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Product listing: MMP-13 Antibody, UniProt ID P45452 #94808 to MUC16 Antibody, UniProt ID Q8WXI7 #29623

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MMP-13 (collagenase 3) belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) superfamily of enzymes that targets many extracellular proteins, including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1, 2). MMP-13 is a member of a subgroup of collagenases (including MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-18) that play an even more important function targeting fibrillar collagen. MMP-13 is synthesized as a latent proenzyme, and proteolytic removal of the inhibitory propeptide domain is required for enzyme activation. MMP-13 protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, via specific transcription factors and via promoter DNA methylation (3, 4). MMP-13 preferentially cleaves Type II collagen, and research studies have shown that aberrant upregulation of MMP-13 activity can lead to cartilage loss and osteoarthritis (5, 6). In addition, MMP-13 has been shown to promote cancer development, in part through enhancing tumor angiogenesis and metastases (7-9), suggesting that collagenase activity may serve as a useful marker of tumor progression (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases that target many extracellular proteins including other proteases, growth factors, cell surface receptors, and adhesion molecules (1). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9 have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (2-4). Research studies have shown that MMP activity correlates with cancer development (2). One mechanism of MMP regulation is transcriptional (5). Once synthesized, MMP exists as a latent proenzyme. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full length protein (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining techniques. Because of their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein’s biochemical properties.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MOB1 was first identified in yeast as a protein that binds to Mps with essential roles in the completion of mitosis and the maintenance of ploidy (1). Its Drosophila and mammalian homologs, Mats and MOB1, respectively, are involved in the Hippo signaling tumor suppressor pathway, which plays a critical role in organ size regulation and which has been implicated in cancer development (2-5). There are two MOB1 proteins in humans, MOB1α and MOB1β, that are encoded by two different genes but which have greater than 95% amino acid sequence identity (6). Both forms bind to members of the nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) kinases, such as LATS1/2 and NDR1/2, thereby stimulating kinase activity (7-9). This binding is promoted by the phosphorylation of MOB1 at several threonine residues by MST1 and/or MST2 (5,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins function as linkers between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell adhesion, membrane ruffling, and microvilli formation (1). ERM proteins undergo intra or intermolecular interaction between their amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, existing as inactive cytosolic monomers or dimers (2). Phosphorylation at a carboxy-terminal threonine residue (Thr567 of ezrin, Thr564 of radixin, Thr558 of moesin) disrupts the amino- and carboxy-terminal association and may play a key role in regulating ERM protein conformation and function (3,4). Phosphorylation at Thr567 of ezrin is required for cytoskeletal rearrangements and oncogene-induced transformation (5). Ezrin is also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon growth factor stimulation. Phosphorylation of Tyr353 of ezrin transmits a survival signal during epithelial differentiation (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins function as linkers between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell adhesion, membrane ruffling, and microvilli formation (1). ERM proteins undergo intra or intermolecular interaction between their amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, existing as inactive cytosolic monomers or dimers (2). Phosphorylation at a carboxy-terminal threonine residue (Thr567 of ezrin, Thr564 of radixin, Thr558 of moesin) disrupts the amino- and carboxy-terminal association and may play a key role in regulating ERM protein conformation and function (3,4). Phosphorylation at Thr567 of ezrin is required for cytoskeletal rearrangements and oncogene-induced transformation (5). Ezrin is also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon growth factor stimulation. Phosphorylation of Tyr353 of ezrin transmits a survival signal during epithelial differentiation (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$115
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology normal mouse IgG (whole molecule) containing predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes and small amounts of IgG2b and IgG3 is immobilized by the covalent reaction of hydrazinonicotinamide-modifed antibody with formylbenzamide-modified magnetic beads. Mouse IgG (Magnetic Bead Conjugate) is useful to determine non-specific immunoprecipitation complexes.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Control antibodies are used to estimate the non-specific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions.

