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Product listing: Fes Antibody, UniProt ID P07332 #2736 to Fyn Antibody, UniProt ID P06241 #4023

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fes/Fps and Fer are the only two members of a unique family of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (1,2). Fes and Fer contain a central Src homology-2 (SH2) domain and a carboxy-terminal tyrosine kinase catalytic domain. They are structurally distinguished from other members of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase subfamilies by the presence of amino-terminal Fer/CIP4 homology and coiled-coil domains (3). Fes/Fps was originally identified as an oncogene from avian (Fps) and feline (Fes) retroviruses. Human c-Fes has been implicated in myeloid, vascular endothelial and neuronal cell differentiation. Mutations may activate the Fps kinase and thereby contribute to cancer (4). However, recent data strongly suggests that the c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase is a tumor suppressor rather than a dominant oncogene in colorectal cancer (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fetuin A is produced by liver and secreted to plasma, and selectively concentrated in bone matrix. It is synthesized as a precursor and processed to generate 2 chains that are held together by a disulfide bond. It is a systemically acting calcification inhibitor (1). Reduced level of fetuin A in serum is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients (2,3). Fetuin A can inhibit insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and insulin receptor substrate-1 (4). Fetuin A deficient mice show high insulin sensitivity and high levels of serum fetuin A are associated with insulin resistance in humans (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fgr is a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family. It has a membrane-associated amino-terminal domain that is highly divergent from other family members, internal conserved SH2 and SH3 domains and a highly conserved carboxy-terminal tyrosine kinase catalytic domain (1,2). Tyrosine 412 is located in the activation loop, and phosphorylation of this residue is critical for the activation of Fgr tyrosine kinase activity. c-Fgr is predominantly expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin including differentiated myeloid cells, NK and B cells (3,4). Fgr plays an important role in the signaling cascade from membrane receptors lacking intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity such as Bcr, FcR, and the integrin family of receptors (5). It was demonstrated that Fgr functions as a selective inhibitor of beta2 integrin-mediated signaling and Syk kinase function in monocytes (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Filamins are a family of dimeric actin binding proteins that function as structural components of cell adhesion sites. They also serve as a scaffold for subcellular targeting of signaling molecules (1). The actin binding domain (α-actinin domain) located at the amino terminus is followed by as many as 24 tandem repeats of about 96 residues and the dimerization domain is located at the carboxy terminus. In addition to actin filaments, filamins associate with other structural and signaling molecules such as β-integrins, Rho/Rac/Cdc42, PKC and the insulin receptor, primarily through the carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (1-3). Filamin A, the most abundant, and filamin B are widely expressed isoforms, while filamin C is predominantly expressed in muscle (1). Filamin A is phosphorylated by PAK1 at Ser2152, which is required for PAK1-mediated actin cytoskeleton reorganization (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Filamins are a family of dimeric actin binding proteins that function as structural components of cell adhesion sites. They also serve as a scaffold for subcellular targeting of signaling molecules (1). The actin binding domain (α-actinin domain) located at the amino terminus is followed by as many as 24 tandem repeats of about 96 residues and the dimerization domain is located at the carboxy terminus. In addition to actin filaments, filamins associate with other structural and signaling molecules such as β-integrins, Rho/Rac/Cdc42, PKC and the insulin receptor, primarily through the carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (1-3). Filamin A, the most abundant, and filamin B are widely expressed isoforms, while filamin C is predominantly expressed in muscle (1). Filamin A is phosphorylated by PAK1 at Ser2152, which is required for PAK1-mediated actin cytoskeleton reorganization (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: FKBP4 (also known as FKBP52) is a member of the immunophilin protein family. FKBP4 does not demonstrate appreciable immunosuppressant activity typical of this family, despite its ability to bind the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin (1,2). While FKBP4 plays an important role in immunoregulatory gene expression in B and T lymphocytes, its role in regulating steroid hormone receptor signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics is garnering significant interest. FKBP4 contains two petidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) domains, the first of which is implicated in steroid receptor signaling while the second interacts with tubulin and other cytoskeletal components. The maturation of cytoplasmic steroid hormone receptors into a functional conformation requires multiple chaperone and co-chaperone components, including HSP90, p23, and FKBP4 (3,4). FKBP4 interacts with HSP90 to facilitate the folding of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone steroid hormone receptors. Indeed, the functionality of these receptors is impaired in the absence of FKBP4, and research studies have found that null mice demonstrate signs of androgen insensitivity syndrome (5). In addition, FKBP4, which is expressed at high levels in the brain, interacts with