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Product listing: Phospho-PFKFB2 (Ser483) (D4R1W) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID O60825 #13064 to PathScan® Phospho-Rb (Ser780) Sandwich ELISA Kit, UniProt ID P06400 #13016

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase or PFKFB) catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and regulates its steady-state level (1,2). Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate activates phosphofructokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, by allosteric regulation (1,2). Four different PFKFB isoforms (PFKFB1, PFKFB2, PFKFB3, and PFKFB4) have been identified (1,2). Research studies indicate that amino acids activate PFKFB2 through Akt-dependent phosphorylation at Ser483 on PFKFB2 (3). In addition, androgen increases the expression of PFKFB2 in prostate cancer cells (4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of proteins and a homolog of the Xenopus laevis cement gland protein (1). In normal human tissues, AGR2 is expressed most abundantly in intestinal cells. Research studies have found AGR2 is overexpressed in a number of adenocarcinomas, including those derived from breast, pancreas, ovary, prostate and esophagus (2-4). In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that AGR2 positively regulates cell growth and division, while its overexpression can promote cell transformation (5,6). The latter functions of AGR2 were shown to involve YAP1-mediated up-regulation of amphiregulin expression, implicating AGR2 in both the EGF and Hippo kinase signaling pathways (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Adherens junctions are dynamic structures that form cell-cell contacts and are important in development, differentiation, tissue integrity, morphology and cell polarity. They are composed of the transmembrane proteins, cadherins, which bind cadherins on adjacent cells in a calcium-dependent manner. On the cytoplasmic side of adherens junctions, the classic model states that cadherins are linked to the cytoskeleton through β- and α-catenin. α-E-catenin is ubiquitously expressed, α-N-catenin is expressed in neuronal tissue, and α-T-catenin is primarily expressed in heart tissue. Research studies have demonstrated that loss of E-cadherin and α-E-catenin occurs during the progression of several human cancers, indicating that the breakdown of adherens junctions is important in cancer progression (reviewed in 1).Research studies also suggest that, rather than acting as a static link between cadherins and actin, α-catenin regulates actin dynamics directly, possibly by competing with the actin nucleating arp2/3 complex (2,3). α-catenin also plays a role in regulating β-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity, affecting differentiation and response to Wnt signaling. α-catenin binds to β-catenin in the nucleus, preventing it from regulating transcription, and levels of both proteins appear to be regulated via proteasome-dependent degradation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Proteins in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex are integral membrane proteins involved in vesicle transport and membrane fusion by pairing of vesicular SNAREs (v-SNAREs) with cognate target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) (reviewed in 1,2). Vesicle associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8), also known as endobrevin, is a v-SNARE originally found preferentially localized to early endosomes (3). VAMP8 knockout mice did not show abnormal endosomal vesicular trafficking, perhaps having a redundant role with other VAMP family members (4). Instead, research studies have shown that VAMP8 is widely expressed in exocrine tissues and has a critical role in the exocytosis pathways of a variety of cells (4-9). In addition, lysosome localized VAMP8 has been shown to play a role in autophagosome/lysosome fusion during antimicrobial (xenophagy) and canonical starvation induced autophagy (10).

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Mouse ATF-3 Intron 1 Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to intron 1 of the mouse activating transcription factor 3 gene. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®. The ATF-3 gene encodes an activating transcription factor family member, which represses genes by helping the binding of inhibitory factors to target promoters. The c-Myc gene encodes a DNA-binding protein that regulates transcription of genes that control several aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: The human DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) gene family contains at least three members that encode RNA-binding proteins with a common RNA-recognition motif (1). An autosomal homolog of DAZ, DAZL (DAZ-like), is specifically expressed in germ cells and is essential for the specification of the germ cell lineage during embryogenesis and during gametogenesis in adults of both sexes (2,3). DAZL may function by directly recruiting poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) in order to activate silent mRNAs during germ cell development (2). Deletions encompassing the Y chromosomal DAZ genes are the most common molecularly defined cause of infertility in humans (4,5).

