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Product listing: ABCA7 Antibody (Mouse Specific), UniProt ID Q91V24 #31954 to Mena (D33C1) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q8N8S7 #6921

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are membrane-residing transporters that transport substrates across the membrane in an ATP-dependent manner. ABC substrates subject to active transport across the membrane include ions, amino acids, lipids, and sterols (1). ATP-Binding cassette sub-family A member 7 (ABCA7) is a member of the ABC family and functions to regulate phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis in central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral tissue. ABCA7, like most ABC transporters, contains two transmembrane domain bundles composed of six membrane-spanning helices and two nucleotide-binding domains. ABCA7 and its closest homolog, ABCA1, are 12A class members of ABCs and both proteins function to transport cholesterol and phospholipids in an apolipoprotein A (apoA) – dependent manner (2, 3). ABCA7 is expressed in a variety of tissue and exhibits neuronal and microglial enrichment in the CNS (4). Human genetic studies identified ABCA7 gene variants, including loss-of-function mutations, that associate with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (5). ABCA7 dysfunction may contribute directly to AD pathogenesis by accelerating amyloid-β (Aβ) production and/or altering microglia-dependent phagocytosis of the Aβ (4, 6, 7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Adaptor associated kinase 1 (AAK1) is a member of the Ark1/Prk1 family of serine/threonine kinases (1). AAK1 is enriched in synaptosomal preparations and modulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis, a process that is important in synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor-mediated endocytosis. AAK1, together with clathrin, and clathrin-adaptor protein, AP-2, forms a signaling complex at the cell membrane. AAK1-dependent phosphorylation of the mu-2 subunit of AP-2 enhances efficiency of endocytosis (2, 3). AAK1 is known to promote neurogulin/ErbB4 internalization to regulate neurotrophic signaling. Inhibition of AAK1 activity promotes cell surface expression of neuregulin/Erb4, cell-bound neurotrophic factors that is implicated in brain development and synaptic plasticity (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The adducins (ADD) are cytoskeleton-associated proteins that help cap the ends of actin filaments, promote association between spectrin and actin, and participate in synapse assembly. The three closely related genes ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3 encode the α-adducin, β-adducin, and γ-adducin proteins (1). Research studies indicate that β-adducin is found at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues, whereas both α-adducin and γ-adducin are ubiquitously expressed (2). Adducin protein function is regulated by phosphorylation at a number of sites. Both PKA and PKC can phosphorylate α-adducin at Ser726 and β-adducin at Ser713, which inhibits calmodulin binding and adducin activity (3-5). Additionally, PKA (but not PKC) can phosphorylate β-adducin at Ser408, Ser436, and Ser481, which negatively affects spectrin-actin interactions (3). Phosphorylation of α-adducin at Thr445 and Thr480 by Rho-kinase regulates cell motility and membrane ruffling (6). Finally, CDK-1 phosphorylation of α-adducin at Ser12 and Ser355 during mitosis leads to association of α-adducin with the mitotic spindle, suggesting that α-adducin may play a role in mitotic regulation (7). Because α-adducin plays a role in regulating renal sodium reabsorption, it is not surprising that a number of studies show a relationship between ADD1 genetic polymorphisms and the development of hypertension (8-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Following protein synthesis, secretory, intra-organellar, and transmembrane proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that counteracts compromised protein folding (1). The transmembrane serine/threonine kinase IRE1, originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a proximal sensor for the UPR that transmits the unfolded protein signal across the ER membrane (2-4). The human homolog IRE1α was later identified and is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues (5). Upon activation of the unfolded protein response, IRE1α splices X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) mRNA through an unconventional mechanism using its endoribonuclease activity (6). This reaction converts XBP-1 from an unspliced XBP-1u isoform to the spliced XBP-1s isoform, which is a potent transcriptional activator that induces expression of many UPR responsive genes (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methyltransferase-like protein 3 (METTL3) and methytransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14) are the two catalytic subunits of an N6-methyltransferase complex that methylates adenosine residues in RNA (1). Methylation of adenosine residues regulates mRNA splicing, processing, translation efficiency, editing and stability, in addition to regulating primary miRNA processing, and is critical for proper regulation of the circadian clock, embryonic stem cell self-renewal, immune tolerance, response to various stimuli, meiosis and mouse fertility (2,3). In this complex, METTL3 functions as the catalytic methyltransferase subunit and METTL14 functions as the target recognition subunit by binding to RNA (4). In addition, the Wilms tumor 1-associated