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Product listing: TCF1/TCF7 (C63D9) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate), UniProt ID P36402 #6709 to TFEB (D4L2P) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q9R210 #32361

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TCF1/TCF7 (C63D9) Rabbit mAb #2203.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Pacific Blue™ fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody TCF1/TCF7 (C63D9) Rabbit mAb #2203.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TCF1/TCF7 (C63D9) Rabbit mAb #2203.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transcription factor 11 (TCF11) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor. It is also referred to as Nuclear factor E2-related factor 1 (NRF1). TCF11 was initially reported to activate erythroid-specific, human globin gene expression (1). It plays an essential role during embryonic development (2). It also associates with other transcription factors, such as Jun proteins, to transcriptionally control antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics (3-5). TCF11 has been shown to regulate proteasomal degradation and mediate the proteasome recovery pathway after proteasome inhibition (6,7). TCF11 is ubiquitously expressed (8) and several isoforms have been reported. The 120 kDa form exists in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane under normal conditions. Upon proteasome inhibition, TCF11 translocates to the nucleus (9). The 65 kDa N-terminal-truncated form is constitutively localized to the nucleus (10,11). TCF11 protein levels are regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal-mediated degradation (12); proteasome inhibitors stabilize TCF11.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TCF12/HEB (T cell factor 12/HeLa E-box binding protein) is a member of the E proteins that are type I basic helix-loop-helix domain containing transcription factors that bind directly to the E-box DNA consensus sequence and control numerous developmental processes (1,2). E protein family members include E2A, E2-2, and TCF12/HEB. TCF12/HEB forms homo- or heterodimers with other E proteins to regulate transcription of target genes that play a critical role in the development of T cells, B cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (2-4). The TCF12/HEB gene has two transcriptional start sites leading to the generation of the long form called HEBCan, and the short form, HEBAlt (5). The two isoforms are thought to have distinct functions with HEBCan playing a role throughout T cell development, while HEBAlt functions in the efficient generation of T cell precursors (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ZEB family proteins are zinc finger and homeobox domain containing transcription factors. There are two members in mammals, ZEB1 (δ-EF1, TCF8, AREB6) and ZEB2 (SIP1, (ZEB1 and ZEB2 contain two separate Zinc-finger domain and a homeodomain (1). While ZEB proteins mainly function as transcriptional suppressors, they are able to activate transcription, dependent on DNA-context and cell type (1). One of the targets suppressed by ZEB proteins is E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin is one of the hallmarks of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical feature of normal embryonic development, which is also utilized by malignant epithelial tumors to spread beyond their origin (2-4). ZEB1 mutations are associated with posterior corneal dystrophy, and ZEB2 mutations were reported to be associated with Hirschsprung (HSCR) disease (5-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TCL1 (T cell leukemia 1), MTCP1 and TCL1b belong to the TCL1 proto-oncogene family, and their products are involved in Akt activation during embryonic development, T cell leukemias, prolymphocytic leukemias and B cell lymphomas (1-3). The Akt association domain of TCL1 binds with the PH domain of Akt. The formation of an oligomeric TCL-Akt complex is required for TCL1 coactivator function and results in phosphorylation and activation of Akt . Furthermore, functional analysis indicates that the interaction between TCL1 and Akt promotes translocation of Akt to the nucleus (4-6). These findings are supported by the crystal structure of TCL1, which suggests that TCL1 may participate in molecular transport (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP, PTPN2, PTN2) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that regulates signal transduction pathways by catalyzing the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues (1). Two described TCPTP splice variants include a 48 kDa isoform (TC48) that is targeted to secretory pathway organelles (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum) by a hydrophobic carboxy terminus, and a 45 kDa isoform (TC45) that actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm (2). TCPTP substrates include receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as EGFR, JAK1/3, and Src-family kinases, as well as STAT3 and other nuclear substrates (3-6). Research studies show that the corresponding PTPN2 gene is deleted in a subset