Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Product listing: Toll-like Receptor 9 (D9M9H) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate), UniProt ID Q9NR96 #14279 to Girdin Antibody, UniProt ID Q3V6T2 #14200

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Toll-like Receptor 9 (D9M9H) XP® Rabbit mAb #13674.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

$108
250 PCR reactions
500 µl
SimpleChIP® Human CD11b Promoter Primers contain a mix of forward and reverse PCR primers that are specific to a region of the human cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) promoter. These primers can be used to amplify DNA that has been isolated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Primers have been optimized for use in SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR and have been tested in conjunction with SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits #9002 and #9003 and ChIP-validated antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology®.CD11b encodes the CD11 antigen-like family member B (integrin alpha-M), a cell surface receptor involved in adhesion to various lymphocytes and in binding to complement C3b, mediating uptake of complement-coated particles.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to "measure" the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA cross-linking agent that "preserves" the protein-DNA interactions occurring in the cell (1,2). Cells are lysed and chromatin is harvested and fragmented using either sonication or enzymatic digestion. Fragmented chromatin is then immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific to a particular protein or histone modification. Any DNA sequences that are associated with the protein or histone modification of interest will co-precipitate as part of the cross-linked chromatin complex and the relative amount of that DNA sequence will be enriched by the immunoselection process. After immunoprecipitation, the protein-DNA cross-links are reversed and the DNA is purified. Standard PCR or quantitative real-time PCR are often used to measure the amount of enrichment of a particular DNA sequence by a protein-specific immunoprecipitation (1,2). Alternatively, the ChIP assay can be combined with genomic tiling micro-array (ChIP on chip) techniques, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), or cloning strategies, all of which allow for genome-wide analysis of protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications (5-8). SimpleChIP® primers have been optimized for amplification of ChIP-isolated DNA using real-time quantitative PCR and provide important positive and negative controls that can be used to confirm a successful ChIP experiment.

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Modulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in the regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. The nucleosome, made up of DNA wound around eight core histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin (1). The amino-terminal tails of core histones undergo various post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (2-5). These modifications occur in response to various stimuli and have a direct effect on the accessibility of chromatin to transcription factors and, therefore, gene expression (6). In most species, histone H2B is primarily acetylated at Lys5, 12, 15, and 20 (4,7). Histone H3 is primarily acetylated at Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, and 56. Acetylation of H3 at Lys9 appears to have a dominant role in histone deposition and chromatin assembly in some organisms (2,3). Phosphorylation at Ser10, Ser28, and Thr11 of histone H3 is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis (8-10). Phosphorylation at Thr3 of histone H3 is highly conserved among many species and is catalyzed by the kinase haspin. Immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies in mammalian cells reveals mitotic phosphorylation at Thr3 of H3 in prophase and its dephosphorylation during anaphase (11).

$262
100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® Rheb siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Rheb expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) is an evolutionarily conserved member of the Ras family of small GTP-binding proteins originally found to be rapidly induced by synaptic activity in the hippocampus following seizure (1). While it is expressed at relatively high levels in the brain, Rheb is widely expressed in other tissues and may be induced by growth factor stimulation. Like other Ras family members, Rheb triggers activation of the Raf-MEK-MAPK pathway (2). Biochemical and genetic studies demonstrate that Rheb has an important role in regulating the insulin/TOR signaling pathway (3-6). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a sensor for ATP and amino acids, balancing the availability of nutrients with translation and cell growth. The tuberin/hamartin (TSC2/TSC1) complex inhibits mTOR activity indirectly by inhibiting Rheb through the tuberin GAP activity (7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated FoxO1 (C29H4) Rabbit mAb #2880.