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Product listing: SignalStain® EDTA Unmasking Solution (10X) #14747 to AMPK Control Cell Extracts #9158

$19
25 ml
$82
125 ml
SignalStain® EDTA Unmasking Solution (10X) is used for antigen unmasking of formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections or cell pellets in immunohistochemical assays (IHC-P). Cell Signaling Technology recommends the optimal unmasking reagent for each IHC-P approved antibody. Please consult the primary antibody datasheet to determine if this solution is recommended for your specific product.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

$135
60 ml
SignalStain® Mounting Medium is for use in immunohistochemical assays. This product permanently preserves tissue or cell preparations, and produces clear mounted sections, free from crystallization, with the ideal refractive index for high-resolution oil immersion microscopy. SignalStain® Mounting Medium retains the staining intensity of slides prepared with SignalStain® DAB Substrate Kit #8059.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

$65
1 ml
$296
5 x 1ml
5 ml
The SimpleChIP® Universal qPCR Master Mix is an optimized 2X reaction mix for real-time qPCR detection and quantitation of target DNA sequences using the SYBR/FAM channel of most real-time qPCR instruments. It contains Hot Start Taq DNA Polymerase and has been formulated with a unique passive reference dye that is compatible across a variety of instrument platforms (including those that require a high or low ROX reference signal). It also features dUTP for carryover prevention and a non-fluorescent, visible dye to monitor reaction setup. This dye does not spectrally overlap with fluorescent dyes used for qPCR and will not interfere with real-time detection.This product is provided in 1 ml volumes sufficient for preparation of 100 qPCR reactions, and is compatible with both enzymatic and sonication-fragmented DNA samples from SimpleChIP® enzymatic and sonication ChIP kits. This master mix formulation is supplied at 2X concentration and contains all PCR components required for amplification and quantitation of DNA, except primers and a DNA template.
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Background: Dye-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) uses real-time fluorescence of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding dye, most commonly SYBR® Green I, to measure DNA amplification as it occurs during each cycle of PCR. At a point where the fluorescence signal is confidently detected over the background fluorescence, a quantification cycle, or CT value, can be determined. CT values can be used to evaluate relative target abundance between two or more samples, or to calculate absolute target quantities in reference to an appropriate standard curve, derived from a series of known dilutions. qPCR is commonly used to detect and quantify target genes in genomic DNA that is enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP).

Urea is an organic compound that is highly soluble in water with strong protein denaturing properties. These properties make it ideal for use in preparation of Urea Lysis buffer for preparing cell and tissue extracts prior to PTMScan®-based applications. Urea, Ultrapure, PTMScan® Qualified from Cell Signaling Technology is offered in a convenient 54.05g size that allows for the preparation of 100ml of Urea Lysis Buffer with a final formulation of 20mM HEPES, 9M urea, and 1X Phosphatase Inhibitor Cocktail when following the Directions for Use.
LC-MS grade water (Burdick and Jackson™) is highly purified and recommended for use in HPLC, UPLC, and mass spectrophotometry applications (LC-MS) for low background contaminants.
$20
1 Pack
The Blue Loading Buffer Pack is used to lyse cells for Western blotting analysis
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$208
20 assays
1 Kit
The Cell Fractionation Kit is designed to provide a fast and efficient way of separating cultured cells into three distinct fractions: cytoplasmic, membrane/organelle, and nuclear/cytoskeletal. These fractions can then be analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The kit includes enough buffer for 20 assays.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Chaps Cell Extract Buffer can be used to lyse cells under nondenaturing conditions and is recommended for the preparation of cytoplasmic cell lysates to be used with our caspase signaling pathway antibodies (see Companion Products).
$140
1 Kit
This kit provides the reagents needed to support antibody-based detection of FoxP3 and other transcription factors by flow cytometry. Optimally formulated fixation and permeabilization buffers halt biological activity and enable antibody access to intracellular targets. Antibody dilution, incubation, and wash steps are performed with the included FoxP3/Transcription Factor Permeabilization Buffer, eliminating the need for separate reagents.Note: Precipitation may occur in some kit components. The presence of precipitate does not affect the performance of the reagent.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

