Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Product listing: Stat5 (D2O6Y) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P42229 #94205 to PIAS1 (D33A7) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID O75925 #92725

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Spred1 belongs to the Spred family functioning as sprouty-related suppressor of Ras signaling down stream of growth receptor signaling (1,2). The protein has a N-terminal EVH1 (Ena/VASP homology-1) domain, followed by a KBD (c-Kit- binding domain) and a C-terminal SPR (Sprouty) domain. The C-terminal SPR domain functions to translocate Spred1 to the membrane following growth factor stimulation (1,3). The N-terminal EVH1 domain interacts with neurofibromin to bring the later to the membrane proximal signaling complex for down regulation of Ras signaling (4,5). Mutations of Spred1 are the causes of Legius Syndrome (6,7). Spred1 expression inhibits tumor cell motility and metastasis, and down regulation has been found in hepatocarcinoma and myeloblastic leukemia (8-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CAD is essential for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and possesses the following enzymatic activities: glutamine amidotransferase, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. Thus, the enzyme converts glutamine to uridine monophosphate, a common precursor of all pyrimidine bases, and it is necessary for nucleic acid synthesis (1). In resting cells, CAD is localized mainly in the cytoplasm where it carries out pyrimidine synthesis. As proliferating cells enter S phase, MAP Kinase (Erk1/2) phosphorlyates CAD at Thr456, resulting in CAD translocation to the nucleus. As cells exit S phase, CAD is dephosphorylated at Thr456 and phosphorylated at Ser1406 by PKA, returning the pathway to basal activity (2). Various research studies have shown increased expression of CAD in several types of cancer, prompting the development of pharmacological inhibitors such as PALA. Further studies have identified CAD as a potential predictive early marker of prostate cancer relapse (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HGF β (D6S7D) XP® Rabbit mAb #52445.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, also known as Scatter Factor) was initially discovered as a mitogenic cytokine that induced hepatocyte replication and proliferation (1-3). HGF is produced by stromal cells where it is processed by extracellular serine proteases into a heterodimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits (4). Through activation of its receptor, cMET, HGF has a wide range of effects beyond hepatocytes that includes angiogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and morphogenesis, and tissue protection and regeneration (5). The HGF-cMET axis has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, where HGF has been shown to promote invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance (6,7). These research studies suggest that HGF is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CD14 is a leucine-rich repeat-containing pattern recognition receptor with expression largely restricted to the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage (1). Research studies have shown that CD14 is a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding glycoprotein, expressed as either a GPI-linked membrane protein or a soluble plasma protein (2). LPS induces an upregulation of GPI-linked CD14 expression, which facilitates TLR4 signaling and macrophage activation in response to bacterial infection (3-5).

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur. For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/services/index.html.

Background: Lysine is subject to a wide array of regulatory post-translational modifications due to its positively charged ε-amino group side chain. The most prevalent of these are ubiquitination and acetylation, which are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes (1,2). Acyl group transfer from the metabolic intermediates acetyl-, succinyl-, malonyl-, glutaryl-, butyryl-, propionyl-, and crotonyl-CoA all neutralize lysine’s positive charge and confer structural alterations affecting substrate protein function. Lysine acetylation is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases, HATs, using acetyl-CoA as a cofactor (3,4). Deacylation is mediated by histone deacetylases, HDACs 1-11, and NAD-dependent Sirtuins 1-7. Some sirtuins have little to no deacetylase activity, suggesting that they are better suited for other acyl lysine substrates (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The endocannabinoid system consists of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, the enzymes that produce and degrade the endogenous cannabinoid ligands (such as FAAH, DAG lipases, and MAG lipase), and the endocannabinoid ligands derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (1-3). CB1 receptor belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and harbors a large N-terminal extracellular domain, seven transmembrane domains, and a C-terminal intracellular tail. CB1 receptor is coupled to the Gai/o subunit of the G protein which inhibits adenylyl cyclases and regulates calcium and potassium ion channels (4). CB1 receptor is one of the most abundant GPCRs in the central nervous system. It has been show to play critical roles in the wiring of the brain during development (5), in neuronal plasticity (6), analgesia, drug abuse and metabolic homeostasis (7). In addition, CB1 receptor has been shown to interact with other GPCRs, to give rise to novel pharmacological and signaling heteromers with implication in diseases (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: RanBP3 was originally identified as RanGTP binding protein located in the nucleus and involved in the nuclear exporting process (1). It functions as a cofactor for CRM1 nuclear export by binding to CRM1, stabilizing the RanGTP-CRM1-cargo interaction and promoting complex association with nuclear pore proteins (2,3). In the absence of Ran-bound GTP, RanBP3 prevents binding of CRM1 complex to the nuclear pore complex. In addition to CRM1, RanBP3 also has been shown to bind to RanGEF-RCC1 and increase the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of RCC1 for RanGTP-CRM1-Cargo (1,4). In some cases, as with β-catenin and Smad2/3, RanBP3 binding may mediate the target protein nuclear export in a Ran-dependent, but CRM1-independent manner (5,6). RanBP3 is phosphorylated at Ser58 through the PI3K/Akt or ERK/RSK pathway. This phosphorylation is important for RanBP3 function in nuclear export, likely due to stimulation of RCC1 activity (7,8).

