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Product listing: KIBRA Antibody, UniProt ID Q8IX03 #8774 to LIMD1 Antibody, UniProt ID Q9UGP4 #13245

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Hippo pathway is an important evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size and tumor suppression by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis (1,2). An integral function of the Hippo pathway is to repress the activity of YAP (Yes-associated protein), a proposed oncogene whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular localization (3,4). Recent studies have identified KIBRA as a novel regulator of Hippo signaling (5-7). KIBRA has been shown to regulate Hippo signaling through its interaction with tumor suppressors Merlin (Mer) and Expanded (Ex) in Drosophila (7) and by associating with large tumor suppressors LATS1 and LATS2 in humans (8). In humans, KIBRA is predominantly expressed in the kidney and brain (9) and has been shown to play a role in hippocampus-related memory performance (10-12). Recent studies have shown that phosphorylation of KIBRA is highest during mitosis and is controlled by aurora kinase and protein phosphatase 1 (13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that drive directional, microtubule-dependent intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles and other macromolecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids). The intracellular transport functions of KIFs are fundamentally important for a variety of cellular functions, including mitotic and meiotic division, motility/migration, hormone and neurotransmitter release, and differentiation (1-4). Disruptions to KIF-mediated intracellular transport have been linked with a variety of pathologies, ranging from tumorigenesis to defects in higher order brain function such as learning and memory (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that drive directional, microtubule-dependent intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles and other macromolecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids). The intracellular transport functions of KIFs are fundamentally important for a variety of cellular functions, including mitotic and meiotic division, motility/migration, hormone and neurotransmitter release, and differentiation (1-4). Disruptions to KIF-mediated intracellular transport have been linked with a variety of pathologies, ranging from tumorigenesis to defects in higher order brain function such as learning and memory (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The kindlin family of focal adhesion proteins is involved in multiple biological processes, including integrin signaling, adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, differentiation, and mitotic spindle formation (1,2). Kindlin family members 1, 2, and 3 (FERM1, FERM2, and URP2) are differentially expressed in tissues. Kindlin-1 is primarily expressed in epithelial cells, kindlin-2 is ubiquitously expressed, and kindlin-3 expression is restricted to the hematopoietic system (3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: KLF4 is a member of the erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) multigene family that is highly expressed in the differentiating layers of the epidermis (1, 2). KLF4 plays a critical role in the differentiation of epithelial cells and is essential for normal gastric homeostasis (2,3). Depending on the target gene, KLF4 can function as both a repressor and activator of transcription (4). Research studies suggest this protein may function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on tumor type, with up-regulation in human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and down-regulation in colorectal carcinoma (5,6). The in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells to an embryonic-like state has been achieved by retroviral transduction of four factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and KLF4 (7). These induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are of great therapeutic interest as they exhibit the key characteristics and growth properties of pluripotent stem cells (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Importins belong to the karyopherin family of nuclear transport proteins and are divided into two subgroups: importin alpha and importin beta. Importins function mainly in the import and export of nuclear proteins (1,2). KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2), a member of the importin alpha family, contains an N-terminal importin beta binding (IBB) motif followed by a hydrophobic region consisting of 10 armadillo repeats that function in binding to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sites of cargo proteins (3-5). A trimeric complex (importin beta/KPNA2/cargo protein) forms, translocates into the nucleus, and then dissociates upon binding of RanGTP to importin beta. The dissociated importin alpha is recycled back to the cytoplasm with the help of export factor CAS (6,7). KPNA2 can differentially regulate target localization by binding to different cargo proteins, either actively transporting them to the nucleus (such as oct3/4) or