hyperphosphorylated Tau and antagonizes Tau's ability to promote microtubule polymerization (6). FKBP4 can also suppress amyloid β toxicity in Drosophila by processing APP (Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein) to unfold aggregates (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51, also called FKBP5) belongs to the FKBP family of immunophilins (1). FKBP family proteins contain FK domains and TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains. The FK domains are responsible for PPIase (peptidylprolyl isomerase) acitivity and allow binding to FK506 and rapamycin (2,3). The C terminal TPR domains are involved in protein-protein interactions. The TPR domain of FKBP5 mediates binding to HSP90 complexes (4), as well as glucocorticoid, androgen, and progesterone receptors, which account for its regulatory role in steroid hormone receptor function (5). FKBP5 also binds to IKKα and is involved in NF-κB signaling (6,7). In addition, FKBP5 was identified as a negative regulator of Akt, through promotion of Akt - PHLPP interaction and enhanced dephosphorylation of Akt (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The flightless-I (fliI) gene was first identified in Drosophila mutant screens for genes involved in flight behavior. Homozygous mutant alleles at the fliI locus are embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous mutations yield a "flightless" phenotype resulting from defects in flight muscle fiber development (1). The encoded protein (flightless-I, FLII) is a highly conserved member of the gelsolin superfamily, defined by the presence of C-terminal gelsolin motifs that function as actin-binding domains (2). Genetic knock-out studies in mice and worms confirmed that Flightless-I plays a critical and highly conserved role in embryonic development, likely through its effects on actin remodeling of the cytoskeleton (3,4). Postnatally, Flightless-I is recognized to play an important role in wound repair (5). Flightless-I protein levels are increased in many wound types, and depletion of Flightless-I protein levels has been shown to accelerate wound repair by promoting fibroblast proliferation and epithelial migration (6-8). Studies in animal models suggest that Flightless-I may inhibit the wound repair process by modulating TGF-β signaling dynamics in the wound environment (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Flotillins belong to a family of lipid raft-associated integral membrane proteins that carry an evolutionarily conserved domain called the prohibitin homology domain (PHB) (1). Flotillin members are ubiquitously expressed and located in noncaveolar microdomains (lipid rafts) on the plasma membrane where they support signal transduction and regulate lipid raft motility and localization (2-5). Two flotillin members have been described, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2. In addition to its colocalization with lipid rafts on the plasma membrane, flotillin-1 also has been found in compartments of the endocytic and autophagosomal pathways, such as recycling/late endosomes, the Golgi complex, and the nucleus (6,7). Flotillin-2 is mainly localized to the plasma membrane and is prevalent in cell-cell contact sites. However, overexpressed flotillin-2 has also been found in the late endosome (4,8,9). Both flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are commonly used as lipid raft-associated markers.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Flotillins belong to a family of lipid raft-associated integral membrane proteins that carry an evolutionarily conserved domain called the prohibitin homology domain (PHB) (1). Flotillin members are ubiquitously expressed and located in noncaveolar microdomains (lipid rafts) on the plasma membrane where they support signal transduction and regulate lipid raft motility and localization (2-5). Two flotillin members have been described, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2. In addition to its colocalization with lipid rafts on the plasma membrane, flotillin-1 also has been found in compartments of the endocytic and autophagosomal pathways, such as recycling/late endosomes, the Golgi complex, and the nucleus (6,7). Flotillin-2 is mainly localized to the plasma membrane and is prevalent in cell-cell contact sites. However, overexpressed flotillin-2 has also been found in the late endosome (4,8,9). Both flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are commonly used as lipid raft-associated markers.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome, a frequent cause of inherited mental retardation, often results from expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the gene that encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) (1). FMRP (also known as FMR1) and its two autosomal homologs (FXR1 and FXR2) all bind RNA and play a role in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of these related proteins can associate with one another as well as form homodimers (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). In Drosophila, dFMRP associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and coimmunoprecipitates with miRNA and siRNA. These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by a defect in RNAi-related pathways (5). In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome, a frequent cause of inherited mental retardation, often results from expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the gene that encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) (1). FMRP (also known as FMR1) and its two autosomal homologs (FXR1 and FXR2) all bind RNA and play a role in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of these related proteins can associate with one another as well as form homodimers (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). In Drosophila, dFMRP associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and coimmunoprecipitates with miRNA and siRNA. These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by