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Product listing: SignalSilence® RIP3 siRNA II (Mouse Specific), UniProt ID Q9QZL0 #14661 to Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (D47E7) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID P42229 #14603

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® RIP3 siRNA II (Mouse Specific) from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit RIP3 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results in chromosomal breakage, bone marrow failure, hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents (such as mitomycin C), and a predisposition to cancer (1). The ubiquitously expressed FA complementation group A protein (FANCA, FAA) is a component of the FA nuclear complex that also contains FANCB, FANCC, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCL, and FANCM. In response to DNA damage, the FA nuclear complex induces mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI (2). FANCJ/BRIP1, FANCD1/BRCA2 and FANCN/PALB2 are then recruited to sites of DNA damage along with other DNA repair proteins. FA signaling is important in maintenance of chromosome stability and control of mitosis (3).DNA-damage-dependent localization and stability of FANCA protein regulates FA complex function and localization. Interaction between FANCA protein and the Hsp90 chaperone protein regulates FANCA protein stability and turnover, and may play a role in controlling the FA DNA damage pathway (4). Mutations in the corresponding FANCA gene are responsible for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a forkhead box family transcription factor that regulates a number of genes throughout the cell cycle to help control DNA replication, mitosis, and cell proliferation. FoxM1 expression increases during G1 and S and reaches maximum levels in G2/M (1-3). Nuclear translocation occurs just before entry into G2/M and is associated with FoxM1 phosphorylation (4). Phosphorylation of FoxM1 by MAPK (Ser331, Ser704), Cyclin/Cdk (Ser4, Ser35, Thr600, Thr611, Thr620, Thr627, Ser638), Plk1 (Ser715, Ser724), and Chk2 (Ser376) stabilizes and activates FoxM1 (4-8). Forkhead box M1 is expressed in all embryonic tissues but is restricted to proliferating tissues in adults (9). Research studies show that FoxM1 expression is negatively regulated by p53 (10,11). Upregulation of FoxM1 is associated with many human cancers, including prostate, breast, lung, ovary, colon, pancreas, stomach, bladder, liver, and kidney, and may be associated with p53 mutations in some tumors (11,12). As a result, FoxM1 inhibitors have become a topic of interest for potential cancer therapy (13).

$325
1 ea
The 12-Tube Magnetic Separation Rack is designed for quick and easy small-scale isolation of immunocomplexes using magnetic beads, such as our Protein A (#8687), Protein G (#8740), and ChIP-Grade Protein G (#9006) Magnetic Beads. It can be used with our SimpleChIP® (#9003) and SimpleChIP® Plus (#9005) Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits. The rack holds up to twelve 1.5-2.0 ml tubes and contains six neodymium rare earth permanent magnets.CAUTION: This device contains rare earth magnets that can be extremely powerful. Care should be taken when handling. Keep magnetized parts away from mechanical/electrical instruments that may be damaged by high magnetic fields.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation

$364
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Acetyl-α-Tubulin (Lys40) (D20G3) XP® Rabbit mAb #5335.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially hazardous lesions that can be induced by ionizing radiation (IR), radiomimetic chemicals, or DNA replication inhibitors. Cells detect and repair DSBs through two distinct but partly overlapping signaling pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). DNA repair through the HR pathway is restricted to S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, while NHEJ can occur during any cell cycle phase. Defects in both pathways have been associated with human disease, including cancer (1).DNA repair through the NHEJ pathway involves a core group of proteins that includes the Ku heterodimer, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, and XLF. XLF interacts with XRCC4 and promotes the ligation of DNA strands by DNA ligase IV and the ligase cofactor XRCC4. The ATP-dependent ligation of free DNA ends is the final step in the NHEJ repair pathway (2). Research studies suggest that XLF and XRCC4 proteins form complexes that bridge DNA breaks earlier in the NHEJ pathway (3). Additional studies indicate that localization of XRCC4 to the nucleus and levels of XRCC4 protein are both regulated by DNA ligase IV (4). Mutations in the corresponding LIG4 gene are associated with LIG4 syndrome, a disorder characterized by immunodeficiency and developmental growth delay. Cells isolated from patients diagnosed with LIG4 syndrome display typical cell cycle checkpoint activity, but aberrant rejoining of DNA double strand breaks (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Sec61 translocon is a channel complex located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to mediate membrane protein insertion into the organelle (1). There are three components in the complex, Sec61A, Sec61B, and Sec61G (2). Sec61A is the main component of the channel on the ER membrane and directly contacts nascent synthesized polypeptide TMD (transmembrane domain) for insertion (3). Sec61G functions in stablizing the channel (3). In