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Product listing: Class II HDAC Antibody Sampler Kit, UniProt ID P56524 #79891 to Di-Methyl-Histone H3 Antibody Sampler Kit #9847

The Class II HDAC Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting Class II HDAC proteins using control antibodies against HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, and HDAC7. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments.

Background: Acetylation of the histone tail causes chromatin to adopt an "open" conformation, allowing increased accessibility of transcription factors to DNA. The identification of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and their large multiprotein complexes has yielded important insights into how these enzymes regulate transcription (1,2). HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can acetylate nonhistone proteins, suggesting multiple roles for these enzymes (3). In contrast, histone deacetylation promotes a "closed" chromatin conformation and typically leads to repression of gene activity (4). Mammalian histone deacetylases can be divided into three classes on the basis of their similarity to various yeast deacetylases (5). Class I proteins (HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8) are related to the yeast Rpd3-like proteins, those in class II (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10) are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC activity are now being explored as potential therapeutic cancer agents (6,7).

The Cleaved Caspase Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the activation status of caspases by detecting their cleaved forms. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Apoptosis is a regulated physiological process leading to cell death. Caspases, a family of cysteine acid proteases, are central regulators of apoptosis. Initiator caspases (including 8, 9, 10 and 12) are closely coupled to proapoptotic signals. Once activated, these caspases cleave and activate downstream effector caspases (including 3, 6 and 7), which in turn cleave cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins like PARP, α-fodrin, DFF and lamin A, and induce apoptosis. Cytochrome c released from mitochondria is coupled to the activation of caspase-9, a key initiator caspase (1). Proapoptotic stimuli include the FasL, TNF-α, DNA damage and ER stress. Fas and TNFR activate caspases 8 and 10 (2), DNA damage leads to the activation of caspase-9 and ER stress leads to the calcium-mediated activation of caspase-12 (3). The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family includes XIAP and survivin and functions by binding and inhibiting several caspases (4,5). Smac/Diablo, a mitochondrial protein, is released into the cytosol upon mitochondrial stress and competes with caspases for binding of IAPs. The interaction of Smac/Diablo with IAPs relieves the inhibitory effects of the IAPs on caspases (6).

$320
100 µg
This peptide is used to block Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) (D3E9) Rabbit mAb #9579 reactivity.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

This peptide is used to block Cleaved Caspase-8 (Asp391) (18C8) Rabbit mAb #9496 reactivity in dot blot protocols.

Background: Apoptosis induced through the CD95 receptor (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates caspase-8 and leads to the release of the caspase-8 active fragments, p18 and p10 (1-3). Activated caspase-8 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-1, -3, -6, and -7. Caspase-3 ultimately elicits the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage.

The Cofilin Activation Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the presence and status of cofilin activation. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments per antibody.

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

This peptide is used specifically to block COX IV Antibody #4844 and COX IV (3E11) Rabbit mAb #4850 reactivity.

Background: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1-3). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis. The 3 largest subunits forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the other smaller subunits, including COX IV, are nuclear-encoded. Research studies have shown that deficiency in COX activity correlates with a number of human diseases (4). The COX IV antibody can be used effectively as a mitochondrial loading control in cell-based research assays.

