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Product listing: Phospho-RIP (Ser321) Antibody (Mouse Specific), UniProt ID Q60855 #83613 to Phospho-SQSTM1/p62 (Thr269/Ser272) Antibody, UniProt ID Q13501 #13121

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ROS1, an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, was initially identified as a homolog of v-ros from the UR2 sarcoma virus (1). ROS1 consists of a large extracellular domain that is composed of six fibronectin repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular kinase domain. While the function of ROS1 is undefined, it has been shown to play an important role in differentiation of epididymal epithelium (2). The first oncogenic fusion of ROS1, FIG-ROS1, was initially identified by research studies in glioblastoma (3), and subsequent studies have found this fusion in cholangiocarcinoma (4), ovarian cancer (5) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (6). Investigators have found additional oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins in NSCLC (at a frequency of ~1.6%), where the ROS1 kinase domain is fused to the amino-terminal region of a number of different proteins, including CD74 and SLC34A2 (6-8). ROS1 fusion proteins activate the SHP-2 phosphatase, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Erk, and Stat3 pathways (3,4,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: RPA70 (HSSB, REPA1, RF-A, RP-A, p70) is a component of a heterotrimeric complex, composed of 70, 32/30 and 14 kDa subunits, collectively known as RPA. RPA is a single stranded DNA binding protein, whose DNA binding activity is believed to reside entirely in the 70 kDa subunit. The complex is required for almost all aspects of cellular DNA metabolism such as DNA replication (1-3), recombination, cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints, and all major types of DNA repair including nucleotide excision, base excision, mismatch and double-strand break repairs (4-7). In response to genotoxic stress in eukaryotic cells, RPA has been shown to associate with the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex (8). RPA is hyperphosphorylated upon DNA damage or replication stress by checkpoint kinases including ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (9-11). Phosphorylation of RPA32 occurs at serines 4, 8 and 33 (11). Hyperphosphorylation may alter RPA-DNA and RPA-protein interactions. In addition to the checkpoint partners, RPA interacts with a wide variety of protein partners, including proteins required for normal replication such as RCF, PCNA and Pol α, and also proteins involved in SV40 replication, such as DNA polymerase I and SV40 large T antigen (10,12).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a large multi-protein complex that functions as a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, catalyzing the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates (1). The largest subunit, RNAPII subunit B1 (Rpb1), also known as RNAPII subunit A (POLR2A), contains a unique heptapeptide sequence (Tyr1,Ser2,Pro3,Thr4,Ser5,Pro6,Ser7), which is repeated up to 52 times in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the protein (1). This CTD heptapeptide repeat is subject to multiple post-translational modifications, which dictate the functional state of the polymerase complex. Phosphorylation of the CTD during the active transcription cycle integrates transcription with chromatin remodeling and nascent RNA processing by regulating the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes and RNA processing proteins to the transcribed gene (1). During transcription initiation, RNAPII contains a hypophosphorylated CTD and is recruited to gene promoters through interactions with DNA-bound transcription factors and the Mediator complex (1). The escape of RNAPII from gene promoters requires phosphorylation at Ser5 by CDK7, the catalytic subunit of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) (2). Phosphorylation at Ser5 mediates the recruitment of RNA capping enzymes, in addition to histone H3 Lys4 methyltransferases, which function to regulate transcription initiation and chromatin structure (3,4). After promoter escape, RNAPII proceeds down the gene to an intrinsic pause site, where it is halted by the negative elongation factors NELF and DSIF (5). At this point, RNAPII is unstable and frequently aborts transcription and dissociates from the gene. Productive transcription elongation requires phosphorylation at Ser2 by CDK9, the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb (6). Phosphorylation at Ser2 creates a stable transcription elongation complex and facilitates recruitment of RNA splicing and polyadenylation factors, in addition to histone H3 Lys36 methyltransferases, which function to promote elongation-compatible chromatin (7,8). Ser2/Ser5-phosphorylated RNAPII then transcribes the entire length of the gene to the 3' end, where transcription is terminated. RNAPII dissociates from the DNA and is recycled to the hypophosphorylated form by various CTD