Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Product listing: PathScan® Total eIF2α Sandwich ELISA Kit, UniProt ID P05198 #7952 to PathScan® Total Notch1 Sandwich ELISA Kit, UniProt ID P46531 #7245

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total eIF2α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of eIF2α protein. A eIF2α rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, eIF2α (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a eIF2α mouse antibody is added to detect captured eIF2α protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate (TMB) is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total eIF2α protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) α subunit is a well-documented mechanism to downregulate protein synthesis under a variety of stress conditions. eIF2 binds GTP and Met-tRNAi and transfers Met-tRNA to the 40S subunit to form the 43S preinitiation complex (1,2). eIF2 promotes a new round of translation initiation by exchanging GDP for GTP, a reaction catalyzed by eIF2B (1,2). Kinases that are activated by viral infection (PKR), endoplasmic reticulum stress (PERK/PEK), amino acid deprivation (GCN2), or heme deficiency (HRI) can phosphorylate the α subunit of eIF2 (3,4). This phosphorylation stabilizes the eIF2-GDP-eIF2B complex and inhibits the turnover of eIF2B. Induction of PKR by IFN-γ and TNF-α induces potent phosphorylation of eIF2α at Ser51 (5,6).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total EpCAM Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of EpCAM protein. An EpCAM rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the EpCAM proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an EpCAM mouse detection mAb is added to detect captured EpCAM proteins. Anti-mouse, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of EpCAM protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Estrogen Receptor α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of estrogen receptor α protein. An Estrogen Receptor α Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-estrogen receptor α proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Estrogen Receptor α Mouse Detection mAb is added to detect captured estrogen receptor α proteins. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of estrogen receptor α protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Estrogen receptor α (ERα), a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, contains highly conserved DNA binding and ligand binding domains (1). Through its estrogen-independent and estrogen-dependent activation domains (AF-1 and AF-2, respectively), ERα regulates transcription by recruiting coactivator proteins and interacting with general transcriptional machinery (2). Phosphorylation at multiple sites provides an important mechanism to regulate ERα activity (3-5). Ser104, 106, 118, and 167 are located in the amino-terminal transcription activation function domain AF-1, and phosphorylation of these serine residues plays an important role in regulating ERα activity. Ser118 may be the substrate of the transcription regulatory kinase CDK7 (5). Ser167 may be phosphorylated by p90RSK and Akt (4,6). According to the research literature, phosphorylation at Ser167 may confer tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Ezh2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Ezh2 protein. An Ezh2 specific antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Ezh2 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Ezh2 mouse mAb is added to detect the captured Ezh2 protein. Anti-Mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Ezh2 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in maintaining the silenced state of several developmentally regulated genes and contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, cell cycle regulation, and oncogenesis (1,2). Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a member of this large protein family, contains four conserved regions including domain I, domain II, and a cysteine-rich amino acid stretch that precedes the carboxy-terminal SET domain (3). The SET domain has been linked with histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity. Moreover, mammalian Ezh2 is a member of a histone deacetylase complex that functions in gene silencing, acting at the level of chromatin structure (4). Ezh2 complexes methylate histone H3 at Lys9 and 27 in vitro, which is thought to be involved in targeting transcriptional regulators to specific loci (5). Ezh2 is deregulated in various tumor types, and its role, both as a primary effector and as a mediator of tumorigenesis, has become a subject of increased interest (6).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total FGF Receptor 1 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of FGFR1 protein. A FGFR1 rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-FGFR1 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a FGFR1 mouse antibody is added to detect captured FGFR1 proteins. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of FGFR1 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total FGF Receptor 4 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of FGFR4 protein. An FGFR4 rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-FGFR4 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an FGFR4 mouse detection mAb is added to detect captured FGFR4 proteins. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of FGFR4 protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total FLT3 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total FLT3 protein. A FLT3 Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-FLT3 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, FLT3 Rabbit Antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-FLT3 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total FLT3 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, also called Flk2), is a member of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family, which includes c-Kit, PDGFR and M-CSF receptors. FLT3 is expressed on early hematopoietic progenitor cells and supports growth and differentiation within the hematopoietic system (1,2). FLT3 is activated after binding with its ligand FL, which results in a cascade of tyrosine autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream targets (3). The p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, GRB2 and Shc are associated with FLT3 after FL stimulation (4-6). Tyr589/591 is located in the juxtamembrane region of FLT3 and may play an important role in regulation of FLT3 tyrosine kinase activity. Somatic mutations of FLT3 consisting of internal tandem duplications (ITDs) occur in 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (7).