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP) is an Atg8 family protein with a key role in autophagy, which was originally discovered as a protein associated with the GABAA receptor regulating receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane (1). Proteins in this family, including microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and GATE-16 (GABARAPL2), become incorporated into the autophagosomal membranes following autophagic stimuli such as starvation (2). Like the other family members, GABARAP is cleaved at its carboxyl terminus, which leads to conjugation by either of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine (3,4). This processing converts GABARAP from a type I to a type II membrane bound form involved in autophagosome biogenesis. Processing of GABARAP involves cleavage by Atg4 family members (5,6) followed by conjugation by the E1 and E2 like enzymes Atg7 and Atg3 (7,8). GABARAPL1/GEC1, a protein that is highly related to GABARAP, was identified as an estrogen inducible gene, and is also associated with autophagosomes (9-11).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Tyk2 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Tyk2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Tyk2 is a member of the Jak family of protein tyrosine kinases. It associates with and is activated by receptors for many cytokines including IL-13, the IL-6 family, IL-10, and IFN-α and β (1-3). Following ligand binding, Tyk2 is activated by phosphorylation of Tyr1054 and/or Tyr1055 (4). Tyk2 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 in the IFN-β signaling cascade (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) plays a significant role in transmembrane signaling. In response to extracellular stimuli such as hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters, PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate two secondary messengers: inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) (1). At least four families of PLCs have been identified: PLCβ, PLCγ, PLCδ and PLCε. The PLCβ subfamily includes four members, PLCβ1-4. All four members of the subfamily are activated by α- or β-γ-subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins (2,3).Phosphorylation is one of the key mechanisms that regulates the activity of PLC. Phosphorylation of Ser1105 by PKA or PKC inhibits PLCβ3 activity (4,5). Ser537 of PLCβ3 is phosphorylated by CaMKII, and this phosphorylation may contribute to the basal activity of PLCβ3. PLCγ is activated by both receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (6).PLCγ forms a complex with EGF and PDGF receptors, which leads to the phosphorylation of PLCγ at Tyr771, 783 and 1248 (7). Phosphorylation by Syk at Tyr783 activates the enzymatic activity of PLCγ1 (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in symptoms that include chromosomal breakage, bone marrow failure, hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents (such as mitomycin C), and a predisposition to cancer (1). FANCB is an X-linked member of the Fanconi Anemia nuclear complex (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCM). In response to DNA damage, the FA nuclear complex induces mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI (2). FANCJ/BRIP1, FANCD1/BRCA2 and FANCN/PALB2 are then recruited to sites of DNA damage along with other DNA repair proteins. FA signaling is important in maintenance of chromosome stability and control of mitosis (3).Studies of FANCB knockout embryonic stem cells suggest a role for FANCB in the formation of Rad51 and FANCD2 foci at chromosomal sites of DNA damage (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TAK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase activated by TGF-β and various pro-inflammatory signals (1,2). In vivo, TAK1 activation requires its association with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), which triggers TAK1 autophosphorylation at Thr184 and Thr187 (3,4). The TAB2 adaptor protein links TAK1 with TRAF6 to mediate TAK1 activation following IL-1 stimulation (5). Once activated, TAK1 phosphorylates the MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK3/6, which activate JNK and p38 MAPK, respectively. TAK1 and TRAF6 also activate the NF-κB pathway by phosphorylating the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) to trigger subsequent activation of IKK (2,6). In addition to TAK1, TAB1 interacts with and activates p38α MAPK (7). Targeted disruption of the TAB1 gene in mice causes a drastic reduction in TAK1 activity and leads to embryonic lethality (8).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser240/244) (D68F8) XP® Rabbit mAb #5364.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol group of ubiquitin-carrier enzyme E2. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of the target protein lysine residue, which is mediated by ubiquitin-ligase enzyme E3 (1).