addition to TMD insertion, Sec61 translocon has also been shown to be involved in ER calcium leakage (4,5). Both Bip and calmodulin can inhibit this leakage by their interaction with Sec61A (6,7). Sec61B has no obvious function related to target protein ER membrane insertion, but is involved in other vesicle trafficking processes such as EGFR and Her2 trafficking from the cytosol to nucleus (8,9), Gurken trafficking from Golgi to plasma membrane (10), and copper-transporting ATPase membrane distribution (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a member of the dynamin superfamily of GTPases. Members of this family have diverse cellular functions including vesicle scission, organelle fission, viral resistance, and intracellular trafficking (reviewed in 1). DRP1 affects mitochondrial morphology and is important in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission in mammalian cells (2-5). The yeast ortholog of DRP1 clusters into a spiral-shaped structure on the mitochondrial membrane at the site of fission (reviewed in 6), and this structure is likely conserved in mammalian cells (3). The division of the mitochondria, which is required for apoptosis, as well as normal cell growth and development is controlled, in part, by the phosphorylation of DRP1 at Ser616 by Cdk1/cyclin B and at Ser637 by protein kinase A (PKA) (reviewed in 6). When phosphorylated at Ser616, DRP1 stimulates mitochondrial fission during mitosis. Conversely, fission is inhibited when DRP1 is phosphorylated at Ser637 (reviewed in 6). Dephosphorylation at Ser637 by calcineurin reverses this inhibition (7). In addition to phosphorylation, sumoylation of DRP1 is also an enhancer of mitochondrial fission (8). Balancing fission and fusion events is essential for proper mitochondrial function. Research studies have demonstrated mitochondrial defects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease (reviewed in 6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase that is prominently expressed in lymphoid and myeloid lineages of hematopoiesis (1). The Hck kinase participates in transduction of a variety of extracellular signals that affect cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Hck protein structure includes a relatively divergent amino-terminal "unique" domain that is subject to post-translational lipid modifications and targets Hck to the plasma membrane. Src homology 3 (SH3) and 2 (SH2) domains, and a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain are adjacent to the "unique" domain. Research studies indicate that phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine residues positively and negatively regulate Hck catalytic activity. Phosphorylation of Hck at the conserved, carboxy-terminal Tyr499 by protein kinase Csk promotes an interaction between the phosphorylated tyrosine and the SH2 domain, rendering Hck inactive. Disruption of this interaction through dephosphorylation, the replacement of the Tyr522 with phenylalanine, or carboxy-terminal truncation mutations, results in constitutive activation of Hck. Autophosphorylation of Tyr411 within the kinase domain positively regulates Hck catalytic activity. Thus, the activation of Hck requires both disruption of the regulatory tyrosine-SH2 domain interaction and autophosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue within the kinase domain (2,3). The dysfunction or dysregulation of Hck may contribute to the pathogenesis of some human forms of leukemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a member of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) family of proteins that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a guanidine nitrogen of arginine (1). The three types of PRMTs share the ability to mono-methylate arginine residues, but vary in their ability to generate differential methylation states (1-3). Mono-methylated arginine residues are further methylated by type I PRMTs to generate an asymmetric di-methyl arginine or by type II PRMTs to form a symmetric-dimethyl arginine. Type III methyltransferases are only able to mono-methylate arginine residues (1-3). PRMT6 is a type I PRMT that acts as both a transcriptional coactivator and a corepressor and catalyzes the asymmetric di-methylation of histone H3 (Arg 2, Arg42), histone H4 (Arg3), and histone H2A at Arg29 (2,4). PRMT6 acts as a coactivator for transcription factors, including estrogen receptor and NFκB, while asymmetric di-methylation of histone H3 (Arg2) by PRMT6 prevents MLL methylation of histone H3 at Lys4 and inhibits transcription activation (5-8). In addition to its role in regulating transcription, PRMT6 methylates DNA polymerase β, leading to enhanced DNA binding and processivity during base excision repair of damaged DNA (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: RanBP9 (RanBPM) is a Ran binding protein ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in different organisms. It is a scaffolding protein that was identified as an interacting protein of MET inducing Ras- Erk activation (1). Several domains and motifs regulate the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of RanBP9 (2). Research studies indicate that RanBP9 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In addition to elevated expression levels in AD samples, this may involve interaction of RanBP9 with APP and BACE1 promoting endocytosis of APP and increased BACE1 mediated cleavage of APP to generate β-amyloid peptides (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 (CD38) is a transmembrane