$115
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology normal mouse IgG (whole molecule) containing predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes and small amounts of IgG2b and IgG3 is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. Mouse IgG (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful to determine non-specific immunoprecipitation complexes.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Control antibodies are used to estimate the non-specific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mre11, originally described in genetic screens from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which mutants were defective in meiotic recombination (1), is a central part of a multisubunit nuclease composed of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 (MRN) (2,3). The MRN complex plays a critical role in sensing, processing and repairing DNA double strand breaks. Defects lead to genomic instability, telomere shortening, aberrant meiosis and hypersensitivity to DNA damage (4). Hypomorphic mutations of Mre11 are found in ataxia-telangiectasia-like disease (ATLD), with phenotypes similar to mutations in ATM that cause ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), including a predisposition to malignancy in humans (5). Cellular consequences of ATLD include chromosomal instability and defects in the intra-S phase and G2/M checkpoints in response to DNA damage. The MRN complex may directly activate the ATM checkpoint kinase at DNA breaks (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Multi-drug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), also known as cMRP, cMOAT, and ABCC2, is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter and part of the multi-drug resistance (MRP) family (1,2). The MRP proteins are membrane proteins that function as organic anion pumps involved in the cellular removal of cancer drugs (2). MRP2 is associated with resistance to a number of cancer drugs, such as cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and methotrexate (3-5). MRP2 is predominately expressed on the apical membranes in the liver (6-9) and kidney proximal tubules (10). It is responsible for the ATP-dependent secretion of bilirubin glucuronides and other organic anions from hepatocytes into the bile, a process important for the excretion of endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Loss of MRP2 activity is the cause of Dubin-Johnson syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defects in the secretion of anionic conjugates and the presence of melanin like pigments in hepatocytes (11-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: A subset of mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on the ribosomes within mitochondria (1). The 55S mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes are composed of a 28S small subunit and a 39S large subunit (1). Over 40 protein components have been identified from the large subunit of the human mitochondrial ribosome (1). The mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 (MRPL11) is one such component (1). In animals, plants and fungi, this protein is translated from a gene in the nuclear genome (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) repairs post-replication DNA, inhibits recombination between nonidentical DNA sequences, and induces both checkpoint and apoptotic responses following certain types of DNA damage (1). MSH2 (MutS homologue 2) forms the hMutS-α dimer with MSH6 and is an essential component of the mismatch repair process. hMutS-α is part of the BRCA1-associated surveillance complex (BASC), a complex that also contains BRCA1, MLH1, ATM, BLM, PMS2 proteins, and the Rad50-Mre11-NBS1 complex (2). Mutations in MSH6 and other MMR proteins have been found in a large proportion of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch Syndrome), the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world (3). Mutations in MSH6 have been shown to occur in glioblastoma in response to temozolomide therapy and to promote temozolomide resistance (4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement (1). This family of serine/threonine kinases includes MST1 (STK4) and MST2 (STK3), two functionally related proteins with conserved amino-terminal kinase domains and carboxy-terminal regulatory domains that contain nuclear export signals (1-3). During apoptosis, caspase-mediated cleavage of MST1/2 removes the inhibitory regulatory domain, triggering autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain, which is translocated to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of the active kinase induces chromatin condensation and other events associated with apoptotic progression (4).Research studies indicate that MST1/2 are orthologous to Drosophila Hippo (Hpo), one of the core regulatory proteins in the Hippo signaling pathway. This evolutionarily conserved program controls tissue growth and organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. The mammalian Hippo signaling pathway involves a kinase cascade, where the MST1/2 kinases and the SAV1 scaffold protein form a complex that leads to phosphorylation and activation of LATS1/2. The LATS1/2 kinases phosphorylate YAP and TAZ, promoting cytoplasmic sequestration and inhibition of these transcription coactivators (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement (1). This family of serine/threonine kinases includes MST1 (STK4) and MST2 (STK3), two functionally related proteins with conserved amino-terminal kinase domains and carboxy-terminal regulatory domains that contain nuclear export signals (1-3). During apoptosis, caspase-mediated cleavage of MST1/2 removes the inhibitory regulatory domain, triggering autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain, which is translocated