$336
96 assays
1 Kit
The Cyclic AMP XP® Assay Kit is a competition enzyme-linked immunoassay used to determine cAMP levels in cells or tissues of interest. In this assay, cAMP found in test sample competes with a fixed amount of HRP-linked cAMP for binding to an anti-cAMP XP® Rabbit mAb immobilized onto a 96-well plate. Following washing to remove excess sample cAMP and HRP-linked cAMP, HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. Because of the competitive nature of this assay, the magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is inversely proportional to the quantity of sample cAMP. Measurement of absorbance using the cAMP Standard allows calculating the absolute amount of cAMP in a sample of interest.Note: 12, 8-well modules -Each module is designed to break apart for 8 tests.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$336
96 assays
1 Kit
The Cyclic AMP XP® Chemiluminescent Assay Kit is a competition enzyme-linked immunoassay used to determine cAMP levels in cells or tissues of interest. In this assay, cAMP found in the test sample competes with a fixed amount of HRP-linked cAMP for binding to an anti-cAMP XP® Rabbit mAb immobilized onto a 96-well plate. Following washing to remove excess sample cAMP and HRP-linked cAMP, chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. Because of the competitive nature of this assay, the magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is inversely proportional to the quantity of sample cAMP. Measurement of light emmision using the cAMP Standard allows calculating the absolute amount of cAMP in a sample of interest.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$336
96 assays
1 Kit
The Cyclic GMP XP® Assay Kit is a competition enzyme-linked immunoassay used to determine cGMP levels in cells or tissues of interest. In this assay, cGMP found in test sample competes with a fixed amount of HRP-linked cGMP for binding to an anti-cGMP XP® Rabbit mAb immobilized onto a 96-well plate. Following washing to remove excess sample cGMP and HRP-linked cGMP, HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. Because of the competitive nature of this assay, the magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is inversely proportional to the quantity of sample cGMP. Measurement of absorbance using the cGMP Standard allows calculating the absolute amount of cGMP in a sample of interest.Note: 12 8-well modules - Each module is designed to break apart for 8 tests.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$336
96 assays
1 Kit
The Cyclic GMP XP® Chemiluminescent Assay Kit is a competition enzyme-linked immunoassay used to determine cGMP levels in cells or tissues of interest. In this assay, cGMP found in the test sample competes with a fixed amount of HRP-linked cGMP for binding to an anti-cGMP XP® Rabbit mAb immobilized onto a 96-well plate. Following washing to remove excess sample cGMP and HRP-linked cGMP, chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. Because of the competitive nature of this assay, the magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is inversely proportional to the quantity of sample cGMP. Measurement of light emmision using the cGMP Standard allows calculating the absolute amount of cGMP in a sample of interest.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
The Cyclin Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating the presence of cyclin proteins in cells. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each antibody.
This peptide is used to block Cyclin D1 (92G2) Rabbit mAb #2978 reactivity.

Background: Activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 is regulated by T-loop phosphorylation, by the abundance of their cyclin partners (the D-type cyclins), and by association with CDK inhibitors of the Cip/Kip or INK family of proteins (1). The inactive ternary complex of cyclin D/CDK4 and p27 Kip1 requires extracellular mitogenic stimuli for the release and degradation of p27 concomitant with a rise in cyclin D levels to affect progression through the restriction point and Rb-dependent entry into S-phase (2). The active complex of cyclin D/CDK4 targets the retinoblastoma protein for phosphorylation, allowing the release of E2F transcription factors that activate G1/S-phase gene expression (3). Levels of cyclin D protein drop upon withdrawal of growth factors through downregulation of protein expression and phosphorylation-dependent degradation (4).

This peptide is used to block Cytochrome c (136F3) Rabbit mAb #4280 reactivity.

Background: Cytochrome c is a well conserved electron-transport protein and is part of the respiratory chain localized to mitochondrial intermembrane space (1). Upon apoptotic stimulation, cytochrome c released from mitochondria associates with procaspase-9 (47 kDa)/Apaf 1. This complex processes caspase-9 from inactive proenzyme to its active form (2). This event further triggers caspase-3 activation and eventually leads to apoptosis (3).

The Cytokeratin Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the presence and status of selected keratin proteins. The kit provides enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

The Cytoskeletal Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the presence and status of select cytoskeleton associated proteins. The kit provides enough primary antibodies to perform two western blots per primary antibody.
This peptide is used to block DARPP-32 (19A3) Rabbit mAb #2306 reactivity in dot blot protocols.

Background: DARPP-32 (dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, relative molecular mass 32,000) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the neostriatum (1). It is a bifunctional signaling molecule that controls serine/threonine kinase and serine/threonine phosphatase activity (2). Dopamine stimulates phosphorylation of DARPP-32 through D1 receptors and activation of PKA. PKA phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 converts it into an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (1). DARPP-32 is converted into an inhibitor of PKA when phosphorylated at Thr75 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) (2). Mice containing a targeted deletion of the DARPP-32 gene exhibit an altered biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotype (3).