protein (WTAP) functions as a regulatory subunit and is required for accumulation of the complex to nuclear speckles, which are sites of RNA processing (5). Several studies suggest a role for this complex in cancer. METTL3 expression is elevated in lung adenocarcinoma where it promotes growth, survival and invasion of human lung cancer cells (6). In addition, WTAP is over-expressed in a number of different cancers and positively regulates cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma and cholangiocarcinoma (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Vesicle transport through interaction with t-SNAREs homolog 1 (Vti1) has two protein members, Vti1a and Vti1b. Human Vti1 was first identified as a homolog of the yeast v-SNARE Vti1p and was able to functionally rescue the phenotype of Vti1p-deficient yeast (1). The mammalian proteins Vti1a and Vti1b exhibit distinct but overlapping localization. Vti1a and Vti1b are both localized in the trans-Golgi network, with Vti1a also found in the Golgi apparatus and Vti1b in endosomes (2). Vti1 proteins have been implicated in a number of protein-protein interactions with partners such as VAMP4, syntaxin 6, syntaxin 8, syntaxin 16, and synaptobrevin (2-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) is a 195 kDa membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. VEGF receptors are characterized by the presence of seven extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains followed by a membrane-spanning domain and a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain (1). VEGF receptor 3 expression is largely restricted to adult lymphatic endothelium and is thought to control lymphangiogenesis (1,2). Binding of VEGF-C/VEGF-D to VEGFR3 results in transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in its intracellular domain, recruitment of signaling molecules and activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling cascades (1,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR-1, Flt-1) is a 180 kDa receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the VEGFR (Flt) family (1-3). The receptor is comprised of seven extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail containing the active kinase domain (1,2). VEGFR-1 plays an important role in endothelial cell function and normal vascular development, as well as in hematopoietic function (2,3). VEGF-A is a high affinity ligand of VEGFR-1. VEGFR-1 also binds VEGF-B and PLGF (2). Ligand binding results in very little VEGFR-1 kinase activation, and VEGFR-1/VEGF-A binding negatively regulates VEGF function by diverting the growth factor from other functional VEGF receptors (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Twinfilin is an actin monomer-binding protein found in all eukaryotes (1). Mammals have three isoforms. Twinfilin-1 and twinfilin-2a are expressed in most non-muscle cell types, whereas twinfilin-2b is the main isoform in adult heart and skeletal muscle (2). Twinfilins are composed of two ADF-homology domains connected by a 30 kDa linker region. All twinfilins have been shown to form a 1:1 complex with G-actin, but not F-actin (reviewed in 3). Twinfilin-1 was originally known as A6 protein tyrosine kinase and thought to be part of a novel class of protein kinases. However, the protein was renamed after further studies showed no evidence of tyrosine kinase activity (4). Twinfilin-1 helps to prevent the actin filament assembly by forming a complex with actin monomers and, in mammals, has been shown to cap the filament barbed ends. It has been suggested that this regulates cell motility (5). Suppression of twinfilin-1 has also been shown to slow lymphoma cell migration to lymph nodes (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TREX1 is a broadly expressed 3’ to 5’ exonuclease that acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to negatively regulate the interferon-stimulatory DNA (ISD) response (1-4). In humans, there are three TREX1 isoforms generated through alternative splicing with predicted molecular weights of 32, 33, and 39 kDa (2). The transcript for the 33 kDa isoform is the most abundant (2). Mice deficient in TREX1 accumulate intracellular ssDNA, which triggers the ISD response and eventually lethal autoimmunity (3,4). Mutations in TREX1 are associated with autoimmune diseases including Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (5,6). In addition, TREX1 prevents the cell-intrinsic innate immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by digesting excess HIV DNA that would normally trigger induction of type I interferon (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) protein is an innate immune receptor that is primarily expressed on the cell surface of myeloid cells (1). TREM1 is a single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein that consists of an extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. TREM1, like its related protein TREM2, interacts with the tyrosine kinase-binding protein DAP12 to form a receptor-signaling complex (2). By accepting a diverse array of ligands, TREM1-expressing macrophages and neutrophils modulate inflammation through cytokine, chemokine, and receptor upregulation (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: THEX1 (3’hExo) is a 3’ exonuclease that may play a role in the degradation of histone mRNA transcripts (1). A recently identified member of the DEDDh 3' exonuclease family, THEX1 binds the conserved stem-loop structure found at the 3’ end of mRNA in vitro (2). The binding of THEX1 to mRNA requires the presence of a terminal ACCCA