of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The loss of TCPTP has been suggested to promote tumor progression through enhanced JAK/STAT signaling (7,8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP/p23/HRF) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein involved in various cellular processes, such as its role as a histamine releasing factor in chronic allergic disease (1). TCTP binds tubulin in a cell cycle dependent manner and is associated with the mitotic spindle (2). In addition, TCTP interacts with the actin cytoskeleton to regulate cell shape (3). In mitosis, TCTP is phosphorylated by PLK at Ser46, decreasing microtubule stability (4,5). TCTP interacts with the small GTPase Rheb, possibly acting as a GEF, thereby activating the TORC1 pathway and controlling cell growth and proliferation (6,7). TCTP has also been shown to be involved in apoptosis and cell stress (8-11). In cultured cells, reduction in TCTP expression can cause loss of the malignant phenotype (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Topoisomerases are ubiquitous, conserved enzymes that remove DNA supercoils resulting from processes such as chromosome segregation, DNA replication, transcription, and repair (1). Topoisomerase inhibitors such as camptothecin and etoposide trap the enzyme as a DNA-bound intermediate, and these drugs are used to treat multiple human cancers (1,2). Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterases TDP1 and TDP2 function in the base excision repair (BER) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways, respectively, and function in part in the repair of stalled topoisomerase-DNA complexes (3). Research has shown that inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterases may act synergistically with topoisomerase inhibitors, allowing the potential for a more robust treatment of cancer (4,5). In small cell lung cancer, research suggests that TDP1 and topoisomerase 1 levels can predict sensitivity to topoisomerase 1 inhibitors (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) is involved in transcriptional regulation and exon splicing (1,2). While normal TDP43 is a nuclear protein, pathological TDP43 is a component of insoluble aggregates in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In these disorders, TDP43 is abnormally ubiquitinated, phosphorylated and cleaved to generate carboxy-terminal fragments that are sequestered as insoluble aggregates in neuronal nuclei, perikarya, and neurites (3,4). Additionally, TDP43 inhibits the expression of the HIV-1 gene and regulates CFTR gene splicing (1,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tudor domain-containing protein 3 (TDRD3) contains a tudor domain through which it binds to asymmetric di-methyl histone H3 (Arg17) and asymmetric di-methyl histone H4 (Arg3). Both of these histone marks are associated with transcription activation (1,2). TDRD3 is targeted to estrogen responsive genes where it performs as a coactivator (1). TDRD3 acts as a scaffolding protein to recruit Topoisomerase III B (TOP3B) to target genes to reduce transcription-generated R loops by relaxing negatively supercoiled DNA thereby reducing genomic instability (3). In addition to the nucleus, TDRD3 also resides in the cytoplasm where it associates with actively translating polyribosomes and accumulates into stress granules upon exposure to stress, implicating its role in post-transcriptional regulation of RNA (2,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Hippo pathway is an important evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size and tumor suppression by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis (1,2). An integral function of the Hippo pathway is to repress the activity of Yes-associated protein (YAP), a proposed oncogene whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular localization (3,4). When the Hippo pathway is turned off, YAP is phosphorylated and translocates to the nucleus where it associates with various transcription factors including members of the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF) family, also known as the TEA domain (TEAD) family (TEAD1-4) (5,6). Although widely expressed in tissues, the TEAD family proteins have specific tissue and developmental distributions. YAP/TEAD complexes regulate the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Tectonin β-propeller repeat protein (TECPR1) was first identified as DKFZP434B0335, a human ortholog of the yeast protein Pex23p (1). TECPR1 contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, β-propeller domain, and dysferlin domains. Research studies have shown that elevated expression of TECPR1 may be a potential marker for prostate cancer (2). In several independent studies, TECPR1 was shown to play a role in autophagy through interaction with Atg5 (3-5). Atg5 is a protein that is conjugated to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg12 and plays an essential role in autophagy (6). Initial studies suggested that TECPR1 plays a role in selective autophagy processes by targeting bacterial pathogens, as well as damaged mitochondria and