The Death Receptor Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to investigate members of the death receptor family. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, TNF-R2, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, TWEAK, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) resulting in activation of caspases. The two receptors for TNF-α, TNF-R1 (55 kDa) and TNF-R2 (75 kDa) can mediate distinct cellular responses (3,4). In most cases cytotoxicity elicited by TNF has been reported to act through TNF-R1 (5,6). DR3/WSL-1/Apo-3/TRAMP/LARD is a TNFR family member containing the characteristic extracellular cysteine-repeats, transmembrane region, and an intracellular DD (7-11). DR3 is activated by its ligand Apo-3L/TWEAK to induce apoptosis and activation of NF-κB (12,13). Like TNF-R1, DR3 binds to the DD adaptor protein TRADD, which can then associate with other DD proteins like FADD and RIP as well as members of the TRAF family (7,8). Tissue expression of DR3 is very restricted, primarily seen on the surface of activated thymocytes and lymphocytes and plays an important role in thymocyte negative selection (7,8,14). Studies have also indicated an association with DR3 and rheumatoid arthritis (15,16). DR4 (TRAIL-RI, TNFRSF10A) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2, TNFRSF10B) are receptors for the cytokine TRAIL. Both receptors contain death domains that recruit DISC complexes triggering caspase activation and apoptosis (17-20). DR6, also known as TNFRSF21, is a TNFR family member able to induce apoptosis as well as activation of NF-κB and JNK (21). DR6 appears to play a critical role in the activation and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes (22,23). In the nervous system, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) activates DR6 to trigger neuronal degeneration (24).

The Death Receptor Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the machinery of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. The kit includes enough of each primary antibody to perform two western mini-blot experiments per primary.
$64
2 x 25 ml
50 ml
$211
10 x 25 ml
250 ml
STOP Solution is a proprietary solution used to terminate the peroxidase/TMB reaction for ELISA applications. The TMB substrate reacts with immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibodies to produce a blue solution. Color intensity is an indication of analyte level. After attaining the desired intensity, the reaction is terminated by addition of STOP Solution. Upon addition of STOP Solution the color turns from blue to yellow. Absorbance at 450 nm can be read immediately, and the reaction is stable for one hour.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$58
50 ml
$191
250 ml
TMB Substrate used is ready to use for ELISA detection. Reaction between the substrate and immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibodies in the ELISA wells produces a blue colored solution. Color intensity and development time will vary depending on assay sensitivity and conditions. After reaching the desired color intensity, the reaction is terminated by addition of an acidic STOP solution which changes the solution color from blue to yellow. While the results will remain stable for one hour following termination, the plate should be analyzed promptly on a microwell reader at 450 nm. TMB is light sensitive and is therefore packaged in amber bottles to protect the solution from direct sunlight. Recommended storage temperature is 4ºC.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected
$64
5 ml each
$205
25 ml each
LumiGLO®* chemiluminescent substrate is a luminol-based system designed for use with our Phototope®-HRP detection assays utilizing peroxidase-labeled antibodies immobilized on membranes. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) converts luminol to an excited intermediate dianion. This dianion emits light on return to its ground state. Light emission is maximal immediately after exposure of the substrate to HRP and continues for 0.5-1 hour. Light can be captured on X-ray film, typically by exposure for a few seconds. Maximum sensitivity can be obtained by longer exposure. *Avoid repeated exposure to skin (see enclosed Material Safety Data Sheet or refer to our website for further information).
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

The BCA Protein Assay Kit can be used to measure the protein concentration of lysates or homogenates, in microplate format, prepared with the following buffers: Cell Lysis Buffer (10X) #9803, RIPA Buffer (10X) #9806, PathScan® Sandwich ELISA Lysis Buffer (1X) #7018. The dynamic range for this assay is 0.125 - 2 mg/mL. It is recommended that the BCA Compatibility Reagent be used to decrease interference from reducing agents, chelators, detergents, and other common ingredients found in most lysis buffers. Please see the attached protocol for additional details.
The Phototope-HRP Western Blot Detection System is designed for the chemiluminescent detection of proteins in standard Western blotting applications. Proteins and biotinylated molecular weight markers (provided) are separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto membrane. Following incubation with your primary anti-serum, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) linked secondary antibody and HRP-linked anti-biotin antibody are bound and then allowed to react with LumiGLO® reagent. The light emitted by destabilized LumiGLO® reagent is subsequently captured on X-ray film.