$469
Reagents for 4 x 96 well plates
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total GFP Sandwich ELISA Antibody Pair is being offered as an economical alternative to our PathScan® Total GFP Sandwich ELISA Kit #7878. This antibody pair is intended for use with cotransfected GFP as a convenient means of monitoring transfection efficiency and may not detect GFP fusion proteins. Capture and detection antibodies (100X stocks) and an HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1000X stock) are supplied. Sufficient reagents are supplied for 4 x 96 well ELISAs. The GFP rabbit capture antibody is coated onto a 96 well microplate overnight in PBS. After blocking, cell lysate is added followed by a GFP mouse detection antibody and HRP-conjugated, anti-mouse IgG antibody. HRP substrate (TMB) is then added for color development. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of GFP.
$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total GFP Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects exogenously expressed GFP. This kit is intended for use with cotransfected GFP as a convenient means of monitoring transfection efficiency. A GFP rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, GFP is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a GFP mouse detection antibody is added to detect the captured GFP. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. The HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of GFP.
$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total GSK-3β Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of GSK-3β protein. A GSK-3β mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, GSK-3β (phospho and nonphospho) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a GSK-3β rabbit mAb is added to detect the captured GSK-3β protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total GSK-3β.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HDAC4 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of HDAC4. An HDAC4 rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HDAC4 (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an HDAC4 mouse detection antibody is added to detect the captured HDAC4 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HDAC4 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Background: Acetylation of the histone tail causes chromatin to adopt an "open" conformation, allowing increased accessibility of transcription factors to DNA. The identification of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and their large multiprotein complexes has yielded important insights into how these enzymes regulate transcription (1,2). HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can acetylate nonhistone proteins, suggesting multiple roles for these enzymes (3). In contrast, histone deacetylation promotes a "closed" chromatin conformation and typically leads to repression of gene activity (4). Mammalian histone deacetylases can be divided into three classes on the basis of their similarity to various yeast deacetylases (5). Class I proteins (HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8) are related to the yeast Rpd3-like proteins, those in class II (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10) are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC activity are now being explored as potential therapeutic cancer agents (6,7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HER2/ErbB2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of HER2/ErbB2 protein. A HER2/ErbB2 mouse antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HER2/ErbB2 protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a HER2/ErbB2 rabbit antibody is added to detect captured HER2/ErbB2 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HER2/ErbB2 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The ErbB2 (HER2) proto-oncogene encodes a 185 kDa transmembrane, receptor-like glycoprotein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (1). While ErbB2 lacks an identified ligand, ErbB2 kinase activity can be activated in the absence of a ligand when overexpressed and through heteromeric associations with other ErbB family members (2). Amplification of the ErbB2 gene and overexpression of its product are detected in almost 40% of human breast cancers (3). Binding of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase to ErbB2 at Tyr1112 leads to ErbB2 poly-ubiquitination and enhances degradation of this kinase (4). ErbB2 is a key therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer and other carcinomas and targeting the regulation of ErbB2 degradation by the c-Cbl-regulated proteolytic pathway is one potential therapeutic strategy. Phosphorylation of the kinase domain residue Tyr877 of ErbB2 (homologous to Tyr416 of pp60c-Src) may be involved in regulating ErbB2 biological activity. The major autophosphorylation sites in ErbB2 are Tyr1248 and Tyr1221/1222; phosphorylation of these sites couples ErbB2 to the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway (1,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HER4/ErbB4 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of HER4/ErbB4 protein. A HER4/ErbB4 rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-HER4/ErbB4 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a HER4/ErbB4 mouse antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-HER4/ErbB4 proteins. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of HER4/ErbB4 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Research studies have implicated the HER/ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family in normal development, cardiac function and cancer (1,2). HER4/ErbB4, like other family members, has four ectodomains, a single transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail containing the active tyrosine kinase domain (3). By binding to neuregulins and/or EGF family ligands, ErbB4 forms either a homodimer or heterodimer with other ErbB family members, which results in receptor activation and signaling (3). ErbB4 is ubiquitously expressed with the highest expression occurring in brain and heart. The expression of ErbB4 in breast cancer, pediatric brain cancer and other types of carcinomas has been reported in research studies suggesting that ErbB4 expression is involved in both normal tissue development and carcinogenesis (3).