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Product listing: Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate), UniProt ID P31749 #4343 to p47phox (D21F6) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P14598 #4301

$305
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of Akt. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb #4691.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Pbxs (Pre-B cell leukemia transcription factors) belong to the Three Amino Acid Loop Extension (TALE) family of homeodomain containing protein (1). Pbx1 has two isoforms, Pbx1a and 1b, that are divergent in sequence at the carboxy terminus, which is a result of alternative mRNA splicing. Unlike other homeoselector genes that have restricted expression in development Pbx genes are ubiquitously expressed in both fetal and adult tissue (1). Human pre-B cell acute leukemias are frequently associated with a t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) translocation that results in a fusion between the E2A and Pbx1 genes (2,3). Pbx1 genes are not normally expressed in lymphoid tissues, and the E2A-Pbx1 fusion protein is a potent transcription factor that drives aberrant gene expression.

$115
100 µl
Rabbit IgG was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human and mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Isotype control antibodies are used to estimate the nonspecific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions. An isotype control antibody should have the same immunoglobulin type and be used at the same concentration as the test antibody.

$336
96 assays
1 Kit
The Cyclic AMP XP® Assay Kit is a competition enzyme-linked immunoassay used to determine cAMP levels in cells or tissues of interest. In this assay, cAMP found in test sample competes with a fixed amount of HRP-linked cAMP for binding to an anti-cAMP XP® Rabbit mAb immobilized onto a 96-well plate. Following washing to remove excess sample cAMP and HRP-linked cAMP, HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. Because of the competitive nature of this assay, the magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is inversely proportional to the quantity of sample cAMP. Measurement of absorbance using the cAMP Standard allows calculating the absolute amount of cAMP in a sample of interest.Note: 12, 8-well modules -Each module is designed to break apart for 8 tests.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CD105/Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for the TGF-β receptor complex, functioning in related signaling pathways (1,2). CD105/Endoglin is a transmembrane protein that exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. It is mainly expressed in vascular and connective tissues and in endothelial and stromal cells. Upregulated CD105/endoglin expression has been reported during wound healing and tumor vascularization, and in inflammatory tissues and developing embryos (1-4). Mutations inCD105/endoglin have been found to be a causal factor of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a disease characterized by malformation of vascular structure (5,6). The importance of this protein for normal and tumor vascular function makes it a good marker for endothelial cell proliferation as well as a potential therapeutic target in cancer (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) is a homotetramer that catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (OAA) in the cytosol, which is the key step for the biosynthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and acetylcholine, as well as for glucogenesis (1). Nutrients and hormones regulate the expression level and phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase (1,2). It is phosphorylated by GSK-3 on Thr446 and Ser450 (3). Ser455 of ATP-citrate lyase has been reported to be phosphorylated by PKA and Akt (4,5). Phosphorylation on Ser455 abolishes the homotropic allosteric regulation by citrate and enhances the catalytic activity of the enzyme (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) is a homotetramer that catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (OAA) in the cytosol, which is the key step for the biosynthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and acetylcholine, as well as for glucogenesis (1). Nutrients and hormones regulate the expression level and phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase (1,2). It is phosphorylated by GSK-3 on Thr446 and Ser450 (3). Ser455 of ATP-citrate lyase has been reported to be phosphorylated by PKA and Akt (4,5). Phosphorylation on Ser455 abolishes the homotropic allosteric regulation by citrate and enhances the catalytic activity of the enzyme (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2 and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through an ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with an E1 enzyme. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol-group of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of a lysine residue on the target protein, a transfer mediated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E3 (1). UbcH5C is a universally expressed E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and member of the UbcH5 family that also includes UbcH5A and UbcH5B (2). Evidence suggests that UbcH5C plays an important role in regulating a number of signaling pathways by catalyzing the ubiquitination of key target proteins, including p53, PCNA, the IκB kinase protein NEMO, and the apoptosis inhibitor BRUCE (3-6). Gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of UbcH5C in meibomian cell carcinoma and oncocytic thyroid adenomas (7,8), while an RNAi screen reveals diffrential Ubc5HC in acute promyelocytic cells (9). These results suggest a potential role of UbcH5C in cell cycle control and tumorigenesis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Synaptophysin (SYP) is a neuronal synaptic vesicle glycoprotein that is expressed in neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms (1). Synaptophysin contains four transmembrane domains that form a hexameric channel or gap junction-like pore (2). Synaptophysin binds to the SNARE protein synaptobrevin/VAMP, which prevents the inclusion of synaptobrevin in the synaptic vesicle fusion complex and creates a pool of synaptobrevin for exocytosis when synapse activity increases (3). Synaptophysin is also responsible for targeting synaptobrevin 2/VAMP2 to synaptic vesicles, a critical component of the fusion complex (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$348