to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of the active kinase induces chromatin condensation and other events associated with apoptotic progression (4).Research studies indicate that MST1/2 are orthologous to Drosophila Hippo (Hpo), one of the core regulatory proteins in the Hippo signaling pathway. This evolutionarily conserved program controls tissue growth and organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. The mammalian Hippo signaling pathway involves a kinase cascade, where the MST1/2 kinases and the SAV1 scaffold protein form a complex that leads to phosphorylation and activation of LATS1/2. The LATS1/2 kinases phosphorylate YAP and TAZ, promoting cytoplasmic sequestration and inhibition of these transcription coactivators (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, morphogenesis, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangements (1). This group of serine/threonine kinases includes a pair of closely related proteins (MST1, MST2) that are functionally distinct from the more distantly related MST3 and MST4 kinases. All four MST kinases share a conserved amino-terminal kinase domain and carboxy-terminal regulatory and interaction domains (1-3). At least three of these kinases (MST1-3) promote apoptosis and are activated by caspase cleavage followed by nuclear translocation of the active kinase. MST1/2 kinases play a key role in the Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved program that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal (4).Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 3 (MST3, STK24) is ubiquitously expressed as a longer MST3b isoform and a shorter MST3a protein lacking a portion of the amino-terminal region (5). The widely expressed MST3a protein regulates apoptosis and cell motility, as well as neuronal migration during CNS development (6,7). MST3 phosphorylates and activates the NDR protein kinases that regulate cell cycle progression and cell morphology (8). Autophosphorylation of MST3 at Thr178 is required for in vitro kinase activity, and alteration of this residue inhibits MST3 regulation of cell migration in vivo (7). The brain-specific MST3b protein is activated by nerve growth factor or inosine and localizes to neurons where it helps regulate axon growth and regeneration (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, morphogenesis, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangements (1). This group of serine/threonine kinases includes a pair of closely related proteins (MST1, MST2) that are functionally distinct from the more distantly related MST3 and MST4 kinases. All four MST kinases share a conserved amino-terminal kinase domain and carboxy-terminal regulatory and interaction domains (1-3). At least three of these kinases (MST1-3) promote apoptosis and are activated by caspase cleavage followed by nuclear translocation of the active kinase. MST1/2 kinases play a key role in the Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved program that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal (4).Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 3 (MST3, STK24) is ubiquitously expressed as a longer MST3b isoform and a shorter MST3a protein lacking a portion of the amino-terminal region (5). The widely expressed MST3a protein regulates apoptosis and cell motility, as well as neuronal migration during CNS development (6,7). MST3 phosphorylates and activates the NDR protein kinases that regulate cell cycle progression and cell morphology (8). Autophosphorylation of MST3 at Thr178 is required for in vitro kinase activity, and alteration of this residue inhibits MST3 regulation of cell migration in vivo (7). The brain-specific MST3b protein is activated by nerve growth factor or inosine and localizes to neurons where it helps regulate axon growth and regeneration (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, morphogenesis, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangements (1). This group of serine/threonine kinases includes a pair of closely related proteins (MST1, MST2) that are functionally distinct from the more distantly related MST3 and MST4 kinases. All four MST kinases share a conserved amino-terminal kinase domain and carboxy-terminal regulatory and interaction domains (1-3). At least three of these kinases (MST1-3) promote apoptosis and are activated by caspase cleavage followed by nuclear translocation of the active kinase. MST1/2 kinases play a key role in the Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved program that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal (4).Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 4 (MST4, STK26, MASK) is a Golgi-localized kinase that is cleaved by caspase-3 in vitro. While its potential role in apoptosis is unclear, research studies indicate that MST4 is involved in MAPK and EGF pathway signaling (5,6). MST4 and the serine/threonine kinase YSK1 (STK25) localize to the Golgi apparatus following association with the Golgi scaffold protein GM130. Binding to GM130 activates MST4 through autophosphorylation at Thr178 (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) is a Muscle Segment Homeobox (Msh) gene family member that acts as a transcriptional repressor during embryonic development, playing an important role in limb pattern formation, craniofacial development, and tooth development (1-3). Msx1 is expressed in the mesenchyme of the developing nail bed (2) and in fetal hair follicles, epidermis and fibroblasts; reduced expression is seen in adult epithelial-derived tissues (4). Msx1 acts in concert with the Wnt1 network to establish the midbrain dopaminergic progenator domain, a region that gives rise to neurons that are critical for normal brain function and are the cells affected in Parkinson disease (5). Mutation in the corresponding Msx1 gene