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Product listing: Retinoic Acid and Retinoid X Receptors Antibody Sampler Kit, UniProt ID P10276 #8589 to Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414

The Retinoic Acid and Retinoid X Receptors Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the expression of various subtypes of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary.
The Rho-GTPase Antibody Sampler Kit contains reagents to examine aspects of cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in cells. This kit includes enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per each primary antibody.
The Rig-I Pathway Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the activation state and total protein levels of multiple members of the Rig-I pathway including Rig-I, MDA-5, MAVS, IRF-3, TBK1/NAK, and IKKε. The kit includes enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments per antibody.

Background: Antiviral innate immunity depends on the combination of parallel pathways triggered by virus detecting proteins in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and RNA helicases, such as Rig-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and MDA-5 (melanoma differentiation-associated antigen 5), which promote the transcription of type I interferons (IFN) and antiviral enzymes (1-3). TLRs and helicase proteins contain sites that recognize the molecular patterns of different virus types, including DNA, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and glycoproteins. These antiviral proteins are found in different cell compartments; TLRs (i.e. TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) are expressed on endosomal membranes and helicases are localized to the cytoplasm. Rig-I expression is induced by retinoic acid, LPS, IFN, and viral infection (4,5). Both Rig-I and MDA-5 share a DExD/H-box helicase domain that detects viral dsRNA and two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARD) that are required for triggering downstream signaling (4-7). Rig-I binds both dsRNA and viral ssRNA that contains a 5'-triphosphate end not seen in host RNA (8,9). Though structurally related, Rig-I and MDA-5 detect a distinct set of viruses (10,11). The CARD domain of the helicases, which is sufficient to generate signaling and IFN production, is recruited to the CARD domain of the MAVS/VISA/Cardif/IPS-1 mitochondrial protein, which triggers activation of NF-κB, TBK1/IKKε, and IRF-3/IRF-7 (12-15).

$64
15 ml
RIPA buffer is used to lyse cells and tissues.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

The RNAi Machinery Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to analyze proteins associated with endogenous RNA interference. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.
The Rpb1 CTD Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating total Rpb1 NTD levels as well as Rpb1 CTD phosphorylated and specific sites. The kit includes enough primary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a large multi-protein complex that functions as a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, catalyzing the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates (1). The largest subunit, RNAPII subunit B1 (Rpb1), also known as RNAPII subunit A (POLR2A), contains a unique heptapeptide sequence (Tyr1,Ser2,Pro3,Thr4,Ser5,Pro6,Ser7), which is repeated up to 52 times in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the protein (1). This CTD heptapeptide repeat is subject to multiple post-translational modifications, which dictate the functional state of the polymerase complex. Phosphorylation of the CTD during the active transcription cycle integrates transcription with chromatin remodeling and nascent RNA processing by regulating the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes and RNA processing proteins to the transcribed gene (1). During transcription initiation, RNAPII contains a hypophosphorylated CTD and is recruited to gene promoters through interactions with DNA-bound transcription factors and the Mediator complex (1). The escape of RNAPII from gene promoters requires phosphorylation at Ser5 by CDK7, the catalytic subunit of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) (2). Phosphorylation at Ser5 mediates the recruitment of RNA capping enzymes, in addition to histone H3 Lys4 methyltransferases, which function to regulate transcription initiation and chromatin structure (3,4). After promoter escape, RNAPII proceeds down the gene to an intrinsic pause site, where it is halted by the negative elongation factors NELF and DSIF (5). At this point, RNAPII is unstable and frequently aborts transcription and dissociates from the gene. Productive transcription elongation requires phosphorylation at Ser2 by CDK9, the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb (6). Phosphorylation at Ser2 creates a stable transcription elongation complex and facilitates recruitment of RNA splicing and polyadenylation factors, in addition to histone H3 Lys36 methyltransferases, which function to promote elongation-compatible chromatin (7,8). Ser2/Ser5-phosphorylated RNAPII then transcribes the entire length of the gene to the 3' end, where transcription is terminated. RNAPII dissociates from the DNA and is recycled to the hypophosphorylated form by various CTD phosphatases (1).In addition to Ser2/Ser5 phosphorylation, Ser7 of the CTD heptapeptide repeat is also phosphorylated during the active transcription cycle. Phosphorylation at Ser7 is required for efficient transcription of small nuclear (sn) RNA genes (9,10). snRNA genes, which are neither spliced nor poly-adenylated, are structurally different from protein-coding genes. Instead of a poly(A) signal found in protein-coding RNAs, snRNAs contain a conserved 3'-box RNA processing element, which is recognized by the Integrator snRNA 3' end processing complex (11,12). Phosphorylation at Ser7 by CDK7 during the early stages of transcription facilitates recruitment of RPAP2, which dephosphorylates Ser5, creating a dual Ser2/Ser7 phosphorylation mark that facilitates recruitment of the Integrator complex and efficient processing of nascent snRNA transcripts (13-15).

This peptide is used to block S6 Ribosomal Protein (5G10) Rabbit mAb # 2217 reactivity.