phosphatases (1).In addition to Ser2/Ser5 phosphorylation, Ser7 of the CTD heptapeptide repeat is also phosphorylated during the active transcription cycle. Phosphorylation at Ser7 is required for efficient transcription of small nuclear (sn) RNA genes (9,10). snRNA genes, which are neither spliced nor poly-adenylated, are structurally different from protein-coding genes. Instead of a poly(A) signal found in protein-coding RNAs, snRNAs contain a conserved 3'-box RNA processing element, which is recognized by the Integrator snRNA 3' end processing complex (11,12). Phosphorylation at Ser7 by CDK7 during the early stages of transcription facilitates recruitment of RPAP2, which dephosphorylates Ser5, creating a dual Ser2/Ser7 phosphorylation mark that facilitates recruitment of the Integrator complex and efficient processing of nascent snRNA transcripts (13-15).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a large multi-protein complex that functions as a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, catalyzing the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates (1). The largest subunit, RNAPII subunit B1 (Rpb1), also known as RNAPII subunit A (POLR2A), contains a unique heptapeptide sequence (Tyr1,Ser2,Pro3,Thr4,Ser5,Pro6,Ser7), which is repeated up to 52 times in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the protein (1). This CTD heptapeptide repeat is subject to multiple post-translational modifications, which dictate the functional state of the polymerase complex. Phosphorylation of the CTD during the active transcription cycle integrates transcription with chromatin remodeling and nascent RNA processing by regulating the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes and RNA processing proteins to the transcribed gene (1). During transcription initiation, RNAPII contains a hypophosphorylated CTD and is recruited to gene promoters through interactions with DNA-bound transcription factors and the Mediator complex (1). The escape of RNAPII from gene promoters requires phosphorylation at Ser5 by CDK7, the catalytic subunit of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) (2). Phosphorylation at Ser5 mediates the recruitment of RNA capping enzymes, in addition to histone H3 Lys4 methyltransferases, which function to regulate transcription initiation and chromatin structure (3,4). After promoter escape, RNAPII proceeds down the gene to an intrinsic pause site, where it is halted by the negative elongation factors NELF and DSIF (5). At this point, RNAPII is unstable and frequently aborts transcription and dissociates from the gene. Productive transcription elongation requires phosphorylation at Ser2 by CDK9, the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb (6). Phosphorylation at Ser2 creates a stable transcription elongation complex and facilitates recruitment of RNA splicing and polyadenylation factors, in addition to histone H3 Lys36 methyltransferases, which function to promote elongation-compatible chromatin (7,8). Ser2/Ser5-phosphorylated RNAPII then transcribes the entire length of the gene to the 3' end, where transcription is terminated. RNAPII dissociates from the DNA and is recycled to the hypophosphorylated form by various CTD phosphatases (1).In addition to Ser2/Ser5 phosphorylation, Ser7 of the CTD heptapeptide repeat is also phosphorylated during the active transcription cycle. Phosphorylation at Ser7 is required for efficient transcription of small nuclear (sn) RNA genes (9,10). snRNA genes, which are neither spliced nor poly-adenylated, are structurally different from protein-coding genes. Instead of a poly(A) signal found in protein-coding RNAs, snRNAs contain a conserved 3'-box RNA processing element, which is recognized by the Integrator snRNA 3' end processing complex (11,12). Phosphorylation at Ser7 by CDK7 during the early stages of transcription facilitates recruitment of RPAP2, which dephosphorylates Ser5, creating a dual Ser2/Ser7 phosphorylation mark that facilitates recruitment of the Integrator complex and efficient processing of nascent snRNA transcripts (13-15).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1-4) are a family of widely expressed Ser/Thr kinases characterized by two nonidentical, functional kinase domains (1) and a carboxy-terminal docking site for extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) (2). Several sites both within and outside of the RSK kinase domain, including Ser380, Thr359, Ser363, and Thr573, are important for kinase activation (3). RSK1-3 are activated via coordinated phosphorylation by MAPKs, autophosphorylation, and phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) in response to many growth factors, polypeptide hormones, and neurotransmitters (3).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$303
200 µl
$717