$142
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: L-arginine plays a critical role in regulating the immune system (1-3). In inflammation, cancer and certain other pathological conditions, myeloid cell differentiation is inhibited leading to a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are recruited to sites of cancer-associated inflammation and express high levels of arginase-1 (4). Arginase-1 catalyzes the final step of the urea cycle converting L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea (5). Thus MDSCs increase the catabolism of L-arginine resulting in L-arginine depletion in the inflammatory microenvironment of cancer (4,6). The reduced availability of L-arginine suppresses T-cell proliferation and function and thus contributes to tumor progression (4,6). Arginase-1 is of great interest to researchers looking for a therapeutic target to inhibit the function of MDSCs in the context of cancer immunotherapy (7). In addition, research studies have demonstrated that Arginase-1 distinguishes primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumors in the liver, indicating its value as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of HCC (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Legumain (LGMN) is an asparaginyl endopeptidase that mediates lysosomal processing of antigen for class II MHC presentation. Under normal conditions, LGMN is mostly found in lysosomes. However, its expression level, cellular compartmentalization, and function may change under certain conditions, including cancer (1, 2, 3). In colorectal cancer, LGMN is upregulated and is found extracellularly and in the nucleus in both primary tumors and colorectal cancer cell lines (4, 5). Legumain forms homodimers and may be activated by postranstranslational modifications, including autoproteolytic cleavage, as it moves from one cellular compartment to another (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: CD163 is a transmembrane scavenger receptor expressed on the macrophage surface. It has 9 B-type SRCR extracellular domains mediating serum haptoglobin clearing/endocytosis, pathogen binding and signal transduction, and calcium binding (1, 2). CD163 is used as a surface marker of M2 type macrophages, including M2 type tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), which facilitate cancer progression by secreting cytokines to promote angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis (3). Inflammatory stimulation and stress signal can induce extracellular domain shedding of CD163 to generate soluble CD163 (sCD163). The increased sCD163 level in serum is associated with low-grade inflammation in disease conditions (4-7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated iNOS (D6B6S) Rabbit mAb #13120.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and citruline from L-arginine, oxygen and cofactors. Three family members have been characterized: neuronal NOS (nNOS), which is found primarily in neuronal tissue; inducible NOS (iNOS), which is induced by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharides in the kidney and cardiovascular system; and endothelial NOS (eNOS), which is expressed in blood vessels (1). NO is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body including the maintenance of vascular integrity, homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, learning, and memory (2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Syk family protein tyrosine kinase Zap-70 is expressed in T and NK cells and plays a critical role in mediating T cell activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement (1). Following TCR engagement, Zap-70 is rapidly phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues through autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by the Src family tyrosine kinase Lck (2-6). Tyrosine phosphorylation correlates with increased Zap-70 kinase activity and downstream signaling events. Expression of Zap-70 is correlated with disease progression and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (7,8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is one of the earliest events in a cascade that controls a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, gene expression, proliferation, and muscle contraction (1,2). PKC isoforms belong to three groups based on calcium dependency and activators. Classical PKCs are calcium-dependent via their C2 domains and are activated by phosphatidylserine (PS), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phorbol esters (TPA, PMA) through their cysteine-rich C1 domains. Both novel and atypical PKCs are calcium-independent, but only novel PKCs are activated by PS, DAG, and phorbol esters (3-5). Members of these three PKC groups contain a pseudo-substrate or autoinhibitory domain that binds to substrate-binding sites in the catalytic domain to prevent activation in the absence of cofactors or activators. Control of PKC activity is regulated through three distinct phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation occurs in vivo at Thr500 in the activation loop, at Thr641 through autophosphorylation, and at the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic site Ser660 (2). Atypical PKC isoforms lack hydrophobic region phosphorylation, which correlates with the presence of glutamic acid rather than the serine or threonine residues found in more typical PKC isoforms. The enzyme PDK1 or a close relative is responsible for PKC activation. A recent addition to the PKC superfamily is PKCμ (PKD), which is regulated by DAG and TPA through its C1 domain. PKD is distinguished by the presence of a PH domain and by its unique substrate recognition and Golgi localization (6). PKC-related kinases (PRK) lack the C1 domain and do not respond to DAG or phorbol esters. Phosphatidylinositol lipids activate PRKs, and small Rho-family GTPases bind to the homology region 1 (HR1) to regulate PRK kinase activity (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Erg-associated protein with SET domain (ESET), also known as SET-domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) protein, is a member of a family of histone lysine methyltransferases, each of which contains a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in Drosophila Su[var]3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins (1). ESET also contains tudor and methyl-CpG-binding domains, which may coordinate binding to methylated histones and methylated DNA, respectively (1). ESET methylates histone H3 Lys9, creating a transcriptionally repressive mark that facilitates gene silencing (1-3). However, unlike SUV39H histone H3 Lys9 methyltransferases, which function mainly in heterochromatin regions such as pericentric heterochromatin, ESET functions mainly in euchromatic regions to repress gene promoters (3). ESET interacts with a variety of proteins, including transcription factors (ERG), histone deacetylases (HDAC1/2), DNA methyltransferases (DNMT3A/B) and transcriptional co-repressors (mSin3A/B, MBD1, KAP-1, the ATFa-associated modulator mAM) (1-6). mAM forms a complex with ESET, stimulating its methyltransferase activity, specifically the conversion of di-methyl to tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 (2). MBD1 recruits ESET to the CAF-1 complex to facilitate methylation of histone H3 Lys9 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly in S phase (5). DNMT3A recruits ESET to silenced promoters in cancer cells (7). ESET may play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, since levels of ESET protein and tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 are both increased in diseased brains (8).

Stat Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine the complete Stat family: Stat1-6. The kit contains enough a primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Jaks (Janus Kinases) and Stats (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are utilized by receptors for a wide variety of ligands including cytokines, hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Jaks, activated via autophosphorylation following ligand-induced receptor aggregation, phosphorylate tyrosine residues on associated receptors, Stat molecules and other downstream signaling proteins (1,2). The phosphorylation of Stat proteins at conserved tyrosine residues activates SH2-mediated dimerization followed rapidly by nuclear translocation. Stat dimers bind to IRE (interferon response element) and GAS (gamma interferon-activated sequence) DNA elements, resulting in the transcriptional regulation of downstream genes (1,2). The remarkable range and specificity of responses regulated by the Stats is determined in part by the tissue-specific expression of different cytokine receptors, Jaks and Stats (2,3), and by the combinatorial coupling of various Stat members to different receptors. Serine phosphorylation in the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain has been shown to regulate the function of Stat1, -2, -3, -4 and -5 (1). Phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 via MAPK or mTOR pathways is required for optimal transcriptional activation in response to growth factors and cytokines including IFN-gamma and CNTF (4,5). Jak/Stat pathways also play important roles in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis, cell motility, immune responses and stem cell differentiation (6-11).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) is a multi-functional scaffold protein that was initially discovered using a differential display technique that identified proteins missing from bladder cancer cell lines (1,2). MTSS1 (also known as Missing in Metastasis or MIM) is a cytoskeletal remodeling protein that contains a C-terminal WH2 actin-binding motif (1,3). Presence of an IMD (IRSp53/MIM homology) domain allows MTSS1 to induce F-actin bundling and filopodia formation in cells (4). MTSS1 binds to and activates Rac, a protein known to promote the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia (5). The receptor tyrosine phosphatase δ (PTPRD) is associated with MTSS1 and is required for MTSS1-dependent cytoskeletal change (6,7). MTSS1 is a SHH responsive gene that can help regulate GLI-dependent transcriptional activity (8).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: NKX3.1 is a homeobox transcription factor that in mammals plays a defining role in embryonic prostate morphogenesis. The expression of mammalian NKX3.1 is androgen-dependent, restricted primarily to developing and mature prostate epithelium, and is frequently reduced or lost in prostate cancer (1-3). The human NKX3.1 gene is located on chromsome 8p21.2, within a region that shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in >50% of prostate cancer cases (2). Allelic loss at the NKX3.1 locus is also common in high grade Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN), thought to be a putative precursor lesion to invasive prostate adenocarcinomas, suggesting that LOH at the NKX3.1 locus is a critical early step in prostate cancer development (4). Notably, the remaining NKX3.1 allele is intact in the majority of LOH cases, leading to the suggestion that NKX3.1 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor (4-6). Due to its highly restricted expression in prostate epithelial cells, NKX3.1 has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of prostate carcinoma (7), and may have additional utility as a biomarker of metastatic lesions originating in the prostate (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The family of Trk receptor tyrosine kinases consists of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC. While the sequence of these family members is highly conserved, they are activated by different neurotrophins: TrkA by NGF, TrkB by BDNF or NT4, and TrkC by NT3 (1). Neurotrophin signaling through these receptors regulates a number