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HIF-1α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total HIF-1α protein. A HIF-1α antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HIF-1α protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an HIF-1α Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured HIF-1α protein. Anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HIF-1α protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that plays a critical role in the cellular response to hypoxia (1). The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). HIF1 regulates the transcription of a broad range of genes that facilitate responses to the hypoxic environment, including genes regulating angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell cycle, metabolism, and apoptosis. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is proline hydroxylated leading to a conformational change that promotes binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (VHL) E3 ligase complex; ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation follows (3,4). Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (5-7).HIF-1β is also known as AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) due to its ability to partner with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to form a heterodimeric transcription factor complex (8). Together with AhR, HIF-1β plays an important role in xenobiotics metabolism (8). In addition, a chromosomal translocation leading to a TEL-ARNT fusion protein is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (9). Studies also found that ARNT/HIF-1β expression levels decrease significantly in pancreatic islets from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that HIF-1β plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function (10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Histone H3 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of histone H3. A Histone H3 Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, histone H3 (modified and unmodified) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Histone H3 mouse mAb is added to detect the captured histone H3 protein. Anti-Mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibodyis then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total histone H3.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Background: Modulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in the regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. The nucleosome, made up of DNA wound around eight core histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin (1). The amino-terminal tails of core histones undergo various post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (2-5). These modifications occur in response to various stimuli and have a direct effect on the accessibility of chromatin to transcription factors and, therefore, gene expression (6). In most species, histone H2B is primarily acetylated at Lys5, 12, 15, and 20 (4,7). Histone H3 is primarily acetylated at Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, and 56. Acetylation of H3 at Lys9 appears to have a dominant role in histone deposition and chromatin assembly in some organisms (2,3). Phosphorylation at Ser10, Ser28, and Thr11 of histone H3 is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis (8-10). Phosphorylation at Thr3 of histone H3 is highly conserved among many species and is catalyzed by the kinase haspin. Immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies in mammalian cells reveals mitotic phosphorylation at Thr3 of H3 in prophase and its dephosphorylation during anaphase (11).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total HSP27 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total HSP27 protein. An HSP27 Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both nonphospho- and phospho-HSP27 are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an HSP27 Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured HSP27 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total HSP27 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 is one of the small HSPs that are constitutively expressed at different levels in various cell types and tissues. Like other small HSPs, HSP27 is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels (1). In response to stress, the HSP27 expression increases several-fold to confer cellular resistance to the adverse environmental change. HSP27 is phosphorylated at Ser15, Ser78, and Ser82 by MAPKAPK-2 as a result of the activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway (2,3). Phosphorylation of HSP27 causes a change in its tertiary structure, which shifts from large homotypic multimers to dimers and monomers (4). It has been shown that phosphorylation and increased concentration of HSP27 modulates actin polymerization and reorganization (5,6).