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. PTEN (D4.3) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of PTEN protein.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Dog, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor ® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. The unconjugated Phospho-Stat3 (Tyr705) (D3A7) XP® Rabbit mAb #9145 reacts with Phospho-Stat3 (Tyr705) from human, mouse and rat. CST expects that Phospho-Stat3 (Tyr705) (D3A7) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) will also recognize Phospho-Stat3 in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. The unconjugated antibody #9145 reacts with Phospho- Stat3 (Tyr705) from human, mouse and rat. CST expects that Phospho-Stat3 (Tyr705) (D3A7) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) will also recognize Phospho-Stat3 in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Stat3 transcription factor is an important signaling molecule for many cytokines and growth factor receptors (1) and is required for murine fetal development (2). Research studies have shown that Stat3 is constitutively activated in a number of human tumors (3,4) and possesses oncogenic potential (5) and anti-apoptotic activities (3). Stat3 is activated by phosphorylation at Tyr705, which induces dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (6,7). Transcriptional activation seems to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 through the MAPK or mTOR pathways (8,9). Stat3 isoform expression appears to reflect biological function as the relative expression levels of Stat3α (86 kDa) and Stat3β (79 kDa) depend on cell type, ligand exposure, or cell maturation stage (10). It is notable that Stat3β lacks the serine phosphorylation site within the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain (8).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The cohesin complex consists of a heterodimer between SMC1 (SMC1A or B) and SMC3, bound by additional RAD21 and STAG proteins (STAG1, 2, or 3) (1,2). These proteins form a ring-like structure that mediates the cohesion of two sister chromatids after DNA replication in S phase (1,2). RAD21 and STAG2 are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase (PLK) during prophase, which leads to the dissociation of cohesin complexes from the chromosome arms; however, cohesin remains bound to centromeres until anaphase (3,4). RAD21 is cleaved by separin/ESPL1 in anaphase, which leads to dissociation of the remaining cohesin from centromeres, enabling sister chromatids to segregate during mitosis (5). RAD21 is also cleaved by caspase-3 and caspase-7 during apoptosis, resulting in a 64 kDa carboxy-terminal cleavage product that translocates to the cytoplasm and may help to trigger apoptosis (6,7). In addition to mediating cohesion of sister chromatids, the cohesin complex plays important roles in gene regulation and DNA repair, as SMC1 and SMC3 are both phosphorylated by ATM and ATR kinases upon DNA damage (1,2).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mer tyrosine kinase belongs to a receptor tyrosine kinase family with Axl and Tyro3. This family is characterized by a common NCAM (neural adhesion molecule)-related extracellular domain and a common ligand, GAS6 (growth arrest-specific protein 6). Mer protein has an apparent molecular weight of 170-210 kDa due to different glycosylation patterns generated in different cell types. Mer can be activated by dimerization and autophosphorylation through ligand binding or homophilic cell-cell interaction mediated by its NCAM-like motif (1). The downstream signaling components of activated Mer include PI3 kinase, PLCγ, and MAP kinase (2). Family members are prone to transcriptional regulation and carry out diverse functions including the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and survival (3). Mer regulates macrophage activation, promotes apoptotic cell engulfment, and supports platelet aggregation and clot stability in vivo (4). Investigators have found that overexpression of Mer may play a cooperative role in leukemogenesis and may be an effective target for biologically based leukemia/lymphoma therapy (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome, a frequent cause of inherited mental retardation, often results from expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the gene that encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) (1). FMRP (also known as FMR1) and its two autosomal homologs (FXR1 and FXR2) all bind RNA and play a role in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of these related proteins can associate with one another as well as form homodimers (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). In Drosophila, dFMRP associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and coimmunoprecipitates with miRNA and siRNA. These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by a defect in RNAi-related pathways (5). In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Rab11a, Rab11b, and Rab25 are members of the Rab11 subfamily of small Ras-like GTPases. Unlike universally expressed Rab11, typical Rab25 expression appears to be limited to gastrointestinal mucosa, kidney, and lung (1). Rab25 can associate with apical recycling vesicles to help regulate apical vesicle trafficking (2,3). Research studies indicate that atypical Rab25 expression can be associated with various forms of cancer. Increased Rab25 expression is associated with aggressive growth in ovarian and breast cancer, where Rab25 may inhibit apoptosis and promote cancer cell proliferation and invasion through regulation of vesicle transport and cellular motility (4-7). Interaction between Rab25 and β1 integrin promotes vesicle-mediated transport of integrin to pseudopodial tip membranes, fostering the persistent invasion of tumor cells (8). Conversely, the reported loss of Rab25 expression in a number of breast cancer cases has an unclear effect on cancer pathogenesis (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Members of the F-box family of proteins are characterized by the approximate 40 amino acid F-box motif named after cyclin F (1,2). F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. The substrate specificity of SCF complexes is determined by the interchangeable F-box proteins, which act as adaptors by associating with phosphorylated substrate proteins and recruiting them to the SCF core. F-box proteins contain two fundamental domains: the F-box motif mediates binding to Skp1 and a leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain mediates substrate interactions.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The phagocytic NADPH oxidase is a multiprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to superoxide in response to pathogenic invasion. The NADPH oxidase consists of 6 subunits, including the membrane-bound p91 phox and p22 phox heterodimers (also known as cytochrome b558), the cytosolic complex of p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2. Activation of NADPH oxidase is initiated by cytosolic complex phosphorylation, which induces a conformational change that leads to the translocation of the cytosolic complex to the membrane and formation of an active enzyme with cytochrome b558 (1). Defects in p47phox, often resulting from recombination between p47phox and a nearby homologous pseudogene, cause chronic granulomatous disease (2-4). Elevated oxidative stress due to increased myocardial NADPH oxidase activity may be a contributing factor in heart failure (5,6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Guinea Pig, Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The phagocytic NADPH oxidase is a multiprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to superoxide in response to invasion of pathogens into the body. The NADPH oxidase consists of 6 subunits, the membrane-bound p91phox and p22phox heterodimer (also known as cytochrome b558), the cytoplasmic complex of p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2. Activation of NADPH oxidase is initiated by phosphorylation of the cytosolic complex, which induces comformational changes of the complex and ultimately leads to the translocation of the cytoplasmic complex to the membrane to form an active enzyme with cytochrome b558 (1). Thr154 and Ser315 of p40 phox have been identified as PKC phosphorylation sites modified during activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (2).