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

The Phototope-HRP Western Blot Detection System is designed for the chemiluminescent detection of proteins in standard Western blotting applications. Proteins and biotinylated molecular weight markers (provided) are separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto membrane. Following incubation with your primary anti-serum, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) linked secondary antibody and HRP-linked anti-biotin antibody are bound and then allowed to react with LumiGLO® reagent. The light emitted by destabilized LumiGLO® reagent is subsequently captured on X-ray film.

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$30
25 ml each substrate
50 ml
$259
250 ml each substrate
500 ml
SignalFire™ ECL Reagent from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is an enhanced chemiluminescent substrate capable of detecting picogram amounts of protein by western blot analysis. Compared to entry-substrates, SignalFire™ ECL Reagent boasts a more robust signal and extended duration of signal output. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) converts luminol to an excited intermediate dianion. This dianion emits light on return to its ground state. Light emission is maximal immediately after exposure of the substrate to HRP and continues for 1 hour. Light can be captured on X-ray film, typically by exposure for a few seconds. Maximum sensitivity can be obtained with longer exposure.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$86
10 ml each substrate
20 ml
$390
50 ml each substrate
100 ml
SignalFire™ Elite ECL Reagent from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is an ultra sensitive chemiluminescent substrate capable of detecting femtogram amounts of protein by western blot analysis. SignalFire™ Elite ECL Reagent is compatible with both film and digital imaging systems. The extremely intense signal output allows detection of very low abundance proteins, conservation of reagents, and short exposure times.SignalFire™ Elite ECL Reagent requires approximately ten-fold less Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7074 or Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7076 than traditional ECL reagents. Limiting the amount of HRP exposed to the membrane prevents high background, oversaturation of the target protein signal, or false negative results. Other HRP-conjugated antibodies, including HRP-conjugated primary and anti-biotin-HRP antibodies, should be diluted similarly. Dilution of secondary antibody from alternative vendors may need to be optimized. Titration of lysate and primary antibody concentration is recommended to achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$81
10 ml each substrate
20 ml
$363
50 ml each substrate
100 ml
SignalFire™ Plus ECL Reagent from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is a highly sensitive chemiluminescent substrate capable of detecting low picogram amounts of protein by western blot analysis. SignalFire™ Plus ECL Reagent has an extended duration of signal output lasting several hours following blot exposure, allowing for multiple exposures with either film or a digital imaging system. The strong signal output allows detection of low abundance proteins, conservation of reagents, and short exposure times.SignalFire™ Plus ECL Reagent requires approximately five-fold less Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7074 or Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7076 than traditional ECL reagents. Limiting the amount of HRP exposed to the membrane prevents high background, oversaturation of the target protein signal, or false negative results. Other HRP-conjugated antibodies, including HRP-conjugated primary and anti-biotin-HRP antibodies, should be diluted similarly. Dilution of secondary antibody from alternative vendors may need to be optimized. Titration of lysate and primary antibody concentration is recommended to achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$42
120 slides
1 Kit
$140
1200 slides
1 Kit
The SignalStain® DAB Substrate Kit contains all of the necessary reagents to prepare a working solution of diaminobenzidine (DAB) for staining tissue sections. The DAB working solution reacts with peroxidase (HRP) detection systems such as the SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagents (HRP, Rabbit #8114, and HRP, Mouse #8125), yielding a brown reaction product.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

This peptide is used to block Di-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) (C64G9) Rabbit mAb #9725 reactivity in dot blot protocols.

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

The Di-Methyl-Histone H3 Antibody Sampler Kit provides a fast and economical means of evaluating methylation sites on histone H3. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blots.

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).