$377
300 units
DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin allows researchers to fluorescently label the cytoskeleton of fixed cells through the binding of phalloidin to F-actin. This product is not intended for use on live cells due to the toxicity associated with phalloidin. After reconstitution the stock solution provides enough material to perform 3000 assays based on a 1:200 dilution and a 100 μl assay volume.DyLight™ 554 Fluorescent Properties: Excitation: 551 nm, Emission: 572 nm.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Signal Transducing Adaptor Molecule 1 (STAM1) is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein containing an SH3 domain and an ITAM motif. Initial research studies demonstrated that STAM1 undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation following treatment with numerous cytokines and growth factors (1). Subsequent research studies identified STAM1 as a component of the ESCRT-0 complex, which mediates the endocytic sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins to the lysosomal compartment for degradation (2). STAM1 harbors a tandemly-oriented VHS (Vps27/Hrs/STAM) domain and UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif) that facilitates STAM1 binding to ubiquitinated cargo proteins within the endosomal compartment (3,4). Gene targeting studies have revealed that STAM1 and STAM2 cooperate to promote thymic T-cell development and survival (5).

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Human IFN-γ Promoter Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to a region of the human interferon gamma (γ) promoter. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®. IFN-γ is an important cytokine in both innate and adaptive immunity. Mostly produced by natural killer cells, IFN-γ is a potent activator of macrophages.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair (1). Activation of ATM by autophosphorylation on Ser1981 occurs in response to exposed DNA double stranded breaks. ATM kinase regulates a number of proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Known substrates include p53, Chk2, Chk1, CtIP, 4E-BP1, BRCA1, RPA3, H2A.X, SMC1, FANCD2, Rad17, Artemis, Nbs1, and the I-2 regulatory subunit of PP1 (1,2). Mutations in the corresponding ATM gene result in ataxia telangiectasia (AT), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by uncoordinated muscle movement and neurodegeneration. Cells from AT patients display defective DNA damage-induced checkpoint activation, sensitivity to radiation, and a higher frequency of chromosome breakage (3,4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Rab11a, Rab11b, and Rab25 are members of the Rab11 subfamily of small Ras-like GTPases. Unlike universally expressed Rab11, typical Rab25 expression appears to be limited to gastrointestinal mucosa, kidney, and lung (1). Rab25 can associate with apical recycling vesicles to help regulate apical vesicle trafficking (2,3). Research studies indicate that atypical Rab25 expression can be associated with various forms of cancer. Increased Rab25 expression is associated with aggressive growth in ovarian and breast cancer, where Rab25 may inhibit apoptosis and promote cancer cell proliferation and invasion through regulation of vesicle transport and cellular motility (4-7). Interaction between Rab25 and β1 integrin promotes vesicle-mediated transport of integrin to pseudopodial tip membranes, fostering the persistent invasion of tumor cells (8). Conversely, the reported loss of Rab25 expression in a number of breast cancer cases has an unclear effect on cancer pathogenesis (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s, is a progressive movement disorder characterized by rigidity, tremors, and postural instability. The pathological hallmarks of PD are progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the ventral midbrain and the presence of intracellular Lewy bodies (protein aggregates of α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other components) in surviving neurons of the brain stem (1). Research studies have shown various genes and loci are genetically linked to PD including α-synuclein/PARK1 and 4, parkin/PARK2, UCH-L1/PARK5, PINK1/PARK6, DJ-1/PARK7, LRRK2/PARK8, synphilin-1, and NR4A2 (2).Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contains amino-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a Ras-like small GTP binding protein-like (ROC) domain, an MLK protein kinase domain, and a carboxy-terminal WD40 repeat domain. Research studies have linked at least 20 LRRK2 mutations to PD, with the G2019S mutation being the most prevalent (3). The G2019S mutation causes increased LRRK2 kinase activity, which induces a progressive reduction in neurite length that leads to progressive neurite loss and decreased neuronal survival (4). Researchers are currently testing the MLK inhibitor CEP-1347 in PD clinical trials, indicating the potential value of LRRK2 as a therapeutic target for treatment of PD (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase or PFKFB) catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and regulates its steady-state level (1,2). Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate activates phosphofructokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, by allosteric regulation (1,2). Four different PFKFB isoforms (PFKFB1, PFKFB2, PFKFB3, and PFKFB4) have been identified (1,2). Research studies indicate that amino acids activate PFKFB2 through Akt-dependent phosphorylation at Ser483 on PFKFB2 (3). In addition, androgen increases the expression of PFKFB2 in prostate cancer cells (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine and other catecholamines. TH functions as a tetramer, with each subunit composed of a regulatory and catalytic domain, and exists in several different isoforms (1,2). This enzyme is required for embryonic development since TH knockout mice die before or at birth (3). Levels of transcription, translation and posttranslational modification regulate TH activity. The amino-terminal regulatory domain contains three serine residues: Ser9, Ser31 and Ser40. Phosphorylation at Ser40 by PKA positively regulates the catalytic activity of TH (4-6). Phosphorylation at Ser31 by CDK5 also increases the catalytic activity of TH through stabilization of TH protein levels (7-9).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 (AKR1C2) is a member of a large superfamily of aldo-keto reductases that metabolize an array of substrates in a NADPH-dependent manner. AKR1C2 is the 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) responsible for metabolizing and inactivating the androgen hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to 3α-androstanediol (1). Research studies demonstrate an increase in AKR1C2 expression in cases of advanced prostate cancer (2). Both AKR1C2 and the related reductase, AKR1C3, are implicated in enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling in prostate cancer by reducing prostaglandin D2 to the more stable 9α, 11β-PGF2α (2). In addition, research studies demonstrate an increase in AKR1C2 expression in some ovarian endometriosis specimens, suggesting the participation of AKR1C2 in the promotion of progesterone metabolism in ovarian endometriosis (3).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody MEK1/2 (D1A5) Rabbit mAb #8727.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total M-CSF Receptor Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of M-CSF receptor protein. An M-CSF receptor mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-M-CSF receptor proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a M-CSF receptor rabbit antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-M-CSF receptor proteins. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of M-CSF receptor protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, CSF-1) receptor is an integral membrane tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene. M-CSF receptor is expressed in monocytes (macrophages and their progenitors) and drives growth and development of this blood cell lineage. (1-3). Binding of M-CSF to its receptor induces receptor dimerization, activation, and autophosphorylation of cytoplasmic tyrosine residues used as docking sites for SH2-containing signaling proteins (4). There are at least five major tyrosine autophosphorylation sites. Tyr723 (Tyr721 in mouse) is located in the kinase insert (KI) region. Phosphorylated Tyr723 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase as well as PLCγ2 (5). Phosphorylation of Tyr809 provides a docking site for Shc (5). Overactivation of this receptor can lead to a malignant phenotype in various cell systems (6). The activated M-CSF receptor has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (7) and breast cancer (8).

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: LKB1 (STK11) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor that helps control cell structure, apoptosis and energy homeostasis through regulation of numerous downstream kinases (1,2). A cytosolic protein complex comprised of LKB1, putative kinase STRAD, and the MO25 scaffold protein, activates both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and several AMPK-related kinases (3). AMPK plays a predominant role as the master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, controlling downstream effectors that regulate cell growth and apoptosis in response to cellular ATP concentrations (4). LKB1 appears to be phosphorylated in cells at several sites, including human LKB1 at Ser31/325/428 and Thr189/336/363 (5).Mutation in the corresponding LKB1 gene causes Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign GI tract polyps and dark skin lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet (6). A variety of other LKB1 gene mutations have been associated with the formation of sporadic cancers in several tissues (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase or PFKFB) catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and regulates its steady-state level (1,2). Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate activates phosphofructokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, by allosteric regulation (1,2). Four different PFKFB isoforms (PFKFB1, PFKFB2, PFKFB3, and PFKFB4) have been identified (1,2). Research studies indicate that amino acids activate PFKFB2 through Akt-dependent phosphorylation at Ser483 on PFKFB2 (3). In addition, androgen increases the expression of PFKFB2 in prostate cancer cells (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IFN-γ (D3H2) XP® Rabbit mAb #8455.