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb #9718).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Histone H2A.X is a variant histone that represents approximately 10% of the total H2A histone proteins in normal human fibroblasts (1). H2A.X is required for checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest and DNA repair following double-stranded DNA breaks (1). DNA damage, caused by ionizing radiation, UV-light, or radiomimetic agents, results in rapid phosphorylation of H2A.X at Ser139 by PI3K-like kinases, including ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK (2,3). Within minutes following DNA damage, H2A.X is phosphorylated at Ser139 at sites of DNA damage (4). This very early event in the DNA-damage response is required for recruitment of a multitude of DNA-damage response proteins, including MDC1, NBS1, RAD50, MRE11, 53BP1, and BRCA1 (1). In addition to its role in DNA-damage repair, H2A.X is required for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and is phosphorylated by various kinases in response to apoptotic signals. H2A.X is phosphorylated at Ser139 by DNA-PK in response to cell death receptor activation, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK1) in response to UV-A irradiation, and p38 MAPK in response to serum starvation (5-8). H2A.X is constitutively phosphorylated on Tyr142 in undamaged cells by WSTF (Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor) (9,10). Upon DNA damage, and concurrent with phosphorylation of Ser139, Tyr142 is dephosphorylated at sites of DNA damage by recruited EYA1 and EYA3 phosphatases (9). While phosphorylation at Ser139 facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair proteins and apoptotic proteins to sites of DNA damage, phosphorylation at Tyr142 appears to determine which set of proteins are recruited. Phosphorylation of H2A.X at Tyr142 inhibits the recruitment of DNA repair proteins and promotes binding of pro-apoptotic factors such as JNK1 (9). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing only mutant H2A.X Y142F, which favors recruitment of DNA repair proteins over apoptotic proteins, show a reduced apoptotic response to ionizing radiation (9). Thus, it appears that the balance of H2A.X Tyr142 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation provides a switch mechanism to determine cell fate after DNA damage.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tuberin is a product of the TSC2 tumor suppressor gene and an important regulator of cell proliferation and tumor development (1). Mutations in either TSC2 or the related TSC1 (hamartin) gene cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by development of multiple, widespread non-malignant tumors (2). Tuberin is directly phosphorylated at Thr1462 by Akt/PKB (3). Phosphorylation at Thr1462 and Tyr1571 regulates tuberin-hamartin complexes and tuberin activity (3-5). In addition, tuberin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which promotes inhibition of p70 S6 kinase, activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, an inhibitor of translation initiation), and eventual inhibition of translation (3,6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) that catalyzes the formation of thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate from thymidine and orthophosphate (1). This intracellular enzyme is capable of both promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis. Thymidine phosphorylase catalytic activity is required for its angiogenic function (2,3). Increased expression of TP/PD-ECGF is seen in a wide variety of different solid tumors and inflammatory diseases and is often associated with poor prognosis (4,5). Alternatively, TP can activate fluorouracil derivative (DFUR) prodrugs and increase the antitumor activity of the related treatment (1,5). The use of thymidine phosphorylase as a cancer therapeutic target has been studied extensively, with emphasis on either inhibiting TP enzymatic activity or increasing enzyme induction with concomitant DFUR treatment (1,5).

$327
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. Phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) (81E11) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of SAPK/JNK phosphorylated at Thr183 and Tyr185. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) (81E11) Rabbit mAb #4668.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The phagocytic NADPH oxidase is a multiprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to superoxide in response to pathogenic invasion. The NADPH oxidase consists of 6 subunits, including the membrane-bound p91 phox and p22 phox heterodimers (also known as cytochrome b558), the cytosolic complex of p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2. Activation of NADPH oxidase is initiated by cytosolic complex phosphorylation, which induces a conformational change that leads to the translocation of the cytosolic complex to the membrane and formation of an active enzyme with cytochrome b558 (1). Defects in p47phox, often resulting from recombination between p47phox and a nearby homologous pseudogene, cause chronic granulomatous disease (2-4). Elevated oxidative stress due to increased myocardial NADPH oxidase activity may be a contributing factor in heart failure (5,6).