Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Product listing: GAP43 (D9C8) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P17677 #8945 to GFAP (D1F4Q) XP® Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P14136 #12389

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GAP43 is a nervous system specific, growth-associated protein enriched in growth cones and areas of high plasticity (1). Phosphorylation of GAP43 at Ser41 by PKC is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ and affects the ability of GAP43 to bind calmodulin (2,3). GAP43 is integral to growth cone formation, neurite outgrowth, and the development of a functional cerebral cortex (4,5). Aberrant GAP43 expression can be seen in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (6,7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb #2118.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb #2118).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb #2118 reacts with human, mouse, rat and monkey GAPDH. CST expects that GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize GAPDH in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The unconjugated GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb #2118 reacts with human, mouse, rat and monkey GAPDH. CST expects that GAPDH (14C10) (HRP conjugate) #3683 will also recognize GAPDH in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$260
100 µl
$637
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GAPDH (D16H11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5174.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$117
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$106
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GAPDH (D4C6R) Mouse mAb #97166.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Though differentially expressed from tissue to tissue (1), GAPDH is thought to be a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein. For this reason, GAPDH mRNA and protein levels are often measured as controls in experiments quantifying specific changes in expression of other targets. Recent work has elucidated roles for GAPDH in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Huntington and Alzheimer's diseases (4,5).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: GAS6 (Growth Arrest Specific gene 6) is a vitamin K-dependent ligand of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl and MerTK) RTK family. It has an N-terminal Gla domain containing multiple Asp gamma-carboxylation sites, followed by four EGF repeats and two C-terminal LG domains. Vitamin K mediates multiple gamma-carboxylations of glutamic acid residues in the GAS6 Gla domain. These modifications are required for GAS6 to to activate its receptor (1,2). The two C-terminal LG (SHBG) domains form a V-shaped structure and provide a direct binding site for receptor interaction. Among the TAM family members, GAS6 has high affinity for Axl and low affinity for Tyro3 and MerTK. Ligand/receptor interaction activates multiple downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT, STAT/SOCS, PLC/FAK, and Grb2/RAS, and promotes cell survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation (3,4). GAS6 has been implicated in cancer development and immune-related disorders (inflammation and multiple sclerosis), and as such has been identified as a potential therapeutic target (3-6).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GATA-1 (D52H6) XP® Rabbit mAb #3535.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GATA-3 (D13C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5852.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GATA-3 (D13C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5852.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GATA-6 (D61E4) XP® Rabbit mAb #26452.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GBP5 (guanylate binding protein 5) is one of seven interferon-inducible GTPases in humans that have recently been shown to be involved in host defense against intracellular pathogens (1,2). Specifically, in response to intracellular bacteria or cell wall components, GBP5 acts as a tetramer to facilitate assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation (2,3). In addition, GBP5 enables activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by promoting lysis of intracellular bacteria and release of pathogenic double-stranded DNA (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR, GKRP) regulates the activity and localization of glucokinase, an important metabolic regulator of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and glucose production in hepatocytes (1). GKRP plays a key role in glucose homeostasis as it inhibits glucokinase activity and sequesters this metabolic enzyme in hepatocyte nuclei; in response to changes in glucose concentration, GCKR promotes the release of glucokinase into the cytoplasm (2). During conditions of low blood glucose levels, GCKR binds to fructose-6-phosphate, which leads to GCKR binding to glucokinase and the subsequent nuclear localization and inactivation of glucokinase. After feeding, GCKR binds fructose-1-phosphate, which disrupts the interaction between GCKR and glucokinase and releases active glucokinase to cytoplasm (1-3). Polymorphisms in the corresponding GCKR gene are associated with atypical plasma triglyceride levels, fasting glucose and insulin levels, and glucokinase activity (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is a well documented mechanism of downregulating protein synthesis under a variety of stress conditions. Kinases activated by viral infection (PKR), endoplasmic reticulum stress (PERK/PEK), amino acid deprivation (GCN2) and hemin deficiency (HRI) can phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eIF2 (1,2). GCN2 is also required for UV-light induced translation inhibition, and in vivo phosphorylation of murine GCN2 at Thr898 is induced by both UV irradiation and by leucine deprivation (3). UV-induced activation of NF-kappaB also requires GCN2, which may act simply by preventing translation of IkappaB-alpha to replace pools that have been ubiquitinated and degraded (4). Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors (MG132 and ALLN) activate the GCN2/eIF2alpha pathway, suggesting a pivotal role for this kinase in stress response and ubiquitin-mediated signaling (5). In vitro autophosphorylation of yeast GCN2 within its activation loop at Thr882 and Thr887 (Thr898 and Thr903 in mouse) has also been reported (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: General Control of Amino Acid Synthesis Yeast Homolog Like 2 (GCN5L2) is a transcription adaptor protein and a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that functions as the catalytic subunit of the STAGA and TFTC transcription coactivator complexes (1). GCN5L2 is 73% homologous to the p300/CBP-associated factor PCAF, another HAT protein found in similar complexes (2). Free GCN5L2 acetylates histone H3 on Lys14; however, when part of coactivator complexes, GCN5L2 acetylates histone H3 at Lys9, 14, 18, and 23, and to a smaller extent histones H4 and H2B (3). Histone acetylation contributes to gene activation by modulating chromatin structure and recruiting additional coactivator proteins that contain acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains (4). GCN5L2 also acetylates non-histone proteins such as transcription activators (TAT, c-Myb) (5,6), transcription co-activators (PGC1-α) (7), and nuclear receptors (Steroidogenic Factor 1) (8). Acetylation of these proteins regulates their nuclear localization, protein stability, DNA binding, and co-activator association (5-8). GCN5L2 is recruited to gene promoters during transactivation through interactions with multiple transcription activator proteins such as Myc, E2F, p53, and BRCA1 (9-12). The STAGA and TFTC complexes also interact with SAP130 and DDB1, two structurally related proteins involved in RNA splicing and DNA repair, suggesting roles for GCN5L2 in processes other than transcription activation (13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rho family small GTPases regulate processes such as cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP. GEF-H1 is a Rho GEF that localizes to microtubules and regulates Rho activity in response to microtubule destabilization (1). Loss of interaction between GEF-H1 and microtubules leads to activation of Rho (2). Phosphorylation of GEF-H1 at Ser886 (Ser885 in mouse), a site located in the 14-3-3 binding motif, has been implicated in recruitment of 14-3-3 and GEF-H1 to microtubules (3), and in the regulation of RhoA activity in response to mitotic kinases during cytokinesis (4).GEF-H1 has also been shown to localize to tight junctions and modulate polarized cell permeability (5,6). GEF-H1 is inactivated by binding to cingulin at epithelial tight junctions, inactivating RhoA and leading to G1/S arrest (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Gelsolin (actin-depolymerizing factor, ADF, AGEL, Brevin) is an 83 kDa protein that shares structural and functional homology to villin and adseverin/scinderin (1,2). Gelsolin plays an important role in actin filament assembly by capping and severing actin proteins in a Ca2+-dependent manner (3,4). Gelsolin is important for cellular events (e.g., membrane ruffling, chemotaxis, ciliogenesis) that require cytoskeletal remodeling (3). Accordingly, cells from gelsolin knockout mice exhibit motility defects, including a failure to ruffle in response to growth factor stimulation (5,6). In humans, defects in gelsolin have been linked to amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5), a hereditary disease characterized by cranial neuropathy, which appears to result from gelsolin amyloid deposition (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Background: The neurotransmitters GABA and glycine activate ligand-gated chloride channels and thus mediate fast synaptic inhibition. Gephyrin is a postsynaptic, scaffolding protein anchoring type A GABA and glycine receptors to the cytoskeleton. In addition to gephyrin’s function clustering synaptic neurotransmitter receptors, it plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo). Molybdenum cofactor chelates and activates sulfite oxidase, an enzyme crucial for survival (1). GSK-3β and Erk1/2 phosphorylate gephyrin at residue Ser270 and Ser268, respectively. These post-translational modifications alter the clustering of gephyrin, effecting the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic inhibitory currents (2,3). Researchers are analyzing the role of abnormal gephyrin clustering and function in major neurological, neuro-developmental and psychiatric disorders (1).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GFAP (D1F4Q) XP® Rabbit mAb #12389.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Major types of intermediate filaments are specifically expressed in particular cell types: cytokeratins in epithelial cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in glial cells, desmin in skeletal, visceral, and certain vascular smooth muscle cells, vimentin in cells of mesenchymal origin, and neurofilaments in neurons. GFAP and vimentin form intermediate filaments in astroglial cells and modulate their motility and shape (1). In particular, vimentin filaments are present at early developmental stages, while GFAP filaments are characteristic of differentiated and mature brain astrocytes. Thus, GFAP is commonly used as a marker for intracranial and intraspinal tumors arising from astrocytes (2). In addition, GFAP intermediate filaments are also present in nonmyelin-forming Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Major types of intermediate filaments are specifically expressed in particular cell types: cytokeratins in epithelial cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in glial cells, desmin in skeletal, visceral, and certain vascular smooth muscle cells, vimentin in cells of mesenchymal origin, and neurofilaments in neurons. GFAP and vimentin form intermediate filaments in astroglial cells and modulate their motility and shape (1). In particular, vimentin filaments are present at early developmental stages, while GFAP filaments are characteristic of differentiated and mature brain astrocytes. Thus, GFAP is commonly used as a marker for intracranial and intraspinal tumors arising from astrocytes (2). In addition, GFAP intermediate filaments are also present in nonmyelin-forming Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (3).