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: IFN-γ plays key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune response. IFN-γ activates the cytotoxic activity of innate immune cells, such as macrophages and NK cells (1,2). IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) promotes cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing class I and class II MHC expression, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. Binding of IFN-γ to the IFNGR1/IFNGR2 complex promotes dimerization of the receptor complexes to form the (IFNGR1/IFNGR2)2 -IFN-γ dimer. Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2, and Stat1 (3). The critical role of IFN-γ in amplification of immune surveillance and function is supported by increased susceptibility to pathogen infection by IFN-γ or IFNGR knockout mice and in humans with inactivating mutations in IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. IFN-γ also appears to have a role in atherosclerosis (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1, SIMA135) is a putative stem cell marker shown in research studies to be highly expressed in some human cancer cells and in both typical and atypical (cancerous) colons (1). Expression of CDCP1 may be epigenetically regulated, as methylation of promoter CpG sequences results in decreased CDCP1 expression (2). The corresponding CDCP1 gene encodes a glycoprotein that acts as a complex, multidomain transmembrane antigen. CDCP1 has three extracellular CUB domains that may be involved in cell adhesion or extracellular matrix interactions (1,3). Src-family kinases may phosphorylate CDCP1 at five tyrosine residues within its cytoplasmic domain to provide a potential binding site for SH2 domain-containing proteins (3). CDCP1 is a putative hematopoietic stem cell marker (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Despite their relatively small size (8-12 kDa) and uncomplicated architecture, S100 proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and motility, cell cycle progression, transcription, and differentiation. To date, 25 members have been identified, including S100A1-S100A18, trichohyalin, filaggrin, repetin, S100P, and S100Z, making it the largest group in the EF-hand, calcium-binding protein family. Interestingly, 14 S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21, a region of genomic instability. Research studies have demonstrated that significant correlation exists between aberrant S100 protein expression and cancer progression. S100 proteins primarily mediate immune responses in various tissue types but are also involved in neuronal development (1-4).Each S100 monomer bears two EF-hand motifs and can bind up to two molecules of calcium (or other divalent cation in some instances). Structural evidence shows that S100 proteins form antiparallel homo- or heterodimers that coordinate binding partner proximity in a calcium-dependent (and sometimes calcium-independent) manner. Although structurally and functionally similar, individual members show restricted tissue distribution, are localized in specific cellular compartments, and display unique protein binding partners, which suggests that each plays a specific role in various signaling pathways. In addition to an intracellular role, some S100 proteins have been shown to act as receptors for extracellular ligands or are secreted and exhibit cytokine-like activities (1-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucose homeostasis is regulated by hormones and cellular energy status. Elevations of blood glucose during feeding stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through a glucose sensing pathway. Feeding also stimulates release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which further induces insulin release, inhibits glucagon release and promotes β-cell viability. CREB-dependent transcription likely plays a role in both glucose sensing and GLP-1 signaling (1). The protein CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2)/TORC2 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 2) functions as a CREB co-activator (2,3) and is implicated in mediating the effects of these two pathways (4). In quiescent cells, CRTC2/TORC2 is phosphorylated at Ser171 and becomes sequestered in the cytoplasm via an interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Glucose and gut hormones lead to the dephosphorylation of CRTC2/TORC2 and its dissociation from 14-3-3 proteins. Dephosphorylated CRTC2/TORC2 enters the nucleus to promote CREB-dependent transcription. CRTC2/TORC2 plays a key role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription in response to hormonal and energy signals during fasting (5).CRTC2/TORC2-related proteins CRTC1/TORC1 and CRTC3/TORC3 also act as CREB co-activators (2,3). CRTC1/TORC1, CRTC2/TORC2 and CRTC3/TORC3 associate with the HTLV Tax protein to promote Tax-dependent transcription of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (6,7). CRTC1/TORC1 is highly phosphorylated at Ser151 in mouse hypothalamic cells under basal conditions (8). When these cells are exposed to cAMP or a calcium activator, CRTC1/TORC1 is dephosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus (8). CRTC1/TORC1 is essential for energy balance and fertility (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Phospho-Rb (Ser780) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein. A Phospho-Rb (Ser780) specific antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Rb mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Rb protein. HRP-linked Anti-Mouse IgG is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).