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Product listing: 14-3-3 γ (D15B7) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P61981 #5522 to Anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (DyLight™ 680 Conjugate) #5470

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 14-3-3 family of proteins plays a key regulatory role in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic and nutrient-sensing pathways (1,2). 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed. There are at least seven isoforms, β, γ, ε, σ, ζ, τ, and η that have been identified in mammals. The initially described α and δ isoforms are confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of β and ζ, respectively (3). Through their amino-terminal α helical region, 14-3-3 proteins form homo- or heterodimers that interact with a wide variety of proteins: transcription factors, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, kinases, phosphatases, and other signaling molecules (3,4). The interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with their targets is primarily through a phospho-Ser/Thr motif. However, binding to divergent phospho-Ser/Thr motifs, as well as phosphorylation independent interactions has been observed (4). 14-3-3 binding masks specific sequences of the target protein, and therefore, modulates target protein localization, phosphorylation state, stability, and molecular interactions (1-4). 14-3-3 proteins may also induce target protein conformational changes that modify target protein function (4,5). Distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of 14-3-3 isoforms have been observed in development and in acute response to extracellular signals and drugs, suggesting that 14-3-3 isoforms may perform different functions despite their sequence similarities (4). Several studies suggest that 14-3-3 isoforms are differentially regulated in cancer and neurological syndromes (2,3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 14-3-3 family of proteins plays a key regulatory role in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic and nutrient-sensing pathways (1,2). 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed. There are at least seven isoforms, β, γ, ε, σ, ζ, τ, and η that have been identified in mammals. The initially described α and δ isoforms are confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of β and ζ, respectively (3). Through their amino-terminal α helical region, 14-3-3 proteins form homo- or heterodimers that interact with a wide variety of proteins: transcription factors, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, kinases, phosphatases, and other signaling molecules (3,4). The interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with their targets is primarily through a phospho-Ser/Thr motif. However, binding to divergent phospho-Ser/Thr motifs, as well as phosphorylation independent interactions has been observed (4). 14-3-3 binding masks specific sequences of the target protein, and therefore, modulates target protein localization, phosphorylation state, stability, and molecular interactions (1-4). 14-3-3 proteins may also induce target protein conformational changes that modify target protein function (4,5). Distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of 14-3-3 isoforms have been observed in development and in acute response to extracellular signals and drugs, suggesting that 14-3-3 isoforms may perform different functions despite their sequence similarities (4). Several studies suggest that 14-3-3 isoforms are differentially regulated in cancer and neurological syndromes (2,3).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JNK-Interacting Proteins (JIPs), as their name implies, coordinate c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling by acting as scaffolds for components of the JNK signaling cascade (1). JIPs localize and promote JNK activation in response to stress by amalgamating and co-localizing upstream kinases and downstream effectors in the stress-kinase pathway analogous to the mechanism by which AKAPs orchestrate PKA signaling. JIPs bind to an array of MAPKs and other signaling proteins, including the mixed-lineage kinases, MKK7, p38α MAPK, JNK1-3, Max, Myc, NF-κB, LRRK2, and others (1-4).There are four known JIPs, JIP1-4, of which JIP1 and JIP2 share extensive sequence homology and domain structure. JIP1 and JIP2 are mainly expressed in neurons, testis and in β pancreatic cells, where they have been implicated in cellular responses to metabolic stress, the development of diabetes, and post-traumatic brain damage (5-7). Although architecturally distinct from JIP1 and JIP2, JIP3 and JIP4 share some overlapping functions and are more broadly expressed. JIP4, encoded by the SPAG9 (sperm-associated antigen-9) gene, is a homooligomer that binds to and coordinates the activation of numerous components of the stress-activated kinase cascade including MEK4, MEKK3, p38α MAPK, and JNK1-3 (3,8). However, unlike the other JIP members, JIP4 does not appear to activate JNK directly, instead favoring stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling events in response to cellular stress (3,9).In addition to mediating stress responses, JIP4 (or its splice variant, JLP) has also been shown to interact with ARF6 and PIKfyve, thus regulating microtubule-based endosomal trafficking (10,11). There are extensive reports indicating that JIP4 is phosphorylated in response to stress (UV damage etc.) but it is unclear what effect, if any, this has on its function, localization, or binding properties (12-15).

