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Product listing: Cleaved Caspase-9 (Asp315) Antibody (Human Specific), UniProt ID P55211 #9505 to COX IV Antibody, UniProt ID P13073 #4844

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-9 (ICE-LAP6, Mch6) is an important member of the cysteine aspartic acid protease (caspase) family (1,2). Upon apoptotic stimulation, cytochrome c released from mitochondria associates with the 47 kDa procaspase-9/Apaf-1. Apaf-1 mediated activation of caspase-9 involves intrinsic proteolytic processing resulting in cleavage at Asp315 and producing a p35 subunit. Another cleavage occurs at Asp330 producing a p37 subunit that can serve to amplify the apoptotic response (3-6). Cleaved caspase-9 further processes other caspase members, including caspase-3 and caspase-7, to initiate a caspase cascade, which leads to apoptosis (7-10).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-9 (ICE-LAP6, Mch6) is an important member of the cysteine aspartic acid protease (caspase) family (1,2). Upon apoptotic stimulation, cytochrome c released from mitochondria associates with the 47 kDa procaspase-9/Apaf-1. Apaf-1 mediated activation of caspase-9 involves intrinsic proteolytic processing resulting in cleavage at Asp315 and producing a p35 subunit. Another cleavage occurs at Asp330 producing a p37 subunit that can serve to amplify the apoptotic response (3-6). Cleaved caspase-9 further processes other caspase members, including caspase-3 and caspase-7, to initiate a caspase cascade, which leads to apoptosis (7-10).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-9 (ICE-LAP6, Mch6) is an important member of the cysteine aspartic acid protease (caspase) family (1,2). Upon apoptotic stimulation, cytochrome c released from mitochondria associates with the 47 kDa procaspase-9/Apaf-1. Apaf-1 mediated activation of caspase-9 involves intrinsic proteolytic processing resulting in cleavage at Asp315 and producing a p35 subunit. Another cleavage occurs at Asp330 producing a p37 subunit that can serve to amplify the apoptotic response (3-6). Cleaved caspase-9 further processes other caspase members, including caspase-3 and caspase-7, to initiate a caspase cascade, which leads to apoptosis (7-10).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Human DFF45 and its mouse homologue ICAD function in normal cells as chaperones for caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (DFF40 or CAD) during its synthesis (1). The association of DFF45 (or its isoform DFF35) with DFF40 inhibits the DNAse activity of the latter (1-4). In vitro, DFF45 has been shown to be the target of several caspases, including caspase-3, -6, -7, -8 and granzyme B (3). In vivo, caspase-3 is believed to be the primary enzyme responsible for processing DFF45 and release of its carboxy-terminal fragment (3,5). The cleavage of DFF45 inactivates its inhibitory function on DFF40 and causes nuclear DNA degradation by DFF40, leading to cell death (6,7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Cell death in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by many of the same stimuli as mammalian cell death (1). The Drosophila genome contains seven caspase genes; three encode initiator caspases, and four encode effector caspases (reviewed in (2)). The Drosophila effector caspase, death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), is a critical executioner of apoptosis. It is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The activation of Dcp-1 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into active p22 and p13 fragments (3). Comparison of the in vivo activity between DrICE and Dcp-1 has shown that DrICE is a more effective inducer of apoptosis than Dcp-1, which instead plays a role in determining the rate of cell death (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cell death in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by many of the same stimuli as mammalian cell death (1). The Drosophila genome contains seven caspase genes; three encode initiator caspases and four encode effector caspases (reviewed in 2). drICE is a cysteine protease that cleaves baculovirus p35 and lamin DmO in vitro and acts downstream of rpr (3). drICE is proteolytically processed during apoptosis into active p21 and p12 subunits. Comparison of the in vivo activity between drICE and Dcp-1 has shown that drICE is a more effective inducer of apoptosis than Dcp-1, which plays a role in determining the rate of cell death (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Gasdermin D (GSDMD), a member of the gasdermin family that includes GSDMA, GSDMB, and GSMDC, has been reported to have a critical role as a downstream effector of pyroptosis (1,2). Pyroptosis is a lytic type of cell death triggered by inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes assembled in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that result in the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 (3). Gasdermin D was identified by two