a defect in RNAi-related pathways (5). In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) are RNA-guided nuclease effectors that are utilized for precise genome editing in mammalian systems (1). Cpf1 (CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella) are members of the Class 2 CRISPR system (2). Class 2 CRISPR systems, such as the well characterized Cas9, rely on single-component effector proteins to mediate DNA interference (3). Cpf1 endonucleases, compared to Cas9 systems, have several unique features that increase the utility of CRISPR-based genome editing techniques: 1) Cpf1-mediated cleavage relies on a single and short CRISPR RNA (crRNA) without the requirement of a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), 2) Cpf1 utilizes T-Rich protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences rather than a G-Rich PAM, and 3) Cpf1 generates a staggered, rather than a blunt-ended, DNA double-stranded break (2). These features broaden the utility of using CRISPR-Cas systems for specific gene regulation and therapeutic applications. Several Cpf1 bacterial orthologs have been characterized for CRISPR-mediated mammalian genome editing (2, 4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Fos family of nuclear oncogenes includes c-Fos, FosB, Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1), and Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) (1). While most Fos proteins exist as a single isoform, the FosB protein exists as two isoforms: full-length FosB and a shorter form, FosB2 (Delta FosB), which lacks the carboxy-terminal 101 amino acids (1-3). The expression of Fos proteins is rapidly and transiently induced by a variety of extracellular stimuli including growth factors, cytokines, neurotransmitters, polypeptide hormones, and stress. Fos proteins dimerize with Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) to form Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), a transcription factor that binds to TRE/AP-1 elements and activates transcription. Fos and Jun proteins contain the leucine-zipper motif that mediates dimerization and an adjacent basic domain that binds to DNA. The various Fos/Jun heterodimers differ in their ability to transactivate AP-1 dependent genes. In addition to increased expression, phosphorylation of Fos proteins by Erk kinases in response to extracellular stimuli may further increase transcriptional activity (4-6). Phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser32 and Thr232 by Erk5 increases protein stability and nuclear localization (5). Phosphorylation of FRA1 at Ser252 and Ser265 by Erk1/2 increases protein stability and leads to overexpression of FRA1 in cancer cells (6). Following growth factor stimulation, expression of FosB and c-Fos in quiescent fibroblasts is immediate, but very short-lived, with protein levels dissipating after several hours (7). FRA1 and FRA2 expression persists longer, and appreciable levels can be detected in asynchronously growing cells (8). Deregulated expression of c-Fos, FosB, or FRA2 can result in neoplastic cellular transformation; however, Delta FosB lacks the ability to transform cells (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box protein A2 (FoxA2, also known as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β or HNF3β) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in hepatocyte function (1). FoxA2/HNF3β is required for the activation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression during fasting (1). Together with the PGC-1β coactivator, FoxA2/HNF3β stimulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and therefore increases fatty acid metabolism (2). FoxA2/HNF3β, along with PGC-1β, also activates the expression of microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) and promotes VLDL secretion (2). In addition to its roles in metabolic syndromes, FoxA2/HNF3β is essential for development of the endoderm and midline structures in mouse embryos (3-5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors defined by the presence of a winged helix DNA binding domain called a Forkhead box (1). In humans, there are over 40 known Fox protein family members, divided into 19 subfamilies, which have evolved to regulate gene transcription in diverse and highly specialized biological contexts throughout development (2). Mutations that disrupt the expression of Fox gene family members have consequently been implicated in a broad array of human disorders, including immunological dysfunction, infertility, speech/language disorders, and cancer (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors defined by the presence of a winged helix DNA binding domain called a Forkhead box (1). In humans, there are over 40 known Fox protein family members, divided into 19 subfamilies, which have evolved to regulate gene transcription in diverse and highly specialized biological contexts throughout development (2). Mutations that disrupt the expression of Fox gene family members have consequently been implicated in a broad array of human disorders, including immunological dysfunction, infertility, speech/language disorders, and cancer (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Frizzled (Fzd) belongs to the seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily (1). Fzds have a large extracellular N-terminal region containing a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which is involved in binding to Wnt proteins (1,2). The intracellular C-terminus binds to the PDZ domain of Dvl proteins, a major signaling component downstream of Fzd (3). Wnt proteins bind to Fzd and the co-receptors LRP5 or LPR6, and activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway through inhibiting phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK3-β (4,5). In addition to this canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, some Wnt proteins can also activate the Fzd/Ca2+ pathway and Fzd/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway (6,7). The mammalian