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Product listing: Galectin-9 (D9R4A) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate), UniProt ID O00182 #53500 to HS1 (D5A9) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific), UniProt ID P14317 #3892

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Galectin-9 (D9R4A) XP® Rabbit mAb #54330.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Galectins are a family of β-galactose binding proteins that are characterized by an affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and a carbohydrate-binding site (1,2). Members of the galectin family have been implicated in a variety of biological functions, including cell adhesion (3), growth regulation (4), cytokine production (5), T-cell apoptosis (6), and immune responses (7).Galectin-9 is induced by proinflammatory stimuli, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TLR ligands, and regulates various immune responses through interaction with its ligand TIM-3 (8, 9). Binding of galectin-9 to TIM-3 expressed by Th1 CD4 T cells resulted in T cell death (9). On the other hand, galectin-9 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased the number of IFN-γ-producing TIM-3+ CD8 T cells and TIM-3+ dendritic cells (10). Transgenic overexpression of either TIM-3 or galectin-9 in mice led to an increase in cells with a myeloid-derived suppressor cell phenotype and inhibition of immune responses (11). CD44 is also proposed to be a receptor for galectin-9, and interaction of galectin-9 with CD44 expressed by induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells enhanced the stability of function of iTreg cells. In addition, galectin-9 was recently demonstrated to bind Dectin-1 expressed by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-infiltrating macrophages, resulting in tolerogenic macrophage reprogramming and suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Increased galectin-9 expression has been observed in several cancer types, including lung, liver, breast, and kidney (12). Alternative splicing of the galectin-9 transcript leads to several isoforms (13).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Galectin-9 (D9R4A) XP® Rabbit mAb #54330.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Galectins are a family of β-galactose binding proteins that are characterized by an affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and a carbohydrate-binding site (1,2). Members of the galectin family have been implicated in a variety of biological functions, including cell adhesion