independent groups as a substrate of inflammatory caspases, caspase-1 and caspase-11/4/5, producing two fragments: GSDMD-N and GSDMD-C. Cleavage results in release of an intramolecular inhibitory interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains, allowing the N-terminal fragment GSMDM-N to initiate pyroptosis through the formation of pores on the plasma membrane (4-7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Lamins are nuclear membrane structural components that are important in maintaining normal cell functions such as cell cycle control, DNA replication, and chromatin organization (1-3). Lamin A/C is cleaved by caspase-6 and serves as a marker for caspase-6 activation. During apoptosis, lamin A/C is specifically cleaved into a large (41-50 kDa) and a small (28 kDa) fragment (3,4). The cleavage of lamins results in nuclear dysregulation and cell death (5,6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Lamins are nuclear membrane structural components that are important in maintaining normal cell functions such as cell cycle control, DNA replication, and chromatin organization (1-3). Lamin A/C is cleaved by caspase-6 and serves as a marker for caspase-6 activation. During apoptosis, lamin A/C is specifically cleaved into a large (41-50 kDa) and a small (28 kDa) fragment (3,4). The cleavage of lamins results in nuclear dysregulation and cell death (5,6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: PARP, a 116 kDa nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, appears to be involved in DNA repair in response to environmental stress (1). This protein can be cleaved by many ICE-like caspases in vitro (2,3) and is one of the main cleavage targets of caspase-3 in vivo (4,5). In human PARP, the cleavage occurs between Asp214 and Gly215, which separates the PARP amino-terminal DNA binding domain (24 kDa) from the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain (89 kDa) (2,4). PARP helps cells to maintain their viability; cleavage of PARP facilitates cellular disassembly and serves as a marker of cells undergoing apoptosis (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: PARP, a 116 kDa nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, appears to be involved in DNA repair in response to environmental stress (1). This protein can be cleaved by many ICE-like caspases in vitro (2,3) and is one of the main cleavage targets of caspase-3 in vivo (4,5). In human PARP, the cleavage occurs between Asp214 and Gly215, which separates the PARP amino-terminal DNA binding domain (24 kDa) from the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain (89 kDa) (2,4). PARP helps cells to maintain their viability; cleavage of PARP facilitates cellular disassembly and serves as a marker of cells undergoing apoptosis (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: PARP, a 116 kDa nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, appears to be involved in DNA repair in response to environmental stress (1). This protein can be cleaved by many ICE-like caspases in vitro (2,3) and is one of the main cleavage targets of caspase-3 in vivo (4,5). In human PARP, the cleavage occurs between Asp214 and Gly215, which separates the PARP amino-terminal DNA binding domain (24 kDa) from the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain (89 kDa) (2,4). PARP helps cells to maintain their viability; cleavage of PARP facilitates cellular disassembly and serves as a marker of cells undergoing apoptosis (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fodrin (also named nonerythroid spectrin) is a universally expressed membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits (1). This protein is important for maintaining normal membrane structure and supporting cell surface protein function (1). Alpha-fodrin is one of the primary targets cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. The full length 240 kDa protein can be cleaved at several sites within its sequence by activated caspases to yield amino-terminal 150 kDa, carboxy-terminal 120 kDa and 35 kDa major products (2-5). Cleavage of alpha-fodrin leads to membrane malfunction and cell shrinkage.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of the major caspase-1 targets, is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in a host of immune and proinflammatory responses (1). It is produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. It signals through various adaptor proteins and kinases that lead to activation of numerous downstream targets (2-6). Human IL-1β is synthesized as a 31 kDa precursor. To gain activity, the precursor must be cleaved by caspase-1 between Asp116 and Ala117 to yield a 17 kDa mature form (7,8). Detection of the 17 kDa mature form of IL-1β is a good indicator of caspase-1 activity.