Fzd subfamily has 10 members (Fzd1 to Fzd10) and they may mediate signaling through different pathways (8). Some Fzds can also bind to other secreted proteins, like Norrin and R-Spondin (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ferritin (FTH) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein which plays a major role in iron homeostasis by sequestering and storing iron in a non-toxic and bioavailable form (1). The assembled ferritin molecule, often referred to as a nanocage, can store up to 4,500 atoms of iron (2,3). It forms a holoenzyme of ~450 kDa, consisting of 24 subunits made up of two types of polypeptide chains: ferritin heavy chain and ferritin light chain, each having unique functions. Ferritin heavy chains catalyze the first step in iron storage, the oxidation of Fe(II), whereas ferritin light chains promote the nucleation of ferrihydrite, enabling storage of Fe(III) (4). In addition to iron buffering, heavy chain ferritin also enhances thymidine biosynthesis (5). Serum ferritin levels serve as an indicator of the amount of iron stored in the body. Serum ferritin is the most sensitive test for anaemia. The level of serum ferritin is markedly elevated in inflammation, malignancy, and iron overload disorders (6). Research studies have found that defects in ferritin proteins are also associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein) is the first obesity gene product identified by genome-wide association studies and it is associated with the largest effect size for this class of proteins (1-4). Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of the FTO gene have been associated with increased body weight and obesity. Further studies reported that FTO risk alleles were associated with an increase in energy intake, a reduction of activity, and possibly an increased daily fat intake (4).FTO is a DNA and RNA demethylase that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of thymidine and uracil. Among its targets is an mRNA subset involved in regulation of learning, reward behavior, motor functions, and feeding (5). Loss of the FTO gene in mice leads to postnatal growth retardation and a significant reduction in adipose tissue. Mice deficient in the FTO gene have lean body mass due to increased energy expenditure and systemic activation of sympathetic neurons, while overexpression of FTO in mice leads to increased food intake and results in obesity. These results demonstrate that FTO is functionally involved in energy homeostasis (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) was initially identified by investigators as a component of fusion proteins found in a variety of cancers such as myxoid liposarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and Ewing’s tumor (1). FUS/TLS fusion with the DNA binding domain of transcription activators such as CHOP and ERG leads to aberrant transcription of target genes that is thought by researchers to lead to tumor development (1-5). FUS/TLS is involved in a wide range of RNA processing events such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transcription, and miRNA processing (1,6). In addition to its role in RNA metabolism, FUS/TLS maintains genomic stability and co-regulates gene expression by interacting with various transcription factors such as nuclear receptors, YB-1, p65 subunit of NF-κB, TFIID, and RUNX2 (1,6,7). More recently, researchers have found several mutations of FUS/TLS in ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) patients that causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS/TLS (6,8-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a spectrum of physical and behavioral features and is a frequent form of inherited mental retardation (1). X-linked FMRP (FMR-1) and its two autosomal homologs, FXR1 and FXR2, are polyribosome-associated RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of the fragile X proteins can self-associate, as well as form heteromers with the other two related proteins (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). The Drosophila homolog of FMRP (dFMRP) associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and can coimmunoprecipitate with miRNA and siRNA (5). These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by defects in RNAi-related pathways. In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a spectrum of physical and behavioral features and is a frequent form of inherited mental retardation (1). X-linked FMRP (FMR-1) and its two autosomal homologs, FXR1 and FXR2, are polyribosome-associated RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of the fragile X proteins can self-associate, as well as form heteromers with the other two related proteins (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). The Drosophila homolog of FMRP (dFMRP) associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and can coimmunoprecipitate with miRNA and siRNA (5). These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by defects in RNAi-related pathways. In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a spectrum of physical and behavioral features and is a frequent form of inherited mental retardation (1). X-linked FMRP (FMR-1) and its two autosomal homologs, FXR1 and FXR2, are polyribosome-associated RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (1-3). Each of the fragile X proteins can self-associate, as well as form heteromers with the other two related proteins (3). FMRP can act as a translation regulator and is a component of RNAi effector complexes (RISC), suggesting a role in gene silencing (4). The Drosophila homolog of FMRP (dFMRP) associates with Argonaute 2 (Ago2) and Dicer and can coimmunoprecipitate with miRNA and siRNA (5). These results suggest that fragile X syndrome is related to abnormal translation caused by defects in RNAi-related pathways. In addition, FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are components of stress granules (SG) and have been implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).