protein aggregates (4). TECPR1 appears to be important for autophagosome maturation and promotes autophagosome fusion with the lysosome (5). Deletion of TECPR1 leads to an accumulation of autophagosomes (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tenascin C is a large hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein that exhibits de-adhesive effects on cell-matrix interaction, enhancing cell proliferation and motility in most cell types. It is highly expressed in remodeling tissues during embryonic development and under pathological conditions in adults, and research studies have shown markedly increased expression in cancerous tissues (1,2). Tenascin C has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes relevant to atherosclerosis, including cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Expression of Tenascin C is tightly controlled in adults and is upregulated in tissues undergoing wound healing (3). In development, the expression of Tenascin C is known to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) events including gastrulation and formation of the neural crest, endocardial cushion, and secondary palate (1). Investigators have shown that Tenascin C is a key determinant of the tumor stroma and that it is involved in the initiation of tumorigenesis and progression to metastasis (2). Immature and mature astrocytes, radial glial cells, Schwann cells, and a subset of neurons express Tenascin C. Upon CNS trauma or exposure of neurons to excitotoxic agents, Tenascin C expression is upregulated by glial cells. Research studies have shown that Tenascin C is involved in guidance of migrating axons and neurons, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal regeneration, promoting spinal cord regeneration after injury (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein (TERF2IP, also known as RAP1) is a component of the Shelterin Complex, a multi-protein complex that binds and organizes telomeres into T-loop structures to prevent them from being recognized by the cell as DNA double stranded breaks (1,2). The Shelterin Complex is composed of TERF2IP, TIN2 and TPP2 proteins, in addition to three DNA binding proteins that function to recruit the complex to telomeres: TRF1 and TRF2 bind double-stranded TTAGGG repeats found at telomeres, while the POT1 protein binds single-stranded TTAGGG repeats found at the very end of the telomeres (2). Together, these proteins function to protect telomeres and ensure proper replication and processing of chromosome ends. Recent studies have shown that TERF2IP is dispensable for maintenance of telomere length, organization of telomeric chromatin, and regulation of telomeric transcription (3,4). However, TERF2IP is required for inhibition of homology-directed repair (HDR), which can create undesirable telomeric sister chromatid exchange (3,4). In addition to its role in telomere maintenance, TERF2IP is also found in the cytoplasm, where it functions as an IκB kinase (IKK) adaptor protein and regulates NF-κB-dependent gene expression (5). TERF2IP forms a complex with IKKs and is critical for proper recruitment of IKKs to and activation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Elevated levels of TERF2IP have been found in breast cancer cells with NF-κB hyperactivity, and knockdown of TERF2IP sensitizes these cells to apoptosis, further identifying TERF2IP as a potential cancer therapeutic target (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Testis-specific kinase 1 (TESK1) is a LIMK-related protein kinase originally identified to be expressed highly in testes and subsequently shown to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types (1-4). TESK1 phosphorylates the actin severing protein cofilin at Ser3, inactivating cofilin and thus regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton (2). Integrin signaling activates TESK1 activity and leads to stress fiber formation and cell spreading (2,5,6). TESK1 is involved in regulation of ERK signaling through its interaction with Spry2 (7) and regulation of cell spreading through its interaction with the focal adhesion protein actopaxin/α-parvin (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TET2 (D6C7K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #36449.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TFAM (Transcription Factor A, Mitochondrial; aka TCF6) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) proteins because it contains two HMG boxes. TFAM is a transcription factor for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and enhances mtDNA transcription in a promoter-specific fashion in the presence of mitochondrial RNA polymerase and transcription factor B (1). Because the majority of ATP production depends on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome is critical for normal health. TFAM plays an essential role in the maintenance of mtDNA and thus, ATP production (2). TFAM binds to mtDNA both nonspecifically and in a sequence-specific manner. It is known to have a dual effect on mtDNA: protection of mtDNA and initiation of transcription from mtDNA (3). TFAM attenuates age-dependent