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Microtubules (MTs) are polarized filaments composed of α/β tubulin heterodimers. The slower growing (minus) ends of MTs are located at centrosomes, and the faster growing (plus) ends extend into the cell periphery. Regulation of MT dynamics is important for multiple cellular functions, including cell division, migration, adhesion, membrane trafficking, and polarity (reviewed in 1).Cytoplasmic linker protein 1/170 (CLIP1/CLIP170) localizes to the plus ends of MTs (2), and binds to the Rac1/cdc42 effector protein IQGAP1. This complex is involved in establishing cell polarity (3).CLIP1/CLIP170 also facilitates MT-dependent organelle transport (4), and phosphorylation of CLIP1/CLIP170 by PLK1 and CK2 is required for efficient microtubule–kinetochore attachments in mitosis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The cdc2-like kinase (CLK) family contains at least four highly conserved isoforms: CLK1, CLK2, CLK3 and CLK4 (1,2). CLKs are dual specificity kinases that autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues and phosphorylate exogenous substrates on serine and threonine residues (2). CLK family members exist as both a full-length catalytically active form and an alternatively-spliced, inactive truncated form (1). A family of highly phosphorylated proteins, called serine and arginine rich (SR) proteins, are phosphorylated by CLKs (3-5). SR proteins are splicing factors that regulate the assembly of the spliceosome, a macromolecular complex where RNA splicing occurs in the nucleus. They are also involved in the selection of splice sites. Thus, CLKs may play important roles in regulating RNA splicing.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The proteolytic component, Tetradecameric Peptidase (CLpP), is a hexamer in one of four ATP-dependent mitochondrial proteases (CLpXP). CLPP, one of the proteases, is an endopeptidase that is highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes, both at the level of amino acid sequence and quaternary structure. The active unit of CLPP is a barrel-shaped tetradecamer, Proteolysis of larger substrates is initiated by caseinolytic peptidase X (CLPX) which unfolds specific protein substrates. The unfolded polypeptide chain translocates into the CLPP proteolytic chamber for protein degradation within the interior chamber of mitochondria (1). Recessive mutations in CLPP cause Perrault Syndrome, a heterogeneous condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure (2).Mutations in Parkin or PINK1 cause recessively inherited Parkinson’s disease. In healthy mitochondria, PINK1 is rapidly degraded by mitochondrial proteases and the proteasome. Upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 accumulates on the mitochondrial surface, recruits Parkin from the cytosol, and initiates mitophagy. The mitochondrial proteases MPP, PARL, m-AAA and CLPP have been implicated in PINK1 degradation and cleavage (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing protein 4 (CMTM4) is a member of the chemokine-like factor (CKLF)-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (1). CMTM4 acts as a tumor suppressor in various malignancies, and regulates cell growth and transition through the cell cycle in HeLa cells (1-4). CMTM4 plays an important role in angiogenesis, enabling internalization of membrane-bound vascular endothelial cadherin at adherens junctions, mediating endothelial barrier function, and controlling vascular sprouting (5). In the immune system, CMTM4 acts as a backup for CMTM6 to regulate plasma membrane expression of PD-L1, an immune inhibitory ligand critical for immune tolerance to self and anti-tumor immunity (6-8). CMTM4 may also protect PD-L1 from being polyubiquitinated and targeted for degradation (8). Due to the roles of CMTM4 in the immune system and as a tumor suppressor, it is being investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing protein 6 (CMTM6) is a member of the chemokine-like factor (CKLF)-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (1). CMTM6 stabilizes plasma membrane expression of PD-L1, an immune inhibitory ligand critical for immune tolerance to self and anti-tumor immunity (2,3). CMTM6 associates with PD-L1 at recycling endosomes, where it protects PD-L1 from being targeted for lysosomal degradation by preventing STUB1-mediated PD-L1 ubiquitination (2,3). CMTM6 may stabilize PD-L1 expression on antigen presenting cells and potentiate inhibitory signaling by PD-1 on T cells, triggering T cell inhibition and exhaustion. CMTM6 has also been shown to interact with with CD58, ARG1, ENO1, and TMPO (2). Due to the role of CMTM6 in regulating the immune system, it is being investigated as an immunotherapeutic target for the treatment of cancer.