correlates with abnormal tooth development in patients diagnosed with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (6). Other genetic changes in the Msx1 gene result in Witkop Syndrome ("tooth and nail syndrome") and cases of abnormal tooth development associated with non-syndromic orofacial clefting (2,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) is a Muscle Segment Homeobox (Msh) gene family member that acts as a transcriptional repressor during embryonic development, playing an important role in limb pattern formation, craniofacial development, and tooth development (1-3). Msx1 is expressed in the mesenchyme of the developing nail bed (2) and in fetal hair follicles, epidermis and fibroblasts; reduced expression is seen in adult epithelial-derived tissues (4). Msx1 acts in concert with the Wnt1 network to establish the midbrain dopaminergic progenator domain, a region that gives rise to neurons that are critical for normal brain function and are the cells affected in Parkinson disease (5). Mutation in the corresponding Msx1 gene correlates with abnormal tooth development in patients diagnosed with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (6). Other genetic changes in the Msx1 gene result in Witkop Syndrome ("tooth and nail syndrome") and cases of abnormal tooth development associated with non-syndromic orofacial clefting (2,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MTAP is an enzyme that is essential for the salvage pathway for both adenine and methionine synthesis. MTAP catalyzes the cleavage of 5’-methylthioadenosine into adenine and 5-methylthio-D-ribose-1-phosphate. Adenine is then used to generate AMP whereas 5-methylthio-D-ribose-1-phosphate is converted into methionine (1,2). MTAP is expressed in all normal cells and tissues, although frequently lost in different human tumors including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, non-small cell lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma. MTAP is usually codeleted with p16 (cdkN2a/ARF) (3-5). MTAP overexpression in breast cancer cells inhibits their ability to form colonies in soft agar, thereby implicating its function as a tumor suppressor (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Myotubularin-related protein 14 (MTMR14), also known as Jumpy, is a myotubularin-related phosphoinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) phosphatase (1). Mutations in the MTMR14 gene have been associated with centronuclear myopathy (1). MTMR14 deficiency in mice leads to altered calcium homeostasis and muscle disorders (2). MTMR14 has also been shown to play a role in autophagy, a process that is highly regulated by phosphatidylinositides through the type III PI3K, Vps34 (3). MTMR14 was localized to autophagic isolation membranes and early autophagosomes (3). In these studies, MTMR14 inhibited autophagy and mutations of MTMR14 associated with centronuclear myopathy were also defective in autophagy inhibition. In zebrafish, MTMR14 knockdown was shown to increase the number of autophagosomes, suggesting that its activity is associated with an inhibition of autophagy (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Myotubularin-related proteins are a family of phosphatases with emerging roles in cellular signaling and membrane trafficking (1,2). MTMR3 (Myotubularin-related protein 3), also known as FYVE-DSP1, contains an amino terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a carboxyl terminal FYVE domain. MTMR3 was first reported as a dual-specific phosphatase, having phosphatase activity toward phosphorylated serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues (3). Subsequent research studies reported that MTMR3 has phosphatase activity toward phosphoinositides, including phosphatadylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) (4). Accumulation of PI3P by the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34 is a key element in autophagosome formation (5). Inhibition of PI3P by MTMR3 can play an important role in suppressing autophagsome formation (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, FRAP, RAFT) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase (1-3) that functions as an ATP and amino acid sensor to balance nutrient availability and cell growth (4,5). When sufficient nutrients are available, mTOR responds to a phosphatidic acid-mediated signal to transmit a positive signal to p70 S6 kinase and participate in the inactivation of the eIF4E inhibitor, 4E-BP1 (6). These events result in the translation of specific mRNA subpopulations. mTOR is phosphorylated at Ser2448 via the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway and autophosphorylated at Ser2481 (7,8). mTOR plays a key role in cell growth and homeostasis and may be abnormally regulated in tumors. For these reasons, mTOR is currently under investigation as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mucins are a family of macromolecules that line and protect the respiratory epithelium from microbes and pollutants in the local environment. Of the family members that are known to date, some are produced in a cell type and tissue-specific manner, suggesting distinct biological roles for members. Some members polymerize after secretion to form gel-like substances that coat the epithelial layer (1). MUC16 is a member of the mucin family, which are a high molecular weight, O-glycosylatyed proteins that play an important role in forming mucous barrier (2) and are found on the apical surface of the epithelia. It contains an extracellular domain at its amino acid terminus, a large tandem repeat and a transmembrane domain with a short cytoplasmic domain. MUC16 has been linked to lung cancer (3), and ovarian cancer (4). It provides protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents at mucosal surfaces (5).