$114
100 tests
1 Kit
The Immunofluorescence Application Solutions Kit is designed to conveniently provide the major supporting reagents needed for immunofluorescence in cell cultures (IF-IC) or frozen samples (IF-F). The reagents in this kit are thoroughly validated using our IF-approved antibodies and will perform optimally with the kit’s recommended protocol, ensuring accurate and reproducible results. This kit includes sufficient reagents for 100 assays based on a 100 µl assay volume.IMPORTANT: Please refer to the antibody data sheet to determine if it is validated and approved for use on cultured cell lines (IF-IC) or frozen tissues sections (IF-F) and for information regarding appropriate antibody dilution.Some primary antibodies may require methanol fixation or permeabilzation, which will be noted on the data sheet. Methanol is not included in this kit.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$398
120 slides
1 Kit
The Immunohistochemistry Application Solutions Kit (IHC-P) is designed to conveniently provide supporting reagents needed for immunohistochemistry staining in paraffin-embedded tissue samples or cell pellets (IHC-P). The reagents in this kit are thoroughly validated using our IHC-recommended rabbit polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and will perform optimally with the CST immunohistochemistry staining protocol, ensuring accurate and reproducible results. This kit includes sufficient reagents for 120 slides based on a 100 µl assay volume. All reagents in this kit are available individually.IMPORTANT: Please refer to the primary antibody data sheet to determine if the antibody is approved for use on paraffin-embedded samples (IHC-P) and for information regarding the appropriate antibody dilution, diluent, and antigen unmasking procedure.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

$179
100 tests
1 Kit
The Intracellular Flow Cytometry Kit provides the supporting reagents needed to preserve protein states and enable antibodies to bind intracellular targets, for flow cytometric analysis of cells in suspension. This kit contains sufficient reagents for 100 individual samples when following the included protocol.IMPORTANT: Please refer to the antibody product page to determine if it is validated for use in Flow Cytometry (F) and for information regarding appropriate antibody dilution. Some primary antibodies may require detergent permeabilization, which will be noted on the datasheet. Detergent is not included in this kit.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

$19
1 Pack
The Red Loading Buffer Pack is used to lyse cells for western blotting analysis.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$419
10 western blots
1 Kit
The Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit is designed to conveniently provide reagents needed for western blotting, from cell lysis to protein detection. The reagents in this kit are thoroughly validated with our primary antibodies and will work optimally with the CST western immunoblotting protocol, ensuring accurate and reproducible results. This kit includes sufficient reagents to run 10 mini-gels and complete western blot assays with either rabbit or mouse primary antibodies. All reagents in this kit are available individually.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

The c-Kit Antibody Sampler Kit provides a fast and economical means of evaluating levels of c-Kit receptor protein phosphorylated at the specified sites, as well as total c-Kit receptor levels. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two Western blot experiments.

Background: c-Kit is a member of the subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes PDGF, CSF-1, and FLT3/flk-2 receptors (1,2). It plays a critical role in activation and growth in a number of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, mast cells, melanocytes, and germ cells (3). Upon binding with its stem cell factor (SCF) ligand, c-Kit undergoes dimerization/oligomerization and autophosphorylation. Activation of c-Kit results in the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream SH2-containing signaling components including PLCγ, the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, and CrkL (4). Molecular lesions that impair the kinase activity of c-Kit are associated with a variety of developmental disorders (5), and mutations that constitutively activate c-Kit can lead to pathogenesis of mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (6). Tyr719 is located in the kinase insert region of the catalytic domain. c-Kit phosphorylated at Tyr719 binds to the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase in vitro and in vivo (7).