sequence and is enhanced by the concurrent binding of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP). Cleavage of histone mRNA by THEX1 exonuclease may help produce the rapid turnover of histone mRNA transcripts associated with the completion of DNA replication (3). Additional evidence suggests that THEX1 may be responsible for excising the remaining few 3’ nucleotides following cleavage by a different enzyme (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: THEX1 (3’hExo) is a 3’ exonuclease that may play a role in the degradation of histone mRNA transcripts (1). A recently identified member of the DEDDh 3' exonuclease family, THEX1 binds the conserved stem-loop structure found at the 3’ end of mRNA in vitro (2). The binding of THEX1 to mRNA requires the presence of a terminal ACCCA sequence and is enhanced by the concurrent binding of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP). Cleavage of histone mRNA by THEX1 exonuclease may help produce the rapid turnover of histone mRNA transcripts associated with the completion of DNA replication (3). Additional evidence suggests that THEX1 may be responsible for excising the remaining few 3’ nucleotides following cleavage by a different enzyme (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SWAP70 is a Rac family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) (1). It is highly expressed by activated B cells. Following B cell stimulation, SWAP70 has been observed to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it plays a role in class switching, as well as to the membrane, where it associates with the B cell receptor (2,3). SWAP70 also plays a role in migration of B cells and other immune cell types including dendritic cells, eosinophils, and mast cells (4-7). Mice deficient in both SWAP70 and a related protein, DEF6, develop lupus-like autoimmunity due to misregulation of IRF4 in B cells and T cells leading to increased IL21 production and responsiveness (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mTORC1 kinase complex is a critical regulator of cell growth (1,2). Its activity is modulated by enviromental factors such as energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (3, 4). The GTPases RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD mediate amino acid signaling to activate mTORC1 (1, 2). SH3BP4 (SH3 domain-binding protein 4) binds to the inactive Rag GTPase complex during amino acid starvation and prevents the association of Rag GTPase complex with mTORC1 resulting in the suppression of mTORC1 activation and cell growth (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Special AT-rich binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a close homolog to SATB1 that functions as a transcription factor. It binds to nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARS); regulatory DNA sequences important for chromatin structure. SATB2 was initially identified when bound to the MARS of the immunoglobulin μ gene in pre-B cells, enhancing its expression (1). SATB2 plays a role in osteoblast differentiation by repressing the HoxA2 gene and enhancing the activity of Runx2 and ATF4 (2). SATB2 also plays a role in the developing cerebral cortex by changing chromatin structure surrounding the Ctip2 regulatory regions (3). In erythroid cells, SATB2 activates the γ-globin locus by recruiting PCAF and reordering the chromatin structure (4). Downregulation of SATB2 is linked to colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous carcinomas (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Retinoids (vitamin A and its active retinoic acid derivatives) are non-steroid hormones that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Retinoic acid receptors (RARalpha, -beta and -gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, -beta and -gamma) are nuclear receptors that function as RAR-RXR heterodimers or RXR homodimers (1-2). In response to retinoid binding, these dimers control gene expression by binding to specific retinoic acid response elements, by recruiting cofactors and the transcriptional machinery, and by indirectly regulating chromatin structure. Finally, ligand binding and phosphorylation of RARalpha by JNK at Thr181, Ser445 and Ser461 controls the stability of RAR-RXR through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (3-4). At least four distinct genetic lesions affect RARalpha and result in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The t(15;17) translocation that results in the PML-RARalpha fusion protein is responsible for more than 99% of APL cases, and the fusion protein inhibits PML-dependent apoptotic pathways in a dominant negative fashion. In addition PML-RARalpha inhibits transcription of retinoic acid target genes by recruiting co-repressors, attenuating myeloid differentiation (5-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase F (PTPRF, LAR) is a transmembrane PTP that helps to regulate insulin signaling, cell proliferation and cell migration. The PTPRF protein is composed of an extracellular segment that contains several Ig-like and fibronectin (Fn-III) domains, a transmembrane region and a pair of cytoplasmic phosphatase domains (1,2). Functional studies reveal that the membrane-associated D1 phosphatase domain is responsible for substrate dephosphorylation, while the D2 domain is important for substrate specificity (3). PTPRF negatively regulates insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (4). This phosphatase activates the pro-apoptotic DAPK serine/threonine kinase by removing a phosphate at Tyr491/492, while the kinase Src