$76
30 immunoprecipitations
1 Kit
This product is offered to conveniently provide additional ChIP buffer reagents for preparing, immunoprecipitating, washing, and eluting chromatin using our SimpleChIP® (#9002, #9003) and SimpleChIP® Plus (#9004, #9005) Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits, as well as our SimpleChIP® Sonication Chromatin IP kit (#56383). These SimpleChIP® kits provide all the reagents required for performing the recommended of chromatin preparations (or optimizations) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, however there are instances where extra ChIP Buffer, ChIP Elution buffer, and NaCl are desired.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb #9198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (197G2) Rabbit mAb #4377.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The DNA repair protein Rad50 is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosomes family (SMC) and plays an important role in cell cycle checkpoint signaling and double-strand break repair in response to DNA damage (1-4). Rad50 forms a complex with Mre11 and Nbs1 that becomes activated in response to DNA damage (3). In normal human cells, the MRN complex acts to tether linear DNA molecules, providing a flexible link between DNA ends (1). Genomic instability and cancer have been shown to develop in cells with genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the MRN complex (2). ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Rad50 at Ser635 in response to DNA damage is important in regulating downstream signaling, DNA repair and checkpoint control (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$303
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Tyrosine (P-Tyr-1000) MultiMab™ Rabbit mAb mix #8954.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in cellular signaling (1). Research studies have shown that in cancer, unregulated tyrosine kinase activity can drive malignancy and tumor formation by generating inappropriate proliferation and survival signals (2). Antibodies specific for phospho-tyrosine (3,4) have been invaluable reagents in these studies. The phospho-tyrosine monoclonal antibodies developed by Cell Signaling Technology are exceptionally sensitive tools for studying tyrosine phosphorylation and monitoring tyrosine kinase activity in high throughput drug discovery.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: In steroidogenic tissues, such as the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, and placenta, all steroids are synthesized from the common precursor cholesterol. Two families of steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 hydroxylase enzymes (CYP) and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD), catalyze the production of most steroids. There are six distinct steroid hydroxylases, which are cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by the steroidogenic CYP gene family (1). The cytochrome P450scc (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) encoded by CYP11A1 catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone (2).CYP11A1, located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, cooperates with two coenzymes, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase, to carry out three successive oxidation-reduction reactions of cholesterol (3-5). In the adrenal cortex, testis, and ovary, CYP11A1 expression is regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway (6), and the transcription factor SF1/NR5A1 has been shown to play a central role in mediating the cAMP signal on the CYP11A1 promoter within steroidogeneic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads (7). Defects in CYP11A1 are the cause of adrenal insufficiency congenital with 46, XY sex reversal (AICSR), which is a rare disorder that can present as acute adrenal insufficiency in infancy or childhood (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cadherins are a superfamily of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain cadherin repeats of approximately 100 residues in their extracellular domain. Cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion and play critical roles in normal tissue development (1). The classic cadherin subfamily includes N-, P-, R-, B-, and E-cadherins, as well as about ten other members that are found in adherens junctions, a cellular structure near the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins interacts with β-catenin, γ-catenin (also called plakoglobin), and p120 catenin. β-catenin and γ-catenin associate with α-catenin, which links the cadherin-catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton (1,2). While β- and γ-catenin play structural roles in the junctional complex, p120 regulates cadherin adhesive activity and trafficking (1-4). Investigators consider E-cadherin an active suppressor of invasion and growth of many epithelial cancers (1-3). Research studies indicate that cancer cells have upregulated N-cadherin in addition to loss of E-cadherin. This change in cadherin expression is called the "cadherin switch." N-cadherin cooperates with the FGF receptor, leading to overexpression of MMP-9 and cellular invasion (3). Research studies have shown that in endothelial cells, VE-cadherin signaling, expression, and localization correlate with vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis (5,6). Investigators have also demonstrated that expression of P-cadherin, which is normally present in epithelial cells, is also altered in ovarian and other human cancers (7,8).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Na(+)/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is one of the two main glucose transporters in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. It is activated by Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C, likely through phosphorylation of Ser624 (1,2). SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption in the kidney (3,4), and mutations in SGLT2 are known to cause familial renal glucosuria (5,6). SGLT2 is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of SGLT2 have been developed in order to treat people with type 2 diabetes (7).

$107
36 DNA Purifications
1 Kit
This product is offered to conveniently provide additional ChIP buffer reagents for preparing, immunoprecipitating, washing, and eluting chromatin using our SimpleChIP® (#9002, #9003) and SimpleChIP® Plus (#9004, #9005) Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kits, as well as our SimpleChIP® Sonication Chromatin IP kit (#56383). These SimpleChIP® kits provide all the reagents required for performing the recommended of chromatin preparations (or optimizations) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, however there are instances where extra ChIP Buffer, ChIP Elution buffer, and NaCl are desired.The DNA purification columns combine the convenience of spin-column technology with the selective binding properties of a uniquely designed silica membrane that allows for efficient recovery of DNA and removal of protein contaminants without the need for phenol/chloroform extractions and ethanol precipitations. After DNA purification, the enrichment of particular DNA sequences can be analyzed by a variety of methods.