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$251
100 µl
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin (vitamin H or B7) that serves as a coenzyme in various metabolic functions. It transfers carbon dioxide for five carboxylase enzymes and is involved in the TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis. In addition, all cells require biotin for cell proliferation, production of fatty acids, and metabolism of fats and amino acids (1). Biotin recycling and attachment to histone proteins is catalyzed by an enzyme named biotinidase. Histone biotinylation is involved in regulating telomere attrition and cellular senescence. Biotinidase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can cause neurological and cutaneous symptoms if left untreated (2). Biotin has a high affinity for its natural ligand, avidin. The complex and irregular structure of the biotin-binding site makes it highly optimized for biotin binding and confers great specificity to the avidin-biotin complexes (3). This remarkable affinity has been exploited for numerous immunoassays including ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence, In Situ Hybridization, Affinity Chromatography, and Immunohistochemistry. Anti-Biotin (D5A7) Rabbit mAb can be used as an alternative to avidins in order to minimize background and maximize signal intensity.

$131
1 ml
Anti-biotin (D5A7) Rabbit mAb is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. This product has been optimized to detect biotinylated primary antibodies. HRP conjugated antibodies do not require incubation with a secondary antibody. *Do not mix this antibody in solution with any Anti-rabbit antibody. Anti-rabbit antibodies will cross react with this antibody and could result in decreased activity of both Anti-rabbit and Anti-biotin (D5A7) Rabbit mAb.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$135
1 ml
Affinity purified goat anti-biotin antibody is conjugated to calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. This product has been optimized for the detection of biotinylated protein molecular weight standards in western blotting applications.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent or other substrates for detection on western blots. One of the advantages of AP conjugation is that the reaction rate remains linear for a long period of time.

$135
1 ml
Affinity purified goat anti-biotin antibody is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. This product has been optimized to detect biotinylated protein markers.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$80
100 µl
$162
500 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L) was conjugated to DyLight™ 680 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. Excitation is 684 nm and peak fluorescence emission is 715 nm.

Background: Near infrared anti-species IgG conjugates are ideal for fluorescent western blotting and In-Cell Western. Cell Signaling Technology's strict quality control procedures assure that each conjugate provides optimal specificity and fluorescence.

$80
100 µl
$162
500 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L) was conjugated to DyLight™ 800 4X PEG fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. Excitation is 777 nm and peak fluorescence emission is 794 nm.

Background: Near infrared anti-species IgG conjugates are ideal for fluorescent western blotting and In-Cell Western. Cell Signaling Technology's strict quality control procedures assure that each conjugate provides optimal specificity and fluorescence.

$142
1 ml
Affinity purified goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) antibody is conjugated to biotin. This product has been optimized for use as a secondary antibody in western blotting applications.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$142
250 µl
Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment antibody was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$199
250 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) under optimal conditions. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

$203
250 µl
Anti-mouse IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment results in less non-specific binding to cells through Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

$131
1 ml
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated sepharose beads. Anti-mouse IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Sepharose Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of antibodies raised in mice.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

$142
1 ml
Affinity purified goat anti-mouse IgG (H&L) antibody is conjugated to calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. This product has been optimized for use as a secondary antibody in Western blotting and ELISA applications.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: ELISA, Western Blotting

Background: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent or other substrates for detection on western blots. One of the advantages of AP conjugation is that the reaction rate remains linear for a long period of time.

$76
100 µl
$142
1 ml
$452
5 ml
Affinity purified horse anti-mouse IgG (heavy and light chain) antibody is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase(HRP) for chemiluminescent detection.  This product is thoroughly validated with CST primary antibodies and will work optimally with the CST western immunoblotting protocol, ensuring accurate and reproducible results.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Chemiluminescence systems have emerged as the best all-around method for western blot detection. They eliminate the hazards associated with radioactive materials and toxic chromogenic substrates. The speed and sensitivity of these methods are unequalled by traditional alternatives, and because results are generated on film, it is possible to record and store data permanently. Blots detected with chemiluminescent methods are easily stripped for subsequent reprobing with additional antibodies. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies are utilized in conjunction with specific chemiluminescent substrates to generate the light signal. HRP conjugates have a very high turnover rate, yielding good sensitivity with short reaction times.

$80
100 µl
$162
500 µl
Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) was conjugated to DyLight™ 680 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. Excitation is 684 nm and peak fluorescence emission is 715 nm.

Background: Near infrared anti-species IgG conjugates are ideal for fluorescent western blotting and In-Cell Western. Cell Signaling Technology's strict quality control procedures assure that each conjugate provides optimal specificity and fluorescence.

$80
100 µl
$162
500 µl
Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) was conjugated to DyLight™ 800 4X PEG fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 1 mg/ml. Excitation is 777 nm and peak fluorescence emission is 794 nm.

Background: Near infrared anti-species IgG conjugates are ideal for fluorescent western blotting and In-Cell Western. Cell Signaling Technology's strict quality control procedures assure that each conjugate provides optimal specificity and fluorescence.

$142
1 ml
Affinity purified goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) antibody is conjugated to biotin. This product has been optimized for use as a secondary antibody in western blotting applications.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$142
250 µl
Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$142
250 µl
Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) F(ab')2 Fragment was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/ml. This F(ab')2 fragment product results in less non-specific binding, as it lacks the Fc domain that can bind to the cells with Fc receptors.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)