The c-Oncogene Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating total levels of various oncogenic proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.
The C/EBP Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating the C/EBP family of transcription factors and several phosphorylation sites that are involved in its activation. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.
This Cadherin-Catenin Antibody Sampler kit contains reagents to examine the total protein levels of key proteins found in cell-cell adherens junctions. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.
The Calcium Ion Regulation Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical way to investigate the regulation of calcium ions within the cell. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Cardiogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating proteins involved in heart development. This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Cas9 and Associated Proteins Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting Cas9 and Cas9-related family members. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) are RNA-guided nuclease effectors that are utilized for precise genome editing in mammalian systems (1). Class 2 CRISPR systems rely on single-component effector proteins to mediate DNA interference (2). Several Class 2 CRISPR effector proteins, derived from specific bacterial species, are used for genome editing. Cas9 family of proteins, derived from S. pyogenes and S. aureus, are some of the most well characterized and widely used editing effector enzymes. Additional members of the Class2 CRISPR system include Cpf1 (CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella) endonucleases (3). Cpf1 endonucleases, compared to Cas9 systems, have several unique features that increase the utility of CRISPR-based genome editing techniques: 1) Cpf1-mediated cleavage relies on a single and short CRISPR RNA (crRNA) without the requirement of a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), 2) Cpf1 utilizes T-Rich protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences rather than a G-Rich PAM, and 3) Cpf1 generates a staggered, rather than a blunt-ended, DNA double-stranded break (3). These features broaden the utility of using CRISPR-Cas systems for specific gene regulation and therapeutic applications. Several Cpf1 bacterial orthologs, e.g. Francisella novicida U112 and Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6, have been characterized for CRISPR-mediated mammalian genome editing (3, 4).

The Caspase-3 Activity Assay Kit is a fluorescent assay that detects the activity of caspase-3 in cell lysates. It contains a fluorogenic substrate (N-Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin or Ac-DEVD-AMC) for caspase-3. During the assay, activated caspase-3 cleaves this substrate between DEVD and AMC, generating highly fluorescent AMC that can be detected using a fluorescence reader with excitation at 380 nm and emission between 420 - 460 nm. Cleavage of the substrate only occurs in lysates of apoptotic cells; therefore, the amount of AMC produced is proportional to the number of apoptotic cells in the sample.

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

The cdc25C Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the entry of eukaryotic cells into mitosis. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blots with each antibody.

Background: Cdc25 is a protein phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating and activating cdc2, a crucial step in regulating the entry of all eukaryotic cells into mitosis (1). cdc25C is constitutively phosphorylated at Ser216 throughout interphase by c-TAK1, while phosphorylation at this site is DNA damage-dependent at the G2/M checkpoint (2). When phosphorylated at Ser216, cdc25C binds to members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, sequestering cdc25C in the cytoplasm and thereby preventing premature mitosis (3). The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylate cdc25C at Ser216 in response to DNA damage (4,5).

The CDK Antbody Sampler Kit provides and economical means of evaluating Cdk proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.
The Cell Cycle Regulation Sampler Kit II provides an economical means of evaluating cell cycle proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.
Cell Cycle Regulation Antibody Sampler kit offers an economical way of detecting eight integral cell cycle regulation proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is dependent, in part, on the tightly regulated activity of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclin D/CDK4/6 activity occurs in mid-late G1 phase, upstream of CDK2/cyclin E activity. Both of these activities are required for hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). pRb phosphorylation allows the release of S phase-promoting transcription factors and is indicative of the cell's commitment to proliferate. This point in the cell cycle is known as the restriction point. Cyclin protein levels oscillate throughout the cell cycle, and their availability is a means of controlling CDK activity and cell proliferation. Cyclin D is degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the absence of mitogenic signaling. Ubiquitination of cyclin D1 is enhanced by phosphorylation at Thr286 by glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK-3b) (1). p27/Kip1, p57 Kip2 and p21 Waf1/Cip1 are members of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. They form heterotrimeric complexes with cyclins and CDKs, inhibiting kinase activity and blocking progression through G1/S phase (2). However, p21 may enhance assembly and activity of cyclin D/CDK4/6 complexes (3). Levels of p21 and p27 protein are controlled through ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (4). Levels of p27 are upregulated in quiescent cells and in cells treated with negative cell cycle regulators. p27 nuclear localization is controlled by Akt-dependent phosphorylation at Thr157 (5). The inhibitors of CDK4 (INK4) family include p15 INK4B, p16 INK4A, p18 INK4C, and p19 INK4D. All INK4 proteins selectively inhibit CDK4/6 activity, either in a binary complex, or in a ternary complex including cyclin D, resulting in inhibition of cell division (6,7).

The Cell Cycle/Checkpoint Antibody Sampler Kit provides a fast and economical means of evaluating multiple proteins involved in the cell cyle and checkpoint control. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform four Western blot experiments.