impairment of the brain by preventing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in microglia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2, LSF) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that was initially shown to bind and activate the alpha-globin promoter in erythroid cells (1). Research studies show that TFCP2 functions as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Overexpression of TFCP2 is seen in HCC patient samples and cell lines; TFCP2 expression correlates with high tumor grade and poor prognosis (2). Forced expression of TFCP2 in less aggressive HCC cells results in highly aggressive, angiogenic and metastatic tumors, while inhibition of TFCP2 abrogates growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HCC cells (2). Additional studies show that TFCP2 acts downstream of Notch1 in HCC cells, where it mediates Notch pathway signaling during proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (3). TFCP2 functions as an oncogene as it upregulates multiple genes involved in angiogenesis, cell invasion, and chemoresistance, including osteopontin, metalloproteinase-9, fibronectin 1, tight junction protein 1, and thymidylate synthase (2-5). Factor quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1) is a small molecule inhibitor of TFCP2 that inhibits TFCP2 DNA-binding activity, reduces expression of TFCP2 target genes, and rapidly induces cell death in TFCP2-overexpressing HCC cell lines (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a member of the Myc-related, bHLH leucine-zipper family of transcription factors that drives the expression of a network of genes known as the Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) network (1,2). TFEB specifically recognizes and binds regulatory sequences within the CLEAR box (GTCACGTGAC) of lysosomal and autophagy genes, resulting in the up-regulated expression of genes involved in lysosome biogenesis and function, and regulation of autophagy (1,2). TFEB is activated in response to nutrient deprivation, stimulating translocation to the nucleus where it forms homo- or heterooligomers with other members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) subfamily and resulting in up-regulation of autophagosomes and lysosomes (3-5). Recently, it has been shown that TFEB is a component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which regulates the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB in response to cellular starvation and stress (6-9). During normal growth conditions, TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser211 in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Phosphorylation promotes association of TFEB with 14-3-3 family proteins and retention in the cytosol. Inhibition of mTORC1 results in a loss of TFEB phosphorylation, dissociation of the TFEB/14-3-3 complex, and rapid transport of TFEB to the nucleus where it increases transcription of CLEAR and autophagy genes (10). TFEB has also been shown to be activated in a nutrient-dependent manner by p42 MAP kinase (Erk2). TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser142 by Erk2 in response to nutrient deprivation, resulting in nuclear localization and activation, and indicating that pathways other than mTOR contribute to nutrient sensing via TFEB (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a member of the Myc-related, bHLH leucine-zipper family of transcription factors that drives the expression of a network of genes known as the Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) network (1,2). TFEB specifically recognizes and binds regulatory sequences within the CLEAR box (GTCACGTGAC) of lysosomal and autophagy genes, resulting in the up-regulated expression of genes involved in lysosome biogenesis and function, and regulation of autophagy (1,2). TFEB is activated in response to nutrient deprivation, stimulating translocation to the nucleus where it forms homo- or heterooligomers with other members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) subfamily and resulting in up-regulation of autophagosomes and lysosomes (3-5). Recently, it has been shown that TFEB is a component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which regulates the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB in response to cellular starvation and stress (6-9). During normal growth conditions, TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser211 in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Phosphorylation promotes association of TFEB with 14-3-3 family proteins and retention in the cytosol. Inhibition of mTORC1 results in a loss of TFEB phosphorylation, dissociation of the TFEB/14-3-3 complex, and rapid transport of TFEB to the nucleus where it increases transcription of CLEAR and autophagy genes (10). TFEB has also been shown to be activated in a nutrient-dependent manner by p42 MAP kinase (Erk2). TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser142 by Erk2 in response to nutrient deprivation, resulting in nuclear localization and activation, and indicating that pathways other than mTOR contribute to nutrient sensing via TFEB (3).