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Insulin Receptor β Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects transfected levels of Insulin Receptor β protein. An Insulin Receptor β Mouse mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Insulin Receptor β protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Insulin Receptor β Rabbit mAb is added to detect captured Insulin Receptor β protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Insulin Receptor β protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Insulin receptor (INSR) is a membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. The receptor molecule consists of a disulfide linked heterodimer. The α subunit is a 135 kDa extracellular fragment, and the β subunit is a 95 kDa fragment containing an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain (1). Insulin ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activation. INSR catalyzes the tyrosine phosphorylation of molecules such as IRS, Gab1, Shc, and Cbl, which further activate the downstream MAPK, PI3K, and TC10 pathways. This eventually leads to increases in glucose uptake and metabolism as well as cell growth (2,3). INSR has peptide substrate specificity similar to other receptor tyrosine kinase members, preferring acidic residues at the -1 to -4 positions and large hydrophobic amino acids at positions +1 and +3 (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total IRS-1 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of IRS-1. An IRS-1 Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, IRS-1 (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, IRS-1 Mouse Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured IRS-1 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7076 is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total IRS-1.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is one of the major substrates of the insulin receptor kinase (1). IRS-1 contains multiple tyrosine phosphorylation motifs that serve as docking sites for SH2-domain containing proteins that mediate the metabolic and growth-promoting functions of insulin (2-4). IRS-1 also contains over 30 potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Ser307 of IRS-1 is phosphorylated by JNK (5) and IKK (6) while Ser789 is phosphorylated by SIK-2, a member of the AMPK family (7). The PKC and mTOR pathways mediate phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser612 and Ser636/639, respectively (8,9). Phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser1101 is mediated by PKCθ and results in an inhibition of insulin signaling in the cell, suggesting a potential mechanism for insulin resistance in some models of obesity (10).

$469
Reagents for 4 x 96 well plates
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total IκBα Sandwich ELISA Antibody Pair is offered as an economical alternative to our PathScan® Total IκBα Sandwich ELISA Kit #7360. Capture and Detection antibodies (100X stocks) and HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1000X stock) are supplied. Sufficient reagents are supplied for 4 x 96 well ELISAs. The IκBα Capture Antibody is coated in PBS overnight in a 96 well microplate. After blocking, cell lysates are added followed by an IκBα Detection Antibody and anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP conjugated antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added for color development. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total IκBα protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total IκBα Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total IκBα protein. An IκBα Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both nonphospho- and phospho-IκBα proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an IκBα Rabbit Antibody is added to detect the captured IκBα protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total IκBα protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Ki-67 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Ki-67. A Ki-67 Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Ki-67 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Ki-67 Mouse Detection mAb is added to detect the captured Ki-67 protein. An HRP-linked, anti-mouse antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Ki-67.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: Ki-67, named after the location where it was discovered (Kiel University, Germany), is a nuclear nonhistone protein (1) that is universally expressed among proliferating cells and absent in quiescent cells (2). Ki-67 detects proliferating cells in G1, S, G2, and mitosis, but not in the G0 resting phase. Research studies have shown that high levels of Ki-67 are associated with poorer breast cancer survival (3). Research studies have explored the use of Ki-67, along with other markers, as potential prognostic or predictive markers in breast cancer and other malignant diseases (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total M-CSF Receptor Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of M-CSF receptor protein. An M-CSF receptor mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-M-CSF receptor proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a M-CSF receptor rabbit antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-M-CSF receptor proteins. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of M-CSF receptor protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, CSF-1) receptor is an integral membrane tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene. M-CSF receptor is expressed in monocytes (macrophages and their progenitors) and drives growth and development of this blood cell lineage. (1-3). Binding of M-CSF to its receptor induces receptor dimerization, activation, and autophosphorylation of cytoplasmic tyrosine residues used as docking sites for SH2-containing signaling proteins (4). There are at least five major tyrosine autophosphorylation sites. Tyr723 (Tyr721 in mouse) is located in the kinase insert (KI) region. Phosphorylated Tyr723 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase as well as PLCγ2 (5). Phosphorylation of Tyr809 provides a docking site for Shc (5). Overactivation of this receptor can lead to a malignant phenotype in various cell systems (6). The activated M-CSF receptor has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (7) and breast cancer (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total MEK1 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total MEK1 protein. A MEK1 mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, total MEK1 protein (phospho- and nonphospho-) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, MEK1/2 Antibody is added to detect the captured MEK1 protein. HRP-linked, anti-rabbit antibody #7074 is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total MEK1 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total Met Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Met protein. A Met Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-Met proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Met Rabbit Antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-Met protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Met protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Met, a high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor) is a disulfide-linked heterodimer made of 45 kDa α- and 145 kDa β-subunits (1,2). The α-subunit and the amino-terminal region of the β-subunit form the extracellular domain. The remainder of the β-chain spans the plasma membrane and contains a cytoplasmic region with tyrosine kinase activity. Interaction of Met with HGF results in autophosphorylation at multiple tyrosines, which recruit several downstream signaling components, including Gab1, c-Cbl, and PI3 kinase (3). These fundamental events are important for all of the biological functions involving Met kinase activity. The addition of a phosphate at cytoplasmic Tyr1003 is essential for Met protein ubiquitination and degradation (4). Phosphorylation at Tyr1234/1235 in the Met kinase domain is critical for kinase activation. Phosphorylation at Tyr1349 in the Met cytoplasmic domain provides a direct binding site for Gab1 (5). Research studies have shown that altered Met levels and/or tyrosine kinase activities are found in several types of tumors, including renal, colon, and breast. Thus, investigators have concluded that Met is an attractive potential cancer therapeutic and diagnostic target (6,7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total mTOR Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of mTOR protein. A mTOR mouse antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, mTOR protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an mTOR rabbit antibody is added to detect captured mTOR protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of mTOR protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, FRAP, RAFT) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase (1-3) that functions as an ATP and amino acid sensor to balance nutrient availability and cell growth (4,5). When sufficient nutrients are available, mTOR responds to a phosphatidic acid-mediated signal to transmit a positive signal to p70 S6 kinase and participate in the inactivation of the eIF4E inhibitor, 4E-BP1 (6). These events result in the translation of specific mRNA subpopulations. mTOR is phosphorylated at Ser2448 via the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway and autophosphorylated at Ser2481 (7,8). mTOR plays a key role in cell growth and homeostasis and may be abnormally regulated in tumors. For these reasons, mTOR is currently under investigation as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total MUC1 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of MUC1 protein. A MUC1 mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the MUC1 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a MUC1 rabbit detection mAb is added to detect captured MUC proteins. Anti-rabbit, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of MUC1 protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Mucins represent a family of glycoproteins characterized by repeat domains and dense O-glycosylation (1). MUC1 (or mucin 1) is aberrantly overexpressed in most human carcinomas. Increased expression of MUC1 in carcinomas reduces cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. MUC1 is cleaved proteolytically, and the large ectodomain can remain associated with the small 25 kDa carboxy-terminal domain that contains a transmembrane segment and a 72-residue cytoplasmic tail (1). MUC1 interacts with ErbB family receptors and potentiates ERK1/2 activation (2). MUC1 also interacts with β-catenin, which is regulated by GSK-3β, PKCγ, and Src through phosphorylation at Ser44, Thr41, and Tyr46 of the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (3-5). Overexpression of MUC1 potentiates transformation (6) and attenuates stress-induced apoptosis through the Akt or p53 pathways (7,8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Neurofilament-L Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of neurofilament-L protein. A neurofilament-L mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the neurofilament-L proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an neurofilament-L rabbit detection mAb is added to detect captured neurofilament-L proteins. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of neurofilament-L protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Neurofilaments are the major intermediate filaments found in neurons and consist of light (NFL), medium (NFM), and heavy (NFH) subunits (1). Similar in structure to other intermediate filament proteins, neurofilaments have a globular amino-terminal head, a central α-helical rod domain, and a carboxy-terminal tail. A heterotetrameric unit (NFL-NFM and NFL-NFH) forms a protofilament, with eight protofilaments comprising the typical 10 nm intermediate filament (2). While neurofilaments are critical for radial axon growth and determine axon caliber, microtubules are involved in axon elongation. PKA phosphorylates the head domain of NFL and NFM to inhibit neurofilament assembly (3,4). Research studies have shown neurofilament accumulations in many human neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (in Lewy bodies along with α-synuclein), Alzheimer's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (1).