$107
350 µl
Color-coded Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (11-250 kDa) is a mixture of purified proteins, covalently coupled to blue, green or orange dyes, that resolves to 12 bands between 11 and 250 kDa when subjected to electrophoresis. The protein concentrations are carefully balanced for even intensity. The covalent coupling of dye to protein affects the electrophoretic mobility in SDS-PAGE gels relative to uncoupled proteins. The apparent molecular weights of the prestained proteins are shown in the gel image.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Two related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1, ULK2), were discovered as mammalian homologs of the C. elegans gene UNC-51 in which mutants exhibited abnormal axonal extension and growth (1-4). Both proteins are widely expressed and contain an amino-terminal kinase domain followed by a central proline/serine rich domain and a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain. The roles of ULK1 and ULK2 in axon growth have been linked to studies showing that the kinases are localized to neuronal growth cones and are involved in endocytosis of critical growth factors, such as NGF (5). Yeast two-hybrid studies found ULK1/2 associated with modulators of the endocytic pathway, SynGAP and syntenin (6). Structural similarity of ULK1/2 has also been recognized with the yeast autophagy protein Atg1/Apg1 (7). Knockdown experiments using siRNA demonstrated that ULK1 is essential for autophagy (8), a catabolic process for the degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (9,10). It appears that Atg1/ULK1 can act as a convergence point for multiple signals that control autophagy (11), and can bind to several autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, regulating phosphorylation states and protein trafficking (12-16).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Two related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1, ULK2), were discovered as mammalian homologs of the C. elegans gene UNC-51 in which mutants exhibited abnormal axonal extension and growth (1-4). Both proteins are widely expressed and contain an amino-terminal kinase domain followed by a central proline/serine rich domain and a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain. The roles of ULK1 and ULK2 in axon growth have been linked to studies showing that the kinases are localized to neuronal growth cones and are involved in endocytosis of critical growth factors, such as NGF (5). Yeast two-hybrid studies found ULK1/2 associated with modulators of the endocytic pathway, SynGAP and syntenin (6). Structural similarity of ULK1/2 has also been recognized with the yeast autophagy protein Atg1/Apg1 (7). Knockdown experiments using siRNA demonstrated that ULK1 is essential for autophagy (8), a catabolic process for the degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (9,10). It appears that Atg1/ULK1 can act as a convergence point for multiple signals that control autophagy (11), and can bind to several autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, regulating phosphorylation states and protein trafficking (12-16).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated NFAT1 (D43B1) XP® Rabbit mAb #5861.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of proteins consists of NFAT1 (NFATc2 or NFATp), NFAT2 (NFATc1 or NFATc), NFAT3 (NFATc4), and NFAT4 (NFATc3 or NFATx). All members of this family are transcription factors with a Rel homology domain and regulate gene transcription in concert with AP-1 (Jun/Fos) to orchestrate an effective immune response (1,2). NFAT proteins are predominantly expressed in cells of the immune system, but are also expressed in skeletal muscle, keratinocytes, and adipocytes, regulating cell differentiation programs in these cells (3). In resting cells, NFAT proteins are heavily phosphorylated and localized in the cytoplasm. Increased intracellular calcium concentrations activate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates NFAT proteins, resulting in their subsequent translocation to the nucleus (2). Termination of NFAT signaling occurs upon declining calcium concentrations and phosphorylation of NFAT by kinases such as GSK-3 or CK1 (3,4). Cyclosporin A and FK506 are immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit calcineurin and thus retain NFAT proteins in the cytoplasm (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The actin-binding protein girdin (CCDC88A, GIV) is a non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and part of a scaffold that mediates key signaling pathways during cell migration (1). Girdin protein structure includes an amino-terminal Hook domain for microtubule interaction, a coiled-coil dimerization domain, a Gα binding domain, a PI(4)P-binding domain, and a carboxy-terminal receptor-binding domain within a GEF motif (1-5). Akt kinase phosphorylates girdin at Ser1416, which promotes PI(4)P binding, localization of girdin to the membrane leading edge, and regulation of actin organization and cell motility (3). After growth factor receptor activation, girdin binds both G-protein and receptor to form an activation complex at the receptor cytoplasmic tail. The activation complex enhances receptor autophosphorylation and promotes downstream signaling that results in actin organization and cell migration (5). An activated growth factor phosphorylates girdin at its carboxy-terminal Tyr1764 and Tyr1798 residues to form an SH2 docking site for PI3K binding (6). The girdin GEF motif interacts with Gα and leads to release of Gβγ, resulting in further PI3K activation and the completion of signal transduction from receptor to cytoskeleton (7). The cytoskeletal reorganization and cell migration properties of girdin are important in regulating several biological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer progression (8-11).