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CNPase (2', 3’-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase) catalyzes the in vitro hydrolysis of 2’, 3’-cyclic nucleotides to produce 2’-nucleotides. The in vivo molecular function and native substrate of this nucleotide phosphodiesterase remains under investigation (1). High CNPase expression is seen in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells as CNPase accounts for roughly 4% of the total myelin protein in the central nervous system (2). CNPase binds to tubulin heterodimers and plays a role in tubulin polymerization, and oligodendrocyte process outgrowth (3). Typical myelination is seen in CNPase knock-out mice, but they suffer severe neurodegeneration from axonal loss and oligodendrocytes display abnormal paranodal loop structure prior to axonal degeneration. Paranodal loops typically contact the axolemma in axon-glial signaling; neurodegeneration in CNPase knock-out mice is a secondary consequence of impaired cell-cell communication (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) is a complex network of macromolecules that provides structural tissue support to cells in the basement membrane and interstitial matrix. It is composed of many molecules including proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and polysaccharides (1,2). One of the major proteins that comprises the ECM, and the human body, is collagen. Collagens are a large family of proteins. They are trimeric molecules comprised of three alpha polypeptide chains that form a triple helix structure that is characteristic of all collagens (3). The large family of collagens is divided into three sub groups: the fibrillar collagens, the non-fibril forming collagens, and the fibril-associated collagens. These sub groups differ in their structure and supramolecular assembly (3).Collagen11A1 (COL11A1) is a minor fibrillar collagen that is not normally expressed at high levels in most normal tissues with the exception of cartilage where it is expressed in high levels, and some other tissues/ organs, where it is expressed at a lower level (4). However, it has been reported that the expression of this molecule is correlated with advanced tumorigenic disease through meta analysis of data from multiple cancers, including ovarian, colon, breast, and lung (5). Additionally, it has also been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis (6,7). Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are typically the most abundant cell type in the stroma of many solid tumors. They are thought to contribute to ECM stiffness, which is ultimately thought to contribute to tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapeutic intervention. COL11A1 has been found to be elevated in CAFs and may contribute to chemotherapy resistance (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Type 1 collagen is the most abundant collagen in many human tissues, including bone, skin, and tendons. It is a trimeric complex comprised of two molecules of COL1A1 (alpha-1 type 1 collagen) and one molecule of COL1A2 (alpha-2 type 1 collagen) (1-3). The expression levels of COL1A1 are regulated by multiple mechanisms, including mRNA stability, translation, and posttranslational modification (3-5). Overexpression of COL1A1 has been positively associated with tissue fibrosis disorders, including systemic sclerosis (6), while loss-of-function mutations in the COL1A1 gene are a major causative factor for osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) (7). Notably, COL1A1 expression levels have also been associated with tumor development in gastric, lung, thyroid, and breast cancers. Research studies suggest that upregulation of COL1A1 can generate a modified extracellular matrix environment that promotes cancer cell survival, proliferation, metastasis, and invasion (8-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins. Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. Clusters of these channels assemble to make gap junctions. Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (1,2). Ser368 of Cx43 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) after activation by phorbol esters, which decreases cell-to-cell communication (3). Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cool/Pix proteins comprise a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) localized to focal adhesions. The family consists of two isoforms, cool2/αpix and cool1/βPix, the latter having two splice variants that vary in their carboxy termini (1). Cool1/βPix, like other GEFs, has a DH (Dbl homology) domain, which allows binding of small GTPases and GDP/GTP exchange, and a PH (Pleckstrin homology) domain, which is important in regulating subcellular localization. Cool1/βPix also has an SH3 domain, which binds to the PAK kinase, a downstream effector of cdc42 and Rac (3,4). Phosphorylation of cool1/βPix by PAK2 downstream of MAPK signaling alters the localization of a complex containing PAK2 and cool-1/βPix, regulating formation of growth cones in response to growth factors (4). Growth factor induced activation of Rac1 via cool1/βPix was later shown to occur independently of subcellular localization (5). Endothelin-1 stimulation of mesangial cells stimulates the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, resulting in translocation of cool-1/βPix and activation of cdc42 (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The COP9 Signalosome (CSN) is