate, breast, and stomach. In addition, expression of cathepsin B has been associated with multiple sclerosis (3), rheumatoid arthritis (4), and pancreatitis (5). While generally localized to lysosomes, in cancer alterations can lead to its secretion (6). Its role in tumor progression is thought to involve promotion of basement membrane degradation, invasion and metastasis (7,8). Expression can correlate with poor prognosis for a variety of forms of cancer (9-13).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells and for immunofluorescent analysis in human and mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calreticulin (D3E6) XP® Rabbit mAb #12238.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Calcium is a universal signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as cell motility, metabolism, protein modification, protein folding, and apoptosis. Calcium is stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is buffered by calcium binding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin, and is released via the IP3 Receptor channel (1). Calreticulin also functions as an ER chaperone that ensures proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. As such, calreticulin presumably does not alter protein folding but regulates proper timing for efficient folding and subunit assembly. Furthermore, calreticulin retains proteins in non-native conformation within the ER and targets them for degradation (2,3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells and immunofluorescent analysis in mouse and human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calreticulin (D3E6) XP® Rabbit mAb #12238.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Calcium is a universal signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as cell motility, metabolism, protein modification, protein folding, and apoptosis. Calcium is stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is buffered by calcium binding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin, and is released via the IP3 Receptor channel (1). Calreticulin also functions as an ER chaperone that ensures proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. As such, calreticulin presumably does not alter protein folding but regulates proper timing for efficient folding and subunit assembly. Furthermore, calreticulin retains proteins in non-native conformation within the ER and targets them for degradation (2,3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in rat cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calbindin (D1I4Q) XP® Rabbit mAb #13176.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: Calcium-binding proteins of different subfamilies regulate the second messenger calcium. Calbindin, calmodulin, S-100, parvalbumin and troponin C are members of the low molecular weight calcium-binding protein family (1). Calbindin is expressed in discrete neuronal populations within the CNS and is thought to act as an intracellular calcium buffering protein. Most Purkinje cells express calbindin, which is expressed when neurons start to migrate and differentiate. In contrast, other calcium buffering proteins, such as parvalbumin, are expressed later during development and in parallel with increasing neuronal activity (2).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in rat cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calbindin (D1I4Q) XP® Rabbit mAb #13176.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: Calcium-binding proteins of different subfamilies regulate the second messenger calcium. Calbindin, calmodulin, S-100, parvalbumin and troponin C are members of the low molecular weight calcium-binding protein family (1). Calbindin is expressed in discrete neuronal populations within the CNS and is thought to act as an intracellular calcium buffering protein. Most Purkinje cells express calbindin, which is expressed when neurons start to migrate and differentiate. In contrast, other calcium buffering proteins, such as parvalbumin, are expressed later during development and in parallel with increasing neuronal activity (2).

$348
50 assays
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Bmi1 (D20B7) XP® Rabbit mAb #6964.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) of proteins contributes to the maintenance of cell identity, stem cell self-renewal, cell cycle regulation, and oncogenesis by maintaining the silenced state of genes that promote cell lineage specification, cell death, and cell-cycle arrest (1-4). PcG proteins exist in two complexes that cooperate to maintain long-term gene silencing through epigenetic chromatin modifications. The first complex, EED-EZH2, is recruited to genes by DNA-binding transcription factors and methylates histone H3 on Lys27. This histone methyl-transferase activity requires the Ezh2, Eed, and Suz12 subunits of the complex (5). Histone H3 methylation at Lys27 facilitates the recruitment of the second complex, PRC1, which ubiquitinylates histone H2A on Lys119 (6). Bmi1 is a component of the PRC1 complex, which together with Ring1 strongly enhances the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the Ring2 catalytic subunit (7). Bmi1 plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and senescence through repression of the p16 INK4A and p19 ARF genes and is required for maintenance of adult hematopoietic and neural stem cells (3,4,8-10).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Arginase-1 (D4E3M™) XP® Rabbit mAb #93668.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: L-arginine plays a critical role in regulating the immune system (1-3). In inflammation, cancer and certain other pathological conditions, myeloid cell differentiation is inhibited leading to a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are recruited to sites of cancer-associated inflammation and express high levels of arginase-1 (4). Arginase-1 catalyzes the final step of the urea cycle converting L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea (5). Thus MDSCs increase the catabolism of L-arginine resulting in L-arginine depletion in the inflammatory microenvironment of cancer (4,6). The reduced availability of L-arginine suppresses T-cell proliferation and function and thus contributes to tumor progression (4,6). Arginase-1 is of great interest to researchers looking for a therapeutic target to inhibit the function of MDSCs in the context of cancer immunotherapy (7). In addition, research studies have demonstrated that Arginase-1 distinguishes primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumors in the liver, indicating its value as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of HCC (8,9).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Arginase-1 (D4E3M™) XP® Rabbit mAb #93668.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: L-arginine plays a critical role in regulating the immune system (1-3). In inflammation, cancer and certain other pathological conditions, myeloid cell differentiation is inhibited leading to a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are recruited to sites of cancer-associated inflammation and express high levels of arginase-1 (4). Arginase-1 catalyzes the final step of the urea cycle converting L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea (5). Thus MDSCs increase the catabolism of L-arginine resulting in L-arginine depletion in the inflammatory microenvironment of cancer (4,6). The reduced availability of L-arginine suppresses T-cell proliferation and function and thus contributes to tumor progression (4,6). Arginase-1 is of great interest to researchers looking for a therapeutic target to inhibit the function of MDSCs in the context of cancer immunotherapy (7). In addition, research studies have demonstrated that Arginase-1 distinguishes primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumors in the liver, indicating its value as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of HCC (8,9).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated AML1 (D33G6) XP® Rabbit mAb #4336.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated 4F2hc/CD98 (D3F9D) XP® Rabbit mAb #47213.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: 4F2hc is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the solute carrier family. 4F2hc forms heterodimeric complexes with various amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT2 and regulates uptake of amino acids (1-5). 4F2hc is one of the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes (6), hence it is also named CD98. 4F2hc is expressed in all cell types with the exception of platelets, and is expressed at highest levels in the tubules of the kidney and the gastrointestinal tract (7,8). It is localized at the plasma membrane when associated with LAT1 or LAT2 (9) and at the apical membrane of placenta (10). Research studies have shown that 4F2hc is highly expressed in various tumors including glioma (11), ovarian cancer (12), and astrocytomas (13), and it has been implicated in tumor progression and correlated with poor outcome in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (14). 4F2hc is also involved in integrin trafficking through association with β1 and β4 integrins, and regulates keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation (15).