retaining them in the cytoplasm by formation of incompetent complexes (such as oct6/brn2) (8). Research studies indicate that KPNA2 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Research studies have also shown that up-regulation of KPNA2 is associated with cancer progression. Therefore, it has become a focus of biomarker research (9-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: KSR1 (kinase supressor of Ras) was identified from a genetic screen in Drosophila and C. elegans as a component of the Ras signaling pathway (1). KSR1 has a putative carboxy-terminal kinase domain that lacks a key Lys residue for phospho-group transfer. Although reports indicate that ceramide and EGF activate KSR1 (2,3), other evidence demonstrates that KSR1 regulates Raf in a kinase-independent manner (4,5). It is now widely accepted that KSR1 functions as a scaffold that binds MEK1/2 and 14-3-3 protein constitutively and binds ERK1/2 in a Ras activation-dependent manner (1,5,6). HSP70/HSP90 and p50 Cdc37 associate with the KSR1 complex to ensure its stability (5). Multiple phosphorylation sites have been identified: Ser297 and Ser392 mediate 14-3-3 binding, and putative MAPK phosphorylation sites include Thr260, Thr274 and Ser443 (6). C-TAK1 (Cdc25C-associated kinase 1) binds and phosphorylates KSR1 at Ser392 in quiescent cells (7). In response to stimuli, Ser392 is dephosphorylated by PP2A, which leads to ERK1/2 association and allows the KSR1 complex to translocate from cytosol to membrane, where the MAPK pathway is activated (8). IMP, a Ras-responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase, is also involved in interaction with KSR1 and may regulate its localization and stability (9). Very high expression levels of KSR1 inhibit MAPK signaling, whereas physiological levels promote MAPK signaling, indicating that the scaffold protein can turn signaling "on" or "off" depending on the scaffold concentration (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ku is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits (Ku70 and Ku80) originally identified by researchers as autoantigens associated with several autoimmune diseases including scleroderma, polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (1). Ku is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that binds to and stabilizes the ends of DNA at telomeres or double-stranded DNA breaks (2-5). The Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer has ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity and functions as the DNA-binding regulatory component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (6-8). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), one mechanism involved in double-stranded DNA break repair and V(D)J recombination (8). DNA-PK has been shown to phosphorylate many proteins, including p53, serum response factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Myc, Oct-1, Sp-1, and RNA polymerase II (1,8). The combined activities of Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PK implicate Ku in many cellular functions, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, recombination, and transcriptional activation.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ku is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits (Ku70 and Ku80) originally identified by researchers as autoantigens associated with several autoimmune diseases including scleroderma, polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (1). Ku is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that binds to and stabilizes the ends of DNA at telomeres or double-stranded DNA breaks (2-5). The Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer has ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity and functions as the DNA-binding regulatory component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (6-8). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), one mechanism involved in double-stranded DNA break repair and V(D)J recombination (8). DNA-PK has been shown to phosphorylate many proteins, including p53, serum response factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Myc, Oct-1, Sp-1, and RNA polymerase II (1,8). The combined activities of Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PK implicate Ku in many cellular functions, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, recombination, and transcriptional activation.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ku is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits (Ku70 and Ku80) originally identified by researchers as autoantigens associated with several autoimmune diseases including scleroderma, polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (1). Ku is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that binds to and stabilizes the ends of DNA at telomeres or double-stranded DNA breaks (2-5). The Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer has ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity and functions as the DNA-binding regulatory component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (6-8). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), one mechanism involved in double-stranded DNA break repair and V(D)J recombination (8). DNA-PK has been shown to phosphorylate many proteins, including p53, serum response factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Myc, Oct-1, Sp-1, and RNA polymerase II (1,8). The combined activities of Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PK implicate Ku in many cellular functions, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, recombination, and transcriptional activation.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: L-asparaginase (ASRGL1) catalyzes the conversion of L-asparagine to L-aspartate. Research studies have shown that intracellular asparagine can suppress apoptosis in a large number of human tumors (1). In addition, acute lymphocytic leukemia cells frequently depend upon serum asparagine for their viability, as they lack asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Deprivation of asparagine by L-asparaginase has therefore been developed as a therapeutic treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia (2-3). In KRAS mutant non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, PI3K/Akt signaling was shown to be required for ASNS expression, suggesting combinatorial Akt inhibition and L-asparaginase treatment as a therapeutic strategy for NSCLC (3). Research studies on a breast cancer model have furthermore shown that restriction of asparagine can suppress cancer metastasis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: La antigen is recognized by antibodies in patients with autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome (1). La antigen binds to the 5'-noncoding region of poliovirus RNA and is an IRES trans-acting factor (1,2). Depletion of La antigen reduces the function of poliovirus IRES in vivo (3). La antigen, when phosphorylated at Ser366, has been shown to associate with nuclear precursor tRNAs and facilitate their processing (4). The nonphosphorylated La antigen interacts with the mRNAs that have 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine (5'TOP) motifs to control protein synthesis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: LACTB is a serine beta-lactamase-like protein that is most prominently expressed in skeletal muscle, heart and liver (1). It contains an amino-terminal transmembrane domain and is localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it is polymerized into stable filaments that promote intramitochondrial membrane organization and micro-compartmentalization (2). Studies in multiple breast cancer cell types have shown that LACTB can function as a tumor suppressor by promoting decreased levels of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PISD), leading to reduced cell proliferation (3). In accordance with this, levels of LACTB have been shown to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer and associated with poor prognosis in both (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LAIR-1 is an inhibitory receptor that belongs to the Immunoglobulin superfamily. It has one extracellular Ig-like domain and an intracellular C-terminus with two ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) domains. It is found on peripheral mononuclear cells, including NK, T, and B cells, and is thought to play a negative regulatory role on the cytolytic function of these cells through signaling through collagen ligation (1). LAIR1 has been noted to be upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (2), and may play a role in expansion of Th17 cell populations in collagen-rich environments, such as in graft rejection tissue (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Laminins are a family of proteins important for maintaining cellular basement membrane (BM) structure and function (1). Laminins exist as heterotrimers of alpha (LAMA), beta (LAMB), and gamma (LAMC) chains. LAMC1 (laminin gamma-1) is a ubiquitously expressed gamma chain, and has three distinct functional domain structures. The N-terminal LN domain binds to specific alpha and beta chains to form a unique laminin heterotrimer. The LE domain mediates interactions with nidogens, while the C-terminal coil-coil fragment is necessary for agrin association. Collectively, these interactions are critical for stabilization and function of the BM (1). Genetic ablation of LAMC1 has demonstrated a critical role for this protein in embryo implantation, lung and kidney development, and neuronal Schwann cell myelination and regeneration, in addition to Trypanosome infection (2-5). Upregulation of LAMC1 has also been associated with tumor progression in multiple tumor types (6-9), possibly by creating a BM environment that is favorable for cancer cell metastasis and invasion.