Background: The cell division cycle demands accuracy to avoid the accumulation of genetic damage. This process is controlled by molecular circuits called "checkpoints" that are common to all eukaryotic cells (1). Checkpoints monitor DNA integrity and cell growth prior to replication and division at the G1/S and G2/M transitions, respectively. The cdc2-cyclin B kinase is pivotal in regulating the G2/M transition (2,3). Cdc2 is phosphorylated at Thr14 and Tyr15 during G2-phase by the kinases Wee1 and Myt1, rendering it inactive. The tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma (Rb) controls progression through the late G1 restriction point (R) and is a major regulator of the G1/S transition (4). During early and mid G1-phase, Rb binds to and represses the transcription factor E2F (5). The phosphorylation of Rb late in G1-phase by CDKs induces Rb to dissociate from E2F, permitting the transcription of S-phase-promoting genes. In vitro, Rb can be phosphorylated at multiple sites by cdc2, cdk2, and cdk4/6 (6-8). DNA damage triggers both the G2/M and the G1/S checkpoints. DNA damage activates the DNA-PK/ATM/ATR kinases, which phosphorylate Chk at Ser345 (9), Chk2 at Thr68 (10) and p53 (11). The Chk kinases inactivate cdc25 via phosphorylation at Ser216, blocking the activation of cdc2.

$118
10 western blots
100 µl
Nonphosphorylated 4E-BP1 Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from MCF7 cells, amino acids starved for 1 hour to serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from MCF7 cells, amino acids starved for 1 hour followed by adding back amino acids for 1 hour and treating with 100 nM insulin for 30 min to serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Translation repressor protein 4E-BP1 (also known as PHAS-1) inhibits cap-dependent translation by binding to the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1 disrupts this interaction and results in activation of cap-dependent translation (1). Both the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway and FRAP/mTOR kinase regulate 4E-BP1 activity (2,3). Multiple 4E-BP1 residues are phosphorylated in vivo (4). While phosphorylation by FRAP/mTOR at Thr37 and Thr46 does not prevent the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E, it is thought to prime 4E-BP1 for subsequent phosphorylation at Ser65 and Thr70 (5).

$118
10 western blots
200 µl
Phosphorylated Akt Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from Jurkat cells, serum starved overnight and then treated with Calyculin A (CST #9902) to preserve their activated Akt state, serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.Nonphosphorylated Akt Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from Jurkat cells, serum starved overnight and then treated with 50 µM LY294002 (CST #9901) for one hour, serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$118
10 western blots
200 µl
Nonphosphorylated AMPK Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from C2C12 cells, prepared with CIP/λ phosphatase, serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.Phosphorylated AMPK Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from C2C12 cells, prepared by serum starvation, serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is highly conserved from yeast to plants and animals and plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis (1). AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, each of which is encoded by two or three distinct genes (α1, 2; β1, 2; γ1, 2, 3) (2). The kinase is activated by an elevated AMP/ATP ratio due to cellular and environmental stress, such as heat shock, hypoxia, and ischemia (1). The tumor suppressor LKB1, in association with accessory proteins STRAD and MO25, phosphorylates AMPKα at Thr172 in the activation loop, and this phosphorylation is required for AMPK activation (3-5). AMPKα is also phosphorylated at Thr258 and Ser485 (for α1; Ser491 for α2). The upstream kinase and the biological significance of these phosphorylation events have yet to be elucidated (6). The β1 subunit is post-translationally modified by myristoylation and multi-site phosphorylation including Ser24/25, Ser96, Ser101, Ser108, and Ser182 (6,7). Phosphorylation at Ser108 of the β1 subunit seems to be required for the activation of AMPK enzyme, while phosphorylation at Ser24/25 and Ser182 affects AMPK localization (7). Several mutations in AMPKγ subunits have been identified, most of which are located in the putative AMP/ATP binding sites (CBS or Bateman domains). Mutations at these sites lead to reduction of AMPK activity and cause glycogen accumulation in heart or skeletal muscle (1,2). Accumulating evidence indicates that AMPK not only regulates the metabolism of fatty acids and glycogen, but also modulates protein synthesis and cell growth through EF2 and TSC2/mTOR pathways, as well as blood flow via eNOS/nNOS (1).