replaces the phosphate to inactivate DAPK at the same time it down regulates PTPRF expression (5). PTPRF is commonly found at focal adhesions where it interacts with liprin, which localizes the phosphatase to the membrane, and the Rac/Rho family GTPase Trio (6). Localization of PTPRF at adherens junctions results in PTPRF modification of β-catenin, which inhibits cell migration by limiting the amount of available cytosolic β-catenin (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase F (PTPRF, LAR) is a transmembrane PTP that helps to regulate insulin signaling, cell proliferation and cell migration. The PTPRF protein is composed of an extracellular segment that contains several Ig-like and fibronectin (Fn-III) domains, a transmembrane region and a pair of cytoplasmic phosphatase domains (1,2). Functional studies reveal that the membrane-associated D1 phosphatase domain is responsible for substrate dephosphorylation, while the D2 domain is important for substrate specificity (3). PTPRF negatively regulates insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (4). This phosphatase activates the pro-apoptotic DAPK serine/threonine kinase by removing a phosphate at Tyr491/492, while the kinase Src replaces the phosphate to inactivate DAPK at the same time it down regulates PTPRF expression (5). PTPRF is commonly found at focal adhesions where it interacts with liprin, which localizes the phosphatase to the membrane, and the Rac/Rho family GTPase Trio (6). Localization of PTPRF at adherens junctions results in PTPRF modification of β-catenin, which inhibits cell migration by limiting the amount of available cytosolic β-catenin (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase F (PTPRF, LAR) is a transmembrane PTP that helps to regulate insulin signaling, cell proliferation and cell migration. The PTPRF protein is composed of an extracellular segment that contains several Ig-like and fibronectin (Fn-III) domains, a transmembrane region and a pair of cytoplasmic phosphatase domains (1,2). Functional studies reveal that the membrane-associated D1 phosphatase domain is responsible for substrate dephosphorylation, while the D2 domain is important for substrate specificity (3). PTPRF negatively regulates insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (4). This phosphatase activates the pro-apoptotic DAPK serine/threonine kinase by removing a phosphate at Tyr491/492, while the kinase Src replaces the phosphate to inactivate DAPK at the same time it down regulates PTPRF expression (5). PTPRF is commonly found at focal adhesions where it interacts with liprin, which localizes the phosphatase to the membrane, and the Rac/Rho family GTPase Trio (6). Localization of PTPRF at adherens junctions results in PTPRF modification of β-catenin, which inhibits cell migration by limiting the amount of available cytosolic β-catenin (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PR domain zinc finger protein 14 (PRDM14) is a likely protein lysine methyltransferase that is primarily expressed in primordial germ cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells. It is essential for the establishment and maintenance of primordial germ cells and critical for the maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (1-3). PRDM14 represses genes involved in the differentiation of stem cells into various cell lineages, likely via a combination of interactions with TET proteins, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and CBFA2T2 (3-8). In addition, overexpression of PRDM14 in combination with Jarid2 promotes induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation (9). PRDM14 protein levels are overexpressed in certain cancers, including breast, leukemia (T-ALL), and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (10-13), and PRDM14 overexpression may serve as a novel prognostic marker in NSCLC (14). Targeting PRDM14 overexpression with a siRNA-based therapy was shown to decrease liver metastasis in a murine pancreatic cancer model, suggesting potential as a therapeutic option for cancers where this protein is abnormally expressed (15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a transcriptional activator (1). PPARγ is preferentially expressed in adipocytes as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage (2). Besides its role in mediating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism (2), PPARγ also modulates insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and inflammation (3). PPARγ transcriptional activity is inhibited by MAP kinase phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser84 (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein phosphatase-1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS) is one of the key regulators of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in the nucleus (1). Via interaction with PP1, PNUTS plays an essential role in multiple cellular processes, including chromatin decondensation (2), DNA damage response (3), and cardiomyocyte apoptosis (4). Notably, PNUTS also regulates the activity of two key tumor suppressors, Rb and p53, through inhibition of PP1 mediated dephosphorylation (5-7). Research studies indicate that PNUTS also sequesters PTEN in the nucleus through direct interaction and inhibits its tumor suppressor function (8). PNUTS is ubiquitously expressed and elevated PNUTS expression is observed in various cancers such as esophageal carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer (1,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule, or NRCAM, belongs to the