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Lamins are nuclear membrane structural components that are important in maintaining normal cell functions such as cell cycle control, DNA replication, and chromatin organization (1-3). Lamin A/C is cleaved by caspase-6 and serves as a marker for caspase-6 activation. During apoptosis, lamin A/C is specifically cleaved into a large (41-50 kDa) and a small (28 kDa) fragment (3,4). The cleavage of lamins results in nuclear dysregulation and cell death (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: La-related protein 1 (LARP1) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein that promotes both global and specific mRNA translation in cells (1). LARP1 belongs to the La-related protein family and contains two RNA binding domains, a La motif (LAM), and a neighboring RNA recognition motif-like (RRM-L) domain (1). Research studies indicate that LARP1 acts downstream of mTORC1 to facilitate cell proliferation and growth by promoting global mRNA translation and translation of mRNAs containing a 5'Terminal Oligo-Pyrimidine (5'TOP) motif, which code for translational machinery components (2,3). At the molecular level, LARP1 associates with 5'TOP mRNAs and multiple translation machinery components to positively regulate translation (2,4). Additional studies show that LARP1 expression is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and that high LARP1 expression in HCC negatively correlates with survival rate (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase (LARS) is a leucine sensor critical for the activation of mTORC1 (1). mTORC1 kinase complex is an important component in the regulation of cell growth (2,3). Its activity is modulated by energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (4,5). The four related GTPases, RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD, have been shown to interact with raptor in mTORC1 (2,3). These interactions are both necessary and sufficient for mTORC1 activation in response to amino acid signals (2,3). LARS functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and interacts directly with RagD GTPase (1). The role of LARS in leucine sensing is not related to its tRNA charging activity (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: LASP1 is a cytoskeletal scaffold protein belonging to the LIM protein subfamily (1,2). LASP1 consists of an N-terminal LIM domain, followed by two nebulin repeats, and a C-terminal SH3 domain (1,3). The nebulin repeats interact with actin, while the SH3 domain interacts with palladin (4,5), suggesting LASP1 functions as an actin-binding protein, possibly in cytoskeletal organization. LASP1 has been shown to localize to focal adhesions, lamellipodia, and membrane ruffles (6-8) and might be involved in membrane migration. Overexpression of LASP1 has been associated with metastatic cancers, such as breast and ovarian cancer (2). In these cases, membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear localization of LASP1 in the tumor cell has been reported, suggesting LASP1 involvement in membrane and nuclear signaling (9,10).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: LAT, a transmembrane adaptor protein expressed in T, NK and mast cells, is an important mediator for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling (1). Upon TCR engagement, activated Zap-70 phosphorylates LAT at multiple conserved tyrosine residues within SH2 binding motifs, exposing these motifs as the docking sites for downstream signaling targets (2,3). The phosphorylation of LAT at Tyr171 and Tyr191 enables the binding of Grb2, Gads/SLP-76, PLCγ1 and PI3 kinase through their SH2 domain and translocates them to the membrane. This process eventually leads to activation of the corresponding signaling pathways (1-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), also known as Solute carrier family 7 member 5 (SLC7A5), is a high-affinity neutral transporter of larger amino acids. It facilitates the cellular amino acid uptake in a sodium independent manner (1-2) and selectively transports D-and L-isomers of small neutral amino acids (3). LAT1 also regulates amino acid exchange in conjunction with solute carrier family 1 member 5 (SLC1A5) (2,4-6). Transport of thyroid hormones across the placenta is established via LAT1 during normal fetal development (7). LAT1 promotes neuronal cell proliferation by regulating the transport of amino acids across the blood brain barrier (8). LAT1 is upregulated in various cancer types including breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and gliomas (9,10). High expression of LAT1 is detected in non-small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastases(9,11,12). Increased LAT1 expression is a novel biomarker of high grade malignancy in prostate cancers (12). Inhibition of LAT1 suppresses tumor cell growth in several tumor types (10,13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Large tumor suppressor (LATS) proteins (LATS1, LATS2) are serine/threonine kinases that belong to the NDR family (1). The Drosophila homolog (warts) was first identified as a tumor suppressor protein that plays a role in the maintenance of ploidy. Human LATS1 was shown to localize to the centrosome and the mitotic spindle and control G2/M transition by negatively regulating cdc2 kinase activity (2,3). LATS1 is also reported to play a role in the G1 tetraploidy checkpoint, via control of p53 expression (4). LATS1 affects cytokinesis by regulating actin polymerization through negative modulation of LIMK1 (5). LATS1 also binds the phosphorylated form of zyxin, a regulator of actin filament assembly. This interaction promotes localization