a ubiquitously expressed multiprotein complex that is involved in a vast array of cellular and developmental processes, which is thought to be attributed to its control over the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Typically, the CSN is composed of eight highly conserved subunits (CSN1-CSN8), each of which is homologous to one of the eight subunits that form the lid of the 26S proteasome particle, suggesting that these complexes have a common evolutionary ancestor (1). CSN was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with a light-grown seedling phenotype when grown in the dark (2-4). The subsequent cloning of the constitutive morphogenesis 9 (cop9) mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana was soon followed by the biochemical purification of the COP9-containing multiprotein complex (4). It is now widely accepted that the CSN directly interacts with cullin-RING ligase (CRL) families of ubiquitin E3 complexes, and that CSN is required for their proper function (5). In addition, CSN may also regulate protein homeostasis through its association with protein kinases and deubiquitinating enzymes. Collectively, these activities position the CSN as a pivotal regulator of the DNA-damage response, cell-cycle control, and gene expression (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: COP9 signalosome complex subunit 6 (COPS6) belongs to the multisubunit COP9 signalsome which modulates protein ubiquitination to affect cellular processes such as cell-cycle progression and DNA damage repair (1). COPS6 is a putative oncogene that has been shown to be overexpressed in a significant percentage of colorectal cancers with poor prognosis (2). Mechanistically, research studies have shown that a signaling axis involving EGFR and ERK promotes tumor growth through the phosphorylation of COPS6, which indirectly facilitates downstream stabilization of β-catenin and enhancement of its transcriptional acitivity (2). Reasearch studies have also demonstrated that COPS6 contributes to tumorigenesis through the stabilization of other oncoproteins like c-Myc, MDM2 and E6AP (3-5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cortactin is a cortical actin binding protein. Its amino-terminal acidic domain (NTA) associates with the Arp2/3 and WASP complex at F-actin branches. The central region of the protein contains six repeats of 37 amino acids that are important in F-actin binding and cross-linking. The carboxy-terminus contains a proline-rich region and an SH3 domain that can interact with numerous scaffolding proteins, such as CortBP1 and Shank3 (1,2). Cortactin is involved in signaling events that coordinate actin reorganization during cell movement. The human cortactin homologue EMS1 is overexpressed in numerous cancers with poor patient prognosis (3). Cortactin may also play an important role in the organization of transmembrane receptors at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and tight junctions by linking scaffolding proteins to the actin network (4).Cortactin is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues 421, 466, and 482. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin regulates cell motility (5), rac1-mediated actin dynamics (6), cadherin-dependent adhesion (7), chemokine trafficking and chemokine-dependent chemotaxis (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Cortactin is a cortical actin binding protein. Its amino-terminal acidic domain (NTA) associates with the Arp2/3 and WASP complex at F-actin branches. The central region of the protein contains six repeats of 37 amino acids that are important in F-actin binding and cross-linking. The carboxy-terminus contains a proline-rich region and an SH3 domain that can interact with numerous scaffolding proteins, such as CortBP1 and Shank3 (1,2). Cortactin is involved in signaling events that coordinate actin reorganization during cell movement. The human cortactin homologue EMS1 is overexpressed in numerous cancers with poor patient prognosis (3). Cortactin may also play an important role in the organization of transmembrane receptors at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and tight junctions by linking scaffolding proteins to the actin network (4).Cortactin is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues 421, 466, and 482. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin regulates cell motility (5), rac1-mediated actin dynamics (6), cadherin-dependent adhesion (7), chemokine trafficking and chemokine-dependent chemotaxis (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1-3). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis. The 3 largest subunits forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the other smaller subunits, including COX IV, are nuclear-encoded. Research studies have shown that deficiency in COX activity correlates with a number of human diseases (4). The COX IV antibody can be used effectively as a mitochondrial loading control in cell-based research assays.