protein involved in several important biological processes, including immune response, insulin secretion, and social behavior. Originally described as a glycosylated immune cell surface marker, additional research determined that CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) from NAD (1,2). Under acidic conditions, CD38 also catalyzes the synthesis of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from NADP+. Both cADPR and NAADP act as calcium ion mobilizing messengers that target different intracellular Ca2+ stores (3-6). Since CD38 is the primary mammalian NAD+ glycohydrolase responsible for NAD+ metabolism, CD38 may be a valuable therapeutic target for treatment of metabolic diseases regulated by NAD+-dependent pathways (7,8). CD38 has also been considered a possible therapeutic target for antibody-mediated therapy for myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze glycero-3-phosphocholines and release fatty acids and lysophospholipids (1). PLA2G1B is a member of this superfamily in the 1B group that is expressed most highly in the pancreatic acinar cells (2). Evidence suggests that PLA2G1B plays a role in the absorption and storage of extra energy as fats are metabolized (1,2). Lysophospholipids generated by PLA2G1B inhibit fatty acid oxidation in the liver and reduce energy expenditure, leading to diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes with a high fat diet (1). Therefore, a potential intervention of obesity and diabetes could target PLA2G1B in the digestive tract (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Formins are a family of large multidomain actin nucleation/polymerization proteins characterized by their catalytic FH2 domains. The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia/diap) subfamily, including mDia1/diap1, mDia2/diap3 and mDia3/diap2, are effectors of Rho family small GTPases. In response to Rho, mDia/diap proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple cell functions including cytoskeletal dynamics, migration, adhesion, polarity and cell shape (reviewed in 1,2).mDia1/diap1 is activated by GTP-bound Rho, leading to Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-dependent stress fiber formation (3,4). Rho activation of mDia1 has also been shown to regulate serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription (5), and has been implicated in human cancer phenotypes such as ras-mediated transformation, metastasis and invasion (reviewed in 6).mDia3/diap2, activated by the Rho family small GTPase cdc42, regulates the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore during mitosis in mammalian cells (7).Rho-dependent activation of mDia2/diap3 is important in assembly of the contractile ring during cytokinesis (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor and MAPK and MTOR activator 5 (LAMTOR5) is an essential component of the ragulator protein complex that is encoded by the HBXIP gene (1). The ragulator complex also includes LAMTOR1/C11orf59, LAMTOR2/ROBLD3, LAMTOR3/MAPKSP1, and LAMTOR4/C7orf59 (1,2). Research studies demonstrate that the ragulator complex localizes to the lysosomal membrane and is essential for the lysosomal localization of Rag GTPases and mTORC1 as well as the subsequent activation of mTORC1 in response to amino acid signaling (1-3). Additional research studies indicate that HBXIP regulates hepatitis B virus x (HBx) protein activity and is a transcription coactivator involved in the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Microtubules (MTs) are polarized cellular filaments composed of α/β tubulin heterodimers. The slower growing (minus) microtubule ends are located at MT organizing centers (MTOCs), with the faster growing (plus) ends extending to the cell periphery. The regulation of MT dynamics is an important part of several biological processes, including cell division, migration, adhesion, membrane trafficking, and polarity (1).Human cytoplasmic linker-associate proteins 1 and 2 (CLASP1 and CLASP2) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that localize to the plus ends of interphase microtubules. During mitosis, CLASP 1 and CLASP2 localize to the centrosomes and kinetochores (KT) where they regulate mitotic spindle positioning to ensure proper chromosome alignment (2,3). Research studies indicate that phosphorylation of the carboxy terminus of CLASP2 during mitosis by CDK1 and PLK1 is required for efficient mitotic MT-KT attachment (4). Phosphorylation of CLASP2 at Ser1013 is a critical step that primes CLASP2 for further phosphorylation by PLK1 (4). The additional phosphorylation of CLASP2 at Ser533 and Ser537 by GSK3-3β controls the distribution of CLASP2 on MTs by inhibiting CLASP2 interaction with the Rac1/cdc42 effector protein IQGAP1 (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of tumor suppressor proteins and transcription regulators (1,2). Differential mRNA splicing generates several ING1 isoforms, with the widely expressed ING1b (p33) isoform playing key roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and senescence (2-5). All ING family proteins contain a plant homeodomain (PHD) that is thought to recognize and bind methylated lysine residues on histone proteins (6,7). The ING1 protein regulates expression of genes through its association with histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes. The PHD of ING1 may facilitate the recruitment of these chromatin-modifying enzymes to targets genes that are regulated by various transcription factors, such as p53 (2, 8-10). Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, alterations in ING1 expression levels and cytoplasm localization have been observed in several cancers but mutations in the corresponding ING1 gene in cancers are uncommon (11-14).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neurofibromin is a Ras-specific GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), down-regulating Ras signaling (1). Studies have shown, that mutations in NF1 inhibit its activity, resulting in benign tumors such as neurofibromas, which may form along nerves throughout the body resulting in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (2). NF1 is one of the most common autosomal dominant diseases however it remains unclear how mutation of NF1 may lead to other features of NF1 (3). In addition, NF1 mutations occur in 5-10% of human sporadic malignancies such as glioblastomas, lung adenocarcinomas, melanomas, breast and ovarian cancers, and acute myeloid leukemias. Mutations in NF1 can cause resistance to therapies including chemotherapy and radiation therapy (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The p53 family member, p73, exists in multiple isoforms/splice variants and can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via its activity as a transcription regulator (1-3). Upon DNA damage, p73 is phosphorylated at Tyr99 by c-Abl, causing translocation to the nuclear matrix (4). DNA damage-induced acetylation of p73 at Lys321 by the acetyltransferase p300 has also been reported to enhance transcription of genes including that of p53AIP1 (5). Another report, however, indicates that p300 does not acetylate full-length p73 in vivo (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic cells contain ATP-driven proton pumps known as vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that acidify intracellular compartments and translocate protons across the plasma membrane (1,2). Intracellular v-ATPases play an important role in endocytosis and intracellular membrane trafficking, while plasma membrane v-ATPases are important in processes such as urinary acidification and bone resorption (1,2). Vacuolar ATPase enzymes are large, heteromultimeric protein complexes with component proteins found in either the V1 peripheral domain or the V0 integral domain (2). The cytoplasmic V1 domain contains a hexamer of A and B catalytic subunits, as well as a number of other protein subunits required for ATPase assembly and ATP hydrolysis. The integral V0 v-ATPase domain exhibits protein translocase activity and is responsible for transport of protons across the membrane (2). Research studies show that the v-ATPases ATP6V0c, ATP6V0d1, ATP6V1A, ATP6V1B2, and ATP6V1D interact with the Ragulator protein complex and are essential for amino acid induced activation of mTORC1 on the surface of lysosomes (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The HIV-1 Tat interactive protein 2 (HTATIP2, TIP30, CC3) is an oxidoreductase that was originally identified as a metastatic tumor suppressor and Tat-mediated proapoptotic gene transcription cofactor (1,2). HTATIP2 protein contains a short-chain dehydrogenase (SDR) domain and a NADPH binding motif important for HTATIP2 interaction with importins and inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic transport (3,4). Research studies demonstrate that induced overexpression of HTATIP2 predisposes cells to apoptosis by inhibiting the nuclear transport of important signaling proteins (e.g. p53, activated notch1) and several key targets of the DNA repair process (5-7). HTATIP2 is part of a protein complex, with Rab5a, endophilin B1, and ACSL4, that may regulate EGFR receptor endosomal trafficking, degradation, and cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling (8,9). Silencing of HTATIP2 promotes tumor cell survival under low glucose conditions by inducing increased expression of mitochondrial respiratory proteins and glucose metabolic enzymes (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The megakaryoblastic leukemia proteins 1 and 2 (MKL1, MKL2) are myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A, MRTF-B) that serve as actin-regulated transcription coactivators for the serum response factor (SRF). Interaction between G-actin and MKL proteins retains the coactivator within the cytoplasm of resting cells. Activated Rho-A promotes F-actin assembly and a reduction of the G-actin pool in serum-stimulated cells. This results in the accumulation of MKL proteins in the nucleus, where the coactivator associates with the SRF to activate target gene transcription and mediate multiple cellular processes (1-4). A number of other signaling pathways, including the TGFβ, BMP, and PDGF pathways, also make use of MKL-mediated activation of target gene transcription (5-9). Chromosomal translocations involving the genes encoding MKL1 and MKL2 have been identified in several cases of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and chondroid lipoma (10-12).