$469
Reagents for 4 x 96 well plates
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total NF-κB p65 Sandwich ELISA Antibody Pair is offered as an economical alternative to our PathScan® Total NF-κB p65 Sandwich ELISA Kit #7174. Capture and Detection antibodies (100X stocks) and HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1000X stock) are supplied. Sufficient reagents are supplied for 4 x 96 well ELISAs. The NF-κB p65 Capture Antibody is coated in PBS overnight in a 96 well microplate. After blocking, cell lysates are added followed by a NF-κB p65 Detection Antibody and anti-Mouse IgG, HRP conjugated antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added for color development. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total NF-κB p65 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/Rel family play a pivotal role in inflammatory and immune responses (1,2). There are five family members in mammals: RelA, c-Rel, RelB, NF-κB1 (p105/p50), and NF-κB2 (p100/p52). Both p105 and p100 are proteolytically processed by the proteasome to produce p50 and p52, respectively. Rel proteins bind p50 and p52 to form dimeric complexes that bind DNA and regulate transcription. In unstimulated cells, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by IκB inhibitory proteins (3-5). NF-κB-activating agents can induce the phosphorylation of IκB proteins, targeting them for rapid degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and releasing NF-κB to enter the nucleus where it regulates gene expression (6-8). NIK and IKKα (IKK1) regulate the phosphorylation and processing of NF-κB2 (p100) to produce p52, which translocates to the nucleus (9-11).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total NF-kappaB p65 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total NF-kappaB p65 protein. A NF-kappaB p65 antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-NF-kappaB p65 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, NF-kappaB p65 Antibody is added to detect both the captured phospho- and nonphospho-NF-kappaB p65 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total NF-kappaB p65 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/Rel family play a pivotal role in inflammatory and immune responses (1,2). There are five family members in mammals: RelA, c-Rel, RelB, NF-κB1 (p105/p50), and NF-κB2 (p100/p52). Both p105 and p100 are proteolytically processed by the proteasome to produce p50 and p52, respectively. Rel proteins bind p50 and p52 to form dimeric complexes that bind DNA and regulate transcription. In unstimulated cells, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by IκB inhibitory proteins (3-5). NF-κB-activating agents can induce the phosphorylation of IκB proteins, targeting them for rapid degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and releasing NF-κB to enter the nucleus where it regulates gene expression (6-8). NIK and IKKα (IKK1) regulate the phosphorylation and processing of NF-κB2 (p100) to produce p52, which translocates to the nucleus (9-11).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Notch1 Sandwich ELISA Kit from Cell Signaling Technology is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Notch1. A Notch1 rat antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Notch1 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Notch1 rabbit antibody is added to detect the captured Notch1 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Notch1.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Notch proteins (Notch1-4) are a family of transmembrane receptors that play important roles in development and the determination of cell fate (1). Mature Notch receptors are processed and assembled as heterodimeric proteins, with each dimer comprised of a large extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a smaller cytoplasmic subunit (Notch intracellular domain, NICD) (2). Binding of Notch receptors to ligands of the Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) family triggers heterodimer dissociation, exposing the receptors to proteolytic cleavages; these result in release of the NICD, which translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription of downstream target genes (3,4).