immunoglobulins Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM's) superfamily (1). NRCAM, an ankyrin-binding protein, contributes to the neurite outgrowth by providing directional signaling during axonal cone growth (2, 3, 4). Additionally, it plays a role in mediating the interaction between axons and Schwann cells and contributes to the formation and maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier (5, 6, 7, 8). NRCAM also plays an important role in the establishment of dendritic spines in developing cortical neurons (9). NRCAM is expressed in non-neuronal cells, mostly in endothelial cells (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Naked1 (Nkd1) and Naked2 (Nkd2) are homologs of Drosophila Naked cuticle, a negative regulator of Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway which functions through a feedback mechanism (1,2). Both Drosophila and vertebrate Naked proteins contain a putative calcium-binding EF-hand motif, however, Drosophila Naked binds to zinc instead of calcium (3). Naked inhibits the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway by binding to Dishevelled proteins and directs Dishevelled activity towards the planar cell polarity pathway (2,4). Naked1 is a direct target of Wnt signaling and is overexpressed in some colon tumors due to constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway (5). Naked2 is myristoylated and is required for sorting of TGF-α to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are composed of a pore-forming α subunit and one or more regulatory β subunits (1). Four separate genes (SCN1B-SCN4B) encode the five mammalian β subunits β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4. In general, β subunit proteins are type I transmembrane proteins, with the exception of secreted β1B protein (reviewed in 2). β subunits regulate α subunit gating and kinetics, which controls cell excitability (3,4). Sodium channel β subunits also function as Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell adhesion and migration (5,6). Additional research reveals sequential processing of β subunit proteins by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ secretase, resulting in ectodomain shedding of β subunit and generation of an intracellular carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). Generation of the CTF is thought to play a role in cell adhesion and migration (7,8). Multiple studies demonstrate a link between β subunit gene mutations and a number of disorders, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathy, inflammatory pain, and cancer (9-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are composed of a pore-forming α subunit and one or more regulatory β subunits (1). Four separate genes (SCN1B-SCN4B) encode the five mammalian β subunits β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4. In general, β subunit proteins are type I transmembrane proteins, with the exception of secreted β1B protein (reviewed in 2). β subunits regulate α subunit gating and kinetics, which controls cell excitability (3,4). Sodium channel β subunits also function as Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell adhesion and migration (5,6). Additional research reveals sequential processing of β subunit proteins by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ secretase, resulting in ectodomain shedding of β subunit and generation of an intracellular carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). Generation of the CTF is thought to play a role in cell adhesion and migration (7,8). Multiple studies demonstrate a link between β subunit gene mutations and a number of disorders, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathy, inflammatory pain, and cancer (9-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Molecule interacting with CasL protein 1 (MICAL1) is a Protein-methionine sulfoxide oxidase. MICAL1 can bind directly to F-actin and oxidize specific methionine residues to promote actin filament disassembly (1-3). MICAL1 is an important component of semaphorin signaling cascades that has effects on cell movement, angiogenesis, immunology, diabetes, and cancer (4-7). MICAL1 binds to NDR1/2 and antagonizes MST1-induced NDR activation and apoptosis (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mena (mammalian enabled), EVL, and VASP are members of the Ena/VASP family, which is involved in controlling cell shape and cell movement by shielding actin filaments from capping proteins (1). Ena/VASP proteins have three specific domains: an amino-terminal EVH1 domain controlling protein localization; a central proline-rich domain mediating interactions with both SH3 and WW domain containing proteins, including profilin; and a carboxy-terminal domain causing tetramerization and binding to actin (2). Mena interacts with actin filaments at the growing ends localizing to lamellipodia and to tips of growth cone filopodia in neurons. Axons projecting from interhemispheric cortico-cortical neurons are misrouted in newborn, homozygous Mena knock-out mice (3). Mena is phosphorylated at Ser236 by PKA, thereby promoting filopodial formation and elongation in the growth cone (4).Three forms of Mena corresponding to 80, 88 and 140 kD are known. The 80 kD protein is broadly expressed in contrast to the 140 kD protein which is enriched in neural cell types. Alternative splicing produces these forms. The 88 kD protein is mainly found in embryonic cell types and is likely the result of post-translational modification. Expression of all three forms is completely eliminated in Mena homozygous mutant animals (1, 3).