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) functions as both a global chromatin organizer and a gene-specific transcription factor (1). SATB1 cooperates with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) to regulate global chromatin architecture by organizing chromatin into distinct loops via periodic anchoring of matrix attachment regions (MARs) in DNA to the nuclear matrix (1-3). In addition, SATB1 recruits multiple chromatin-remodeling proteins that contribute to specific gene activation and repression, including the chromatin remodeling enzymes ACF and ISWI, the histone deacetylase HDAC1, and the histone acetyltransferases PCAF and p300/CBP (4-6). Phosphorylation of SATB1 on Ser185 by protein kinase C regulates its interaction with HDAC1 and PCAF. While unphosphorylated SATB1 binds to PCAF, phosphorylated SATB1 preferentially binds to HDAC1 (6). Acetylation of SATB1 on Lys136 by PCAF impairs its DNA binding activity, thereby removing SATB1 from gene promoters (6). SATB1 is expressed predominantly in thymocytes and is involved in gene regulation during T cell activation (1). SATB1 is also expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells and is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer (7). In a mouse model system, RNAi-mediated knockdown of SATB1 reversed tumorigenesis by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, while ectopic expression of SATB1 in non-metastatic breast cancer cells produced invasive tumors.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SAPK/Erk kinase (SEK1), also known as MKK4 or Jun kinase kinase (JNKK), activates the MAP kinase homologues SAPK and JNK in response to various cellular stresses and inflammatory cytokines (1-3). Activation of SEK1 occurs through MEKK phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at positions 257 and 261, respectively. Like MEK, SEK is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates SAPK/JNK at a conserved T*PY* site in its activation loop (4). Phosphorylation by Akt at Ser80 inhibits SEK1 and suppresses stress-activated signal transduction (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SAPK/Erk kinase (SEK1), also known as MKK4 or Jun kinase kinase (JNKK), activates the MAP kinase homologues SAPK and JNK in response to various cellular stresses and inflammatory cytokines (1-3). Activation of SEK1 occurs through MEKK phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at positions 257 and 261, respectively. Like MEK, SEK is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates SAPK/JNK at a conserved T*PY* site in its activation loop (4). Phosphorylation by Akt at Ser80 inhibits SEK1 and suppresses stress-activated signal transduction (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SAPK/Erk kinase (SEK1), also known as MKK4 or Jun kinase kinase (JNKK), activates the MAP kinase homologues SAPK and JNK in response to various cellular stresses and inflammatory cytokines (1-3). Activation of SEK1 occurs through MEKK phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at positions 257 and 261, respectively. Like MEK, SEK is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates SAPK/JNK at a conserved T*PY* site in its activation loop (4). Phosphorylation by Akt at Ser80 inhibits SEK1 and suppresses stress-activated signal transduction (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The semaphorin family of proteins is involved in axon guidance, cell migration, angiogenesis, and immune response. Plexins and neuropilins bind with high affinity to semaphorins to mediate their functions. Semaphorins are divided into seven classes of secreted or membrane-bound proteins. Members of Class 4 semaphorins include 4A through 4G; semaphorin 4B is a membrane-associated protein (1,2). Semaphorin 4B binds to the CLCP1 receptor and regulates cell motility (3). Furthermore, semaphorin 4B, like many other semaphorins, has a PDZ domain-binding motif at the carboxy terminus that interacts with PSD95 and localizes to the post-synaptic membrane (4).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Shc possesses SH2 and PTB domains and serves as a scaffold protein in signaling for a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Shc exists in p46, p52 and p66 isoforms, which are produced by using alternative translation initiation sites or a differentially spliced message (1-3). In response to extracellular signals, the SH2 and PTB domains of Shc interact with the activated receptors, leading to phosphorylation of Shc on three different tyrosine residues: Tyr239, Tyr240 and Tyr317 (4-6). GRB2/Sos binds to Shc phosphorylated at these sites, activating the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway (4). Both Shc expression and its tyrosine phosphorylation play an essential and nonredundant role in thymic T cell development (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Shc possesses SH2 and PTB domains and serves as a scaffold protein in signaling for a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Shc exists in p46, p52 and p66 isoforms, which are produced by using alternative translation initiation sites or a differentially spliced message (1-3). In response to extracellular signals, the SH2 and PTB domains of Shc interact with the activated receptors, leading to phosphorylation of Shc on three different tyrosine residues: Tyr239, Tyr240 and Tyr317 (4-6). GRB2/Sos binds to Shc phosphorylated at these sites, activating the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway (4). Both Shc expression and its tyrosine phosphorylation play an essential and nonredundant role in thymic T cell development (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a hematopoietic phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (1). SHIP1 is a cytosolic phosphatase with an SH2 domain in its amino terminus and two NPXY Shc binding motifs in its carboxy terminus (1,2). Upon receptor cross-linking, SHIP is first recruited to the membrane junction through binding of its SH2 domain to the phospho-tyrosine in the ITIM motif (2), followed by tyrosine phosphorylation on the NPXY motif (2). The membrane relocalization and phosphorylation on the NPXY motif is essential for the regulatory function of SHIP1 (3-5). Its effect on calcium flux, cell survival, growth, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis is mediated through the PI3K and Akt pathways (3-5). Tyr1021 is located in one of the NPXY motifs in SHIP1, and its phosphorylation is important for SHIP1 function (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a hematopoietic phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (1). SHIP1 is a cytosolic phosphatase with an SH2 domain in its amino terminus and two NPXY Shc binding motifs in its carboxy terminus (1,2). Upon receptor cross-linking, SHIP is first recruited to the membrane junction through binding of its SH2 domain to the phospho-tyrosine in the ITIM motif (2), followed by tyrosine phosphorylation on the NPXY motif (2). The membrane relocalization and phosphorylation on the NPXY motif is essential for the regulatory function of SHIP1 (3-5). Its effect on calcium flux, cell survival, growth, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis is mediated through the PI3K and Akt pathways (3-5). Tyr1021 is located in one of the NPXY motifs in SHIP1, and its phosphorylation is important for SHIP1 function (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT1, the mammalian ortholog of Sir2, is a nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, endocrine signaling, glucose homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Targets of SirT1 include acetylated p53 (2,3), p300 (4), Ku70 (5), forkhead (FoxO) transcription factors (5,6), PPARγ (7), and the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein (8). Deacetylation of p53 and FoxO transcription factors represses apoptosis and increases cell survival (2,3,5,6). Deacetylation of PPARγ and PGC-1α regulates the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathways in the liver and fat mobilization in white adipocytes in response to fasting (7,8). SirT1 deacetylase activity is inhibited by nicotinamide and activated by resveratrol. In addition, SirT1 activity may be regulated by phosphorylation, as it is phosphorylated at Ser27 and Ser47 in vivo; however, the function of these phosphorylation sites has not yet been determined (9).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT1, the mammalian ortholog of Sir2, is a nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, endocrine signaling, glucose homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Targets of SirT1 include acetylated p53 (2,3), p300 (4), Ku70 (5), forkhead (FoxO) transcription factors (5,6), PPARγ (7), and the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein (8). Deacetylation of p53 and FoxO transcription factors represses apoptosis and increases cell survival (2,3,5,6). Deacetylation of PPARγ and PGC-1α regulates the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathways in the liver and fat mobilization in white adipocytes in response to fasting (7,8). SirT1 deacetylase activity is inhibited by nicotinamide and activated by resveratrol. In addition, SirT1 activity may be regulated by phosphorylation, as it is phosphorylated at Ser27 and Ser47 in vivo; however, the function of these phosphorylation sites has not yet been determined (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the F-box family of proteins are characterized by the approximate 40 amino acid F-box motif named after cyclin F (1,2). F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. The substrate specificity of SCF complexes is determined by the interchangeable F-box proteins, which act as adaptors by associating with phosphorylated substrate proteins and recruiting them to the SCF core. F-box proteins contain two fundamental domains: the F-box motif mediates binding to Skp1 and a leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain mediates substrate interactions.