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Human HoxA2 Promoter Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to a region of the human Homeobox A2 (HoxA2) promoter. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®. The homeobox gene clusters are silenced by members of the polycomb family.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Human GAPDH Exon 1 Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to exon 1 of the human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®. The GAPDH gene is actively transcribed in all cell types and the exon 1 region is highly enriched for histone modifications associated with active transcription, such as histone H3 Lys4 tri-methylation and general histone acetylation. The exon 1 region shows very low levels of histone modifications associated with heterochromatin, such as histone H3 Lys9 or Lys27 tri-methylation.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Syk (Tyr525/526) (C87C1) Rabbit mAb #2710.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Syk is a protein tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction in hematopoietic cells (1-3). Syk interacts with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) located in the cytoplasmic domains of immune receptors (4). It couples the activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis (4). There is also evidence of a role for Syk in nonimmune cells and investigators have indicated that Syk is a potential tumor suppressor in human breast carcinomas (5). Tyr323 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site within the SH2-kinase linker region in Syk. Phosphorylation at Tyr323 provides a direct binding site for the TKB domain of Cbl (6,7). Tyr352 of Syk is involved in the association of PLCγ1 (8). Tyr525 and Tyr526 are located in the activation loop of the Syk kinase domain; phosphorylation at Tyr525/526 of human Syk (equivalent to Tyr519/520 of mouse Syk) is essential for Syk function (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Class 3 secreted semaphorin (Sema3A) is a chemorepellent that acts upon a wide variety of axons. As such, it induces a dramatic redistribution and depolymerization of actin filaments that results in growth cone collapse. Plexins are single membrane-spanning signaling proteins encompassing Plexin A1, A2, A3, and A4. Plexins form a complex with neuropilin-1 and -2 and the cell adhesion protein L1 to form a functional semaphorin receptor (1,2). The GTPase Rnd1 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Plexin A1 to trigger cytoskeletal collapse. In contrast, the GTPase RhoD blocks Rnd1-mediated Plexin A1 activation and repulsion of sympathetic axons by Sema3A (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but is also associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and is directed by a number of autophagy-related (Atg) genes. These proteins are involved in the formation of autophagosomes, which are cytoplasmic vacuoles that are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. The class III type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 regulates vacuolar trafficking and autophagy (4,5). Multiple proteins associate with Vps34, including p105/Vps15, Beclin-1, UVRAG, Atg14, and Rubicon (6-12). Atg14 and Rubicon were identified based on their ability to bind to Beclin-1 and participate in unique complexes with opposing functions (9-12). Rubicon, which localizes to the endosome and lysosome, inhibits Vps34 lipid kinase activity; knockdown of Rubicon enhances autophagy and endocytic trafficking (11,12). In contrast, Atg14 localizes to autophagosomes, isolation membranes, and ER and can enhance Vps34 activity. Knockdown of Atg14 inhibits starvation-induced autophagy (11,12).

$303
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated sepharose beads. Phospho-MAPK/CDK Substrates (PXS*P or S*PXR/K) (34B2) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of Phospho-MAPK/CDK Substrates (PXS*P or S*PXR/K). The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-MAPK/CDK Substrates (PXS*P or S*PXR/K) (34B2) Rabbit mAb #2325.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: The MAPK and CDK families of serine/threonine protein kinases play important roles in proliferation and cell cycle control. These kinases phosphorylate threonine or serine followed by a proline residue (1-3). MAPK phosphorylates substrates with the consensus sequence PX(S/T)P, and CDKs phosphorylate substrates containing the consensus sequence (S/T)PXR/K. Cell Signaling Technology has developed antibodies that bind to phospho-threonine followed by proline, motifs PXS*/T*P and/or S*PXR/K, for use in the study and discovery of new MAPK and CDK substrates (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Ras family small GTPase Ran is involved in nuclear envelope formation, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and nuclear transport (1,2). Like other small GTPases, Ran is active in its GTP-bound form and inactive in its GDP-bound form. Nuclear RanGTP concentration is maintained through nuclear localization of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, which catalyzes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP. Regulator of chromatin condensation 1 (RCC1) is the only known RanGEF (3). RCC1 is dynamically chromatin-bound throughout the cell cycle, and this localization is required for mitosis to proceed normally (4,5). Appropriate association of RCC1 with chromatin is regulated through amino-terminal phosphorylation (5,6) and methylation (7). RCC1 regulation of RanGTP levels in response to histone modifications regulates nuclear import during apoptosis (8). In mitosis RCC1 is phosphorylated at Ser11, possibly by cyclin B/cdc2 (9-11). This phosphorylation may play a role in RCC1 interaction with chromatin and RCC1 RanGEF activity (6).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Tri-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) (C36B11) Rabbit mAb #9733.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$553