of physiological processes, such as cell survival, proliferation, neural development, and axon and dendrite growth and patterning (1). In the adult nervous system, the Trk receptors regulate synaptic strength and plasticity. TrkA regulates proliferation and is important for development and maturation of the nervous system (2). Phosphorylation at Tyr490 is required for Shc association and activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade (3,4). Residues Tyr674/675 lie within the catalytic domain, and phosphorylation at these sites reflects TrkA kinase activity (3-6). Point mutations, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements (chimeras) cause ligand-independent receptor dimerization and activation of TrkA (7-10). TrkA is activated in many malignancies including breast, ovarian, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas (8-13). Research studies suggest that expression of TrkA in neuroblastomas may be a good prognostic marker as TrkA signals growth arrest and differentiation of cells originating from the neural crest (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Laminins are a family of proteins important for maintaining cellular basement membrane (BM) structure and function (1). Laminins exist as heterotrimers of alpha (LAMA), beta (LAMB), and gamma (LAMC) chains. LAMC1 (laminin gamma-1) is a ubiquitously expressed gamma chain, and has three distinct functional domain structures. The N-terminal LN domain binds to specific alpha and beta chains to form a unique laminin heterotrimer. The LE domain mediates interactions with nidogens, while the C-terminal coil-coil fragment is necessary for agrin association. Collectively, these interactions are critical for stabilization and function of the BM (1). Genetic ablation of LAMC1 has demonstrated a critical role for this protein in embryo implantation, lung and kidney development, and neuronal Schwann cell myelination and regeneration, in addition to Trypanosome infection (2-5). Upregulation of LAMC1 has also been associated with tumor progression in multiple tumor types (6-9), possibly by creating a BM environment that is favorable for cancer cell metastasis and invasion.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The coronin family of actin-binding proteins regulates a variety of cellular functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and cytokinesis. Coronin 1A is highly expressed in lymphocytes, and is required for appropriate immune regulation in mice and humans. Researchers are investigating coronin 1A as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers (1,2). Coronin 1A affects bone resorption through its regulation of lysosome fusion and secretion of cathepsin K in osteoclasts (3). In the nervous system, coronin 1A has been shown to regulate GPCR signaling and neurite outgrowth (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Alix, a phylogenetically conserved cytosolic scaffold protein, contains an N-terminal Bro1 domain, a coiled-coil region and a C-terminal proline-rich domain (1,2). Originally identified as an ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein involved in programmed cell death (3,4), Alix also regulates many other cellular processes, such as endocytic membrane trafficking and cell adhesion through interactions with ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins, endophilins, and CIN85 (Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa) (5,6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated VISTA (D1L2G™) XP® Rabbit mAb #64953.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: VISTA (V-Domain Ig Suppressor of T Cell Activation) is a negative checkpoint control protein that regulates T cell activation and immune responses. VISTA, which contains a single Ig-like V-type domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain, has sequence similarity to both the B7 and CD28 family members. Although primarily expressed by myeloid cells, VISTA is also expressed by CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ T-cells. Thus, VISTA is described as both a ligand and a receptor (1-3). Blocking VISTA induces T-cell activation and proliferation, and potentiates disease severity in the EAE model (1). Furthermore, genetic deletion of VISTA in mice leads to spontaneous T-cell activation and chronic inflammation (4,5). In mouse models of cancer, neutralization of VISTA enhances T-cell proliferation and effector function and increases tumor infiltration, suggesting VISTA blockade could be an effective strategy for tumor immunotherapy (6,7).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PIAS1 (D33A7) XP® Rabbit mAb #3550.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The protein inhibitor of activated Stat (PIAS) proteins, which include PIAS1, PIAS3, PIASx, and PIASy, were originally characterized based on their interaction with the Stat family of transcription factors (1,2). PIAS1, PIAS3, and PIASx interact with and repress Stat1, Stat3, and Stat4, respectively (1-3). Deletion of PIAS1 leads to inhibition of interferon-inducible genes and increased protection against infection (4). The PIAS family contains a conserved RING domain that has been linked to a function as a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligase, coupling the SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 with its substrate proteins (5,6). Numerous studies have now shown that PIAS family members can regulate the activity of transcription factors through distinct mechanisms, including NF-κB (7,8), c-Jun, p53 (5,9), Oct-4 (10), and Smads (11,12). The activity of PIAS1 is regulated by both phosphorylation and arginine methylation. Inflammatory stimuli can induce IKK-mediated phosphorylation of PIAS1 at Ser90, which is required for its activity (13). In addition, PRMT1 induces arginine methylation of PIAS1 at Arg303 following interferon treatment and is associated with its repressive activity on Stat1 (14).