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Nonmuscle myosin is an actin-based motor protein essential to cell motility, cell division, migration, adhesion, and polarity. The holoenzyme consists of two identical heavy chains and two sets of light chains. The light chains (MLCs) regulate myosin II activity and stability. The heavy chains (NMHCs) are encoded by three genes, MYH9, MYH10, and MYH14, which generate three different nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, IIa, IIb, and IIc, respectively (reviewed in 1). While all three isoforms perform the same enzymatic tasks, binding to and contracting actin filaments coupled to ATP hydrolysis, their cellular functions do not appear to be redundant and they have different subcellular distributions (2-5). The carboxy-terminal tail domain of myosin II is important in isoform-specific subcellular localization (6). Research studies have shown that phosphorylation of myosin IIa at Ser1943 contributes to the regulation of breast cancer cell migration (7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated c-Fos (9F6) Rabbit mAb #2250.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Fos family of nuclear oncogenes includes c-Fos, FosB, Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1), and Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) (1). While most Fos proteins exist as a single isoform, the FosB protein exists as two isoforms: full-length FosB and a shorter form, FosB2 (Delta FosB), which lacks the carboxy-terminal 101 amino acids (1-3). The expression of Fos proteins is rapidly and transiently induced by a variety of extracellular stimuli including growth factors, cytokines, neurotransmitters, polypeptide hormones, and stress. Fos proteins dimerize with Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) to form Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), a transcription factor that binds to TRE/AP-1 elements and activates transcription. Fos and Jun proteins contain the leucine-zipper motif that mediates dimerization and an adjacent basic domain that binds to DNA. The various Fos/Jun heterodimers differ in their ability to transactivate AP-1 dependent genes. In addition to increased expression, phosphorylation of Fos proteins by Erk kinases in response to extracellular stimuli may further increase transcriptional activity (4-6). Phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser32 and Thr232 by Erk5 increases protein stability and nuclear localization (5). Phosphorylation of FRA1 at Ser252 and Ser265 by Erk1/2 increases protein stability and leads to overexpression of FRA1 in cancer cells (6). Following growth factor stimulation, expression of FosB and c-Fos in quiescent fibroblasts is immediate, but very short-lived, with protein levels dissipating after several hours (7). FRA1 and FRA2 expression persists longer, and appreciable levels can be detected in asynchronously growing cells (8). Deregulated expression of c-Fos, FosB, or FRA2 can result in neoplastic cellular transformation; however, Delta FosB lacks the ability to transform cells (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 1 (ARFGAP1) is a Golgi-localized protein that regulates vesicle formation and membrane trafficking (1). ARFGAP1 initiates cargo selection and COP1 vesicle formation by stimulating GTP hydrolysis of ADP-ribosylation factor ARF1 (2). This GTPase activating protein initiates vesicle transport by coupling vesicle formation with cargo sorting (3). ARFGAP1 plays an active role in the Golgi-to-ER retrograde, intra-Golgi, and trans-Golgi trafficking networks (1). Research studies indicate that ARFGAP1 can act as a GTPase activating protein for LRRK2, a large multifunction protein whose genetic mutations are associated with Parkinson’s disease (4). ARFGAP1 regulates GTPase activity and promotes the kinase activity of LRRK2, which suggests some potential as a promising target for study of LRRK2 mediated neurodegeneration (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a process by which cells identify and repair DNA lesions that result from chemical and radiation exposure (1). The DNA binding protein XPA is an essential part of a pre-incision complex that forms at sites of damage, and is necessary for the initiation of nucleotide excision repair (2). XPA is one of eight NER proteins (XPA-G, XPV) encoded by genes that are defective in cases of xeroderma pigmentosum, a disorder characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, predisposition to exposed tissue cancers, and neurological defects in some patients (3). Activation of XPA follows phosphorylation at Ser196 and results in increased NER activity. Phosphorylation of XPA at Ser196 is induced by UV exposure in an ATR-dependant fashion (4) and promotes nuclear accumulation of XPA (5). Research studies suggest that XPA may be a direct substrate of the serine/threonine kinase ATR (4) and that NER activity may be negatively regulated through dephosphorylation of Ser196 by the phosphatase WIP1 (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: CD105/Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for the TGF-β receptor complex, functioning in related signaling pathways (1,2). CD105/Endoglin is a transmembrane protein that exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. It is mainly expressed in vascular and connective tissues and in endothelial and stromal cells. Upregulated CD105/endoglin expression has been reported during wound healing and tumor vascularization, and in inflammatory tissues and developing embryos (1-4). Mutations inCD105/endoglin have been found to be a causal factor of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a disease characterized by malformation of vascular structure (5,6). The importance of this protein for normal and tumor vascular function makes it a good marker for endothelial cell proliferation as well as a potential therapeutic target in cancer (4-6).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (D47E7) XP® Rabbit mAb #4322.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).