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is a hematopoietic adaptor protein that is important in multiple biochemical signaling pathways and necessary for T cell development and activation (1). ZAP-70 phosphorylates SLP-76 and LAT as a result of TCR ligation. SLP-76 has amino-terminal tyrosine residues followed by a proline rich domain and a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Phosphorylation of Tyr113 and Tyr128 result in recruitment of the GEF Vav and the adapter protein Nck (2). TCR ligation also leads to phosphorylation of Tyr145, which mediates an association between SLP-76 and Itk, which is accomplished in part via the proline rich domain of SLP-76 and the SH3 domain of ITK (3). Furthermore, the proline rich domain of SLP-76 binds to the SH3 domains of Grb2-like adapter Gads (3,4). In resting cells, SLP-76 is predominantly in the cytosol. Upon TCR ligation, SLP-76 translocates to the plasma membrane and promotes the assembly of a multi-protein signaling complex that includes Vav, Nck, Itk and PLCγ1 (1). The expression of SLP-76 is tightly regulated; the protein is detected at very early stages of thymocyte development, increases as thymocyte maturation progresses, and is reduced as cells mature to CD4+ CD8+ double-positive thymocytes (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute a large family of signaling molecules that regulate a wide range of critical processes including morphogenesis, cell-fate determination, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (1,2). BMP receptors are members of the TGF-β family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors. Ligand binding induces multimerization, autophosphorylation, and activation of these receptors (3-5). They subsequently phosphorylate Smad1 at Ser463 and Ser465 in the carboxy-terminal motif SSXS, as well as Smad5 and Smad9 (Smad8) at their corresponding sites. These phosphorylated Smads dimerize with the coactivating Smad4 and translocate to the nucleus, where they stimulate transcription of target genes (5).MAP kinases and CDKs 8 and 9 phosphorylate residues in the linker region of Smad1, including Ser206. The phosphorylation of Ser206 recruits Smurf1 to the linker region and leads to the degradation of Smad1 (6). Phosphorylation of this site also promotes Smad1 transcriptional action by recruiting YAP to the linker region (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) protein is a chromosomal protein member of the cohesin complex that enables sister chromatid cohesion and plays a role in DNA repair (1,2). ATM/NBS1-dependent phosphorylation of SMC1 occurs at Ser957 and Ser966 in response to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint (3). SMC1 phosphorylation is ATM-independent in cells subjected to other forms of DNA damage, including UV light and hydroxyurea treatment (4). While phosphorylation of SMC1 is required for activation of the IR-induced intra-S-phase checkpoint, the precise mechanism is not well understood and may involve a conformational change that affects SMC1-SMC3 interaction (3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and autophagy (1-4). It was first identified as a protein that binds to the SH2 domain of p56Lck (5) and independently found to interact with PKCζ (6,7). SQSTM1 was subsequently found to interact with ubiquitin, providing a scaffold for several signaling proteins and triggering degradation of proteins through the proteasome or lysosome (8). Interaction between SQSTM1 and TRAF6 leads to the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and subsequent activation of the NF-κB pathway (9). Protein aggregates formed by SQSTM1 can be degraded by the autophagosome (4,10,11). SQSTM1 binds autophagosomal membrane protein LC3/Atg8, bringing SQSTM1-containing protein aggregates to the autophagosome (12). Lysosomal degradation of autophagosomes leads to a decrease in SQSTM1 levels during autophagy; conversely, autophagy inhibitors stabilize SQSTM1 levels. Studies have demonstrated a link between SQSTM1 and oxidative stress. SQSTM1 interacts with KEAP1, which is a cytoplasmic inhibitor of NRF2, a key transcription factor involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress (3). Thus, accumulation of SQSTM1 can lead to an increase in NRF2 activity.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and autophagy (1-4). It was first identified as a protein that binds to the SH2 domain of p56Lck (5) and independently found to interact with PKCζ (6,7). SQSTM1 was subsequently found to interact with ubiquitin, providing a scaffold for several signaling proteins and triggering degradation of proteins through the proteasome or lysosome (8). Interaction between SQSTM1 and TRAF6 leads to the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and subsequent activation of the NF-κB pathway (9). Protein aggregates formed by SQSTM1 can be degraded by the autophagosome (4,10,11). SQSTM1 binds autophagosomal membrane protein LC3/Atg8, bringing SQSTM1-containing protein aggregates to the autophagosome (12). Lysosomal degradation of autophagosomes leads to a decrease in SQSTM1 levels during autophagy; conversely, autophagy inhibitors stabilize SQSTM1 levels. Studies have demonstrated a link between SQSTM1 and oxidative stress. SQSTM1 interacts with KEAP1, which is a cytoplasmic inhibitor of NRF2, a key transcription factor involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress (3). Thus, accumulation of SQSTM1 can lead to an increase in NRF2 activity.