of zyxin to the mitotic spindle, suggesting a role for actin regulatory proteins during mitosis (6). Decreased expression of LATS1 is associated with breast tumor aggressiveness (7), and mutations perturbing LATS1 have been associated with human sarcomas and ovarian sarcomas (8,9). LATS1 knockout mice develop soft-tissue sarcomas, ovarian stromal cell tumor, and display a high sensitivity to carcinogenic treatments (10). LATS1 and LATS2 have also been identified as key members of the Hippo signaling pathway, a conserved kinase cascade that functions to regulate cell growth and apoptosis (11). Phosphorylation of LATS by Mammalian Sterile-20-like proteins (e.g., MST1) results in LATS-mediated phosphorylation of the transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ (12, 13). LATS-mediated phosphorylation of YAP and TAZ promotes their cytoplasmic sequestration and association with 14-3-3 proteins, and subsequent proteasomal degradation, leading to downregulation of YAP/TAZ target genes that promote cell growth (11, 14).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Highly conserved and widely expressed plastin proteins comprise a subset of actin-binding proteins that include proteins that promote actin bundling. Three plastins exhibiting differential expression are found in mammals and include L-plastin, T-plastin, and I-plastin. T-plastin (plastin-3) is found in cells of most solid tissues, while I-plastin (plastin-1) is expressed specifically in the kidney, colon, and small intestine (1-3). Research studies have shown that L-plastin (plastin-2) or lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells and nonhematopoietic tumors, and increased expression correlates with metastatic progression in colon cancer cell lines (4). Investigators have found that overexpression of LCP1 in premetastatic cancer cell lines induces invasion and loss of E-cadherin expression, which is characteristic of metastatic cancer cell lines (5). LCP1 becomes phosphorylated at Ser5 upon stimulation through the T cell receptor/CD3 complex in association with the CD2 cell adhesion molecule or the CD28 receptor (6). Phosphorylation at Ser5 enhances the ability of LCP1 to bind to F-actin and increases cell motility (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LIM-domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is a nuclear adapter protein and transcription co-factor that interacts with a multitude of LIM-domain containing transcription factors. Through such interactions, LDB1 facilitates promoter-enhancer bridging and is necessary for the activation and/or repression of genes in multiple cell lineages, including neuronal, cardiac, and hematopoietic cell lineages. Specifically, LDB1 associates with the T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (TAL1) and the nuclear adaptor LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) protein to regulate erythroid gene expression (1). LDB1 is crucial for hematopoietic development, and deletion of LDB1 results in embryonic lethality (2). LDB1 is also required for the maintenance of basal mammary epithelial stem cells and promotes breast tumorigenesis (3). In addition, LDB1 stabilizes LMO2 and is necessary to promote oncogenic properties of LMO2-driven leukemia (4). Structurally, LDB1 contains an amino-terminal homodimerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LIM interaction domain (LID). This protein has no known enzymatic or nucleic-acid binding functions (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and NADH to lactate and NAD+. When the oxygen supply is too low for mitochondrial ATP production, this reaction recycles NADH generated in glycolysis to NAD+, which reenters glycolysis. The major form of LDH found in muscle cells is the A (LDHA) isozyme. The LDHA promoter contains HIF-1α binding sites (1). LDHA expression is induced under hypoxic conditions (2). During intensive and prolonged muscle exercise, lactate accumulates in muscle cells when the supply of oxygen does not meet demand. When oxygen levels return to normal, LDH converts lactate to pyruvate to generate ATP in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: LIM domain-containing protein 1 (LIMD1) is a putative tumor suppressor and adapter/scaffold protein that belongs to the Ajuba family of LIM domain containing proteins. LIM domain containing proteins mediate protein-protein interactions and typically contain a pair of distinct zinc finger domains (1). Research studies indicate that LIMD1 is involved in numerous cellular processes, including inhibition of E2F mediated transcription (2) and negative regulation of the Hippo pathway through influence on YAP phosphorylation state (3,4). Additional studies identify LIMD1 as a hypoxia regulator as it recruits the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein and the hydroxylase PHD1 to a protein complex that promotes initiation of HIF-1α ubiquitination and degradation (5). Research evidence supporting the role of LIMD1 as a tumor suppressor includes the down regulation of the protein in 80% of lung cancers (6), loss of LIMD1 expression in head and neck cancers (7), and altered subcellular localization in cases of breast cancer (8).