500 assays (96 well format)
1 Kit
The BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay Kit detects 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into cellular DNA during cell proliferation using an anti-BrdU antibody. When cells are cultured with labeling medium that contains BrdU, this pyrimidine analog is incorporated in place of thymidine into the newly synthesized DNA of proliferating cells. After removing labeling medium, cells are fixed and the DNA is denatured with our fixing/denaturing solution. Denaturing of DNA is necessary to improve the accessibility of the incorporated BrdU to the detection antibody. A BrdU mouse mAb is then added to detect the incorporated BrdU. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is used to recognize the bound detection antibody. Chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. The magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is proportional to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into cells, which is a direct indication of cell proliferation.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Background: Halogenated nucleotides such as the pyrimidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) are useful for labeling nascent DNA in living cells and tissues. BrdU becomes incorporated into replicating DNA in place of thymidine and subsequent immunodetection of BrdU using specific monoclonal antibodies allows labeling of cells in S phase of the cell cycle. After pulse-labeling cells or tissues with bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU (Bu20a) Mouse mAb can be used to detect BrdU incorporated into single stranded DNA. Please see our detailed protocol for information regarding the labeling procedure and denaturation of double stranded DNA for various immunodetection applications (1-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as Class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response and cell aging (1). SirT3, a mammalian homolog of Sir2, exists in human cells in two forms. The full-length 44 kDa protein localizes to the nucleus, while a processed 28 kDa protein lacking 142 amino terminal residues localizes exclusively to the mitochondria (2-4). The single murine form of SirT3 is equivalent to the processed human SirT3 protein (2). Full-length SirT3 protein is processed in the mitochondrial matrix by the mitochondrial matrix processing peptidase (MMP) (3). Both full-length and processed forms of SirT3 are enzymatically active and de-acetylate histone H3 at Lys9 and histone H4 at Lys16 in vitro (2). SirT3 also de-acetylates Lys642 of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (AceCS2) and activates AceCS2 activity in the mitochondria (5). Restricted caloric intake, which is linked to increased lifespan in multiple organisms, increases SirT3 expression in white and brown adipocytes of obese mice, suggesting a role for SirT3 in aging (6). Two observations implicate SirT3 in the regulation of mitochondrial thermogenesis. First, exposure to cold temperatures increases SirT3 expression in brown adipocytes, while elevated temperatures reduce SirT3 expression (6). Second, over-expression of SirT3 results in increased levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) (6). SirT3 protein levels are also elevated in certain breast cancers (7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated EpCAM (VU1D9) Mouse mAb #2929.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in monkey cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p21 Waf1/Cip1 (12D1) Rabbit mAb #2947.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: The tumor suppressor protein p21 Waf1/Cip1 acts as an inhibitor of cell cycle progression. It functions in stoichiometric relationships forming heterotrimeric complexes with cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In association with CDK2 complexes, it serves to inhibit kinase activity and block progression through G1/S (1). However, p21 may also enhance assembly and activity in complexes of CDK4 or CDK6 and cyclin D (2). The carboxy-terminal region of p21 is sufficient to bind and inhibit PCNA, a subunit of DNA polymerase, and may coordinate DNA replication with cell cycle progression (3). Upon UV damage or during cell cycle stages when cdc2/cyclin B or CDK2/cyclin A are active, p53 is phosphorylated and upregulates p21 transcription via a p53-responsive element (4). Protein levels of p21 are downregulated through ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Formins are a family of large multidomain actin nucleation/polymerization proteins characterized by their catalytic FH2 domains. The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia/diap) subfamily, including mDia1/diap1, mDia2/diap3 and mDia3/diap2, are effectors of Rho family small GTPases. In response to Rho, mDia/diap proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple cell functions including cytoskeletal dynamics, migration, adhesion, polarity and cell shape (reviewed in 1,2).mDia1/diap1 is activated by GTP-bound Rho, leading to Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-dependent stress fiber formation (3,4). Rho activation of mDia1 has also been shown to regulate serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription (5), and has been implicated in human cancer phenotypes such as ras-mediated transformation, metastasis and invasion (reviewed in 6).mDia3/diap2, activated by the Rho family small GTPase cdc42, regulates the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore during mitosis in mammalian cells (7).Rho-dependent activation of mDia2/diap3 is important in assembly of the contractile ring during cytokinesis (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: In multicellular organisms, intercellular junctions play essential roles in tissue integrity and maintenance of cell polarity. Tight junctions (TJs) form a continuous barrier to fluids across the epithelium and endothelium (reviewed in 1). Adherens junctions (AJs) are dynamic structures that form cell-cell contacts linking cells into a continuous sheet (reviewed in 2). The actin filament-binding protein, Afadin, binds to nectin forming a connection to the actin cytoskeleton (3). AJs are formed when nectin assembles cadherin at the cell-cell adhesion site and these junctions are then involved in the formation and maintenance of TJs (4,5). Afadin has two splice variants: l-afadin, which is ubiquitously expressed, and s-afadin, which is expressed predominantly in neural tissue. s-Afadin is a shorter form lacking one of the three proline-rich regions found in l-afadin, as well as the carboxyl-terminal F-actin binding region (6). Human s-afadin is identical to AF-6, the ALL-1 fusion partner involved in acute myeloid leukemias (7). Recent work has also shown that afadin is involved in controlling the directionality of cell movement when it is localized at the leading edge of moving cells (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins function as linkers between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell adhesion, membrane ruffling, and microvilli formation (1). ERM proteins undergo intra or intermolecular interaction between their amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, existing as inactive cytosolic monomers or dimers (2). Phosphorylation at a carboxy-terminal threonine residue (Thr567 of ezrin, Thr564 of radixin, Thr558 of moesin) disrupts the amino- and carboxy-terminal association and may play a key role in regulating ERM protein conformation and function (3,4). Phosphorylation at Thr567 of ezrin is required for cytoskeletal rearrangements and oncogene-induced transformation (5). Ezrin is also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon growth factor stimulation. Phosphorylation of Tyr353 of ezrin transmits a survival signal during epithelial differentiation (6).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1)/NAK (NF-κB activating kinase) is an IκB kinase (IKK)-activating kinase and can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation (1). TBK1 was identified through association with the TRAF binding protein, TANK, and found to function upstream of NIK and IKK in the activation of NF-κB (2). TBK1 induces IκB degradation and NF-κB activity through IKKβ. TBK1 may mediate IKK and NF-κB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCε activity (1). TBK1 plays a pivotal role in the activation of IRF3 in the innate immune response (3).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is a histone H3/H4 chaperone complex that functions in de novo assembly of nucleosomes during DNA replication and nucleotide excision repair (1). Nucleosome assembly is a two-step process, involving initial deposition of a histone H3/H4 tetramer onto DNA, followed by the deposition of a pair of histone H2A/H2B dimers (1). CAF-1 interacts with PCNA and localizes to DNA replication and DNA repair foci, where it functions to assemble newly synthesized histone H3/H4 tetramers onto replicating DNA (2-6). Assembly of histone H2A/H2B dimers requires additional assembly factors. The CAF-1 complex consists of three proteins: CHAF1A (p150), CHAF1B (p60) and RBAP48 (p48 or RBBP4). CHAF1A and CHAF1B proteins are specific for the CAF-1 complex, while RBAP48 is a component of multiple chromatin modifying complexes (1). CHAF1A and CHAF1B expression levels correlate with cellular proliferation and both proteins are significantly down-regulated in quiescent cells (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is a ubiquitously distributed enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of glycerolipids to produce lysophospholipids and release arachidonic acid (1). cPLA2 has been implicated in diverse cellular responses such as mitogenesis, differentiation, inflammation and cytotoxicity (1). Calcium binding to the amino-terminal CalB domain of cPLA2 promotes the translocation of cPLA2 from cytosol to membrane, where cPLA2 cleaves arachidonic acid from natural membrane (2). Phosphorylation of cPLA2 by MAPK (p42/44 and p38) at Ser505 (3,4) and Ser727 (5) stimulates its catalytic activity.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD2AP is a scaffolding protein that is thought to link membrane proteins to the cytoskeleton (1-3). It plays a role in formation of tight junctions in specialized cell types such as the slit diaphragm in the kidney glomerulus (4). CD2AP is also involved in the immunological synapse between CD2 expressing T cells and antigen presenting cells (5). It has been shown that interaction between CD2AP and other cytoskeletal proteins may regulate the endocytosis of EGFR (3).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GST (91G1) Rabbit mAb #2625.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining techniques. Because of their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein’s biochemical properties.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Formins are a family of large multidomain actin nucleation/polymerization proteins characterized by their catalytic FH2 domains. The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia/diap) subfamily, including mDia1/diap1, mDia2/diap3 and mDia3/diap2, are effectors of Rho family small GTPases. In response to Rho, mDia/diap proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple cell functions including cytoskeletal dynamics, migration, adhesion, polarity and cell shape (reviewed in 1,2).mDia1/diap1 is activated by GTP-bound Rho, leading to Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-dependent stress fiber formation (3,4). Rho activation of mDia1 has also been shown to regulate serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription (5), and has been implicated in human cancer phenotypes such as ras-mediated transformation, metastasis and invasion (reviewed in 6).mDia3/diap2, activated by the Rho family small GTPase cdc42, regulates the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore during mitosis in mammalian cells (7).Rho-dependent activation of mDia2/diap3 is important in assembly of the contractile ring during cytokinesis (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: At least four distinct polo-like kinases exist in mammalian cells: PLK1, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4/SAK (1). PLK1 apparently plays many roles during mitosis, particularly in regulating mitotic entry and exit. The mitosis promoting factor (MPF), cdc2/cyclin B1, is activated by dephosphorylation of cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15) by cdc25C. PLK1 phosphorylates cdc25C at Ser198 and cyclin B1 at Ser133 causing translocation of these proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (2-5). PLK1 phosphorylation of Myt1 at Ser426 and Thr495 has been proposed to inactivate Myt1, one of the kinases known to phosphorylate cdc2 at Thr14/Tyr15 (6). Polo-like kinases also phosphorylate the cohesin subunit SCC1, causing cohesin displacement from chromosome arms that allow for proper cohesin localization to centromeres (7). Mitotic exit requires activation of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) (8), a ubiquitin ligase responsible for removal of cohesin at centromeres, and degradation of securin, cyclin A, cyclin B1, Aurora A, and cdc20 (9). PLK1 phosphorylation of the APC subunits Apc1, cdc16, and cdc27 has been demonstrated in vitro and has been proposed as a mechanism by which mitotic exit is regulated (10,11).Substitution of Thr210 with Asp has been reported to elevate PLK1 kinase activity and delay/arrest cells in mitosis, while a Ser137Asp substitution leads to S-phase arrest (12). In addition, while DNA damage has been found to inhibit PLK1 kinase activity, the Thr210Asp mutant is resistant to this inhibition (13). PLK1 has been reported to be phosphorylated in vivo at Ser137 and Thr210 in mitosis; DNA damage prevents phosphorylation at these sites (14).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family consists of an evolutionarily conserved group of apoptosis inhibitors containing a conserved 70 amino acid BIR (baculovirus inhibitor repeat) domain (1,2). Human members of this family include c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, survivin, livin, and NAIP. Overexpression of IAP family members, particularly survivin and livin, in cancer cell lines and primary tumors suggests an important role for these proteins in cancer progression (3-5). In general, the IAP proteins function through direct interactions to inhibit the activity of several caspases, including caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 (5,6). In addition, binding of IAP family members to the mitochondrial protein Smac blocks their interaction with caspase-9, thereby allowing the processing and activation of the caspase (2).

$80
100 µl
$162
500 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L) was conjugated to DyLight™ 680 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. Excitation is 684 nm and peak fluorescence emission is 715 nm.

Background: Near infrared anti-species IgG conjugates are ideal for fluorescent western blotting and In-Cell Western. Cell Signaling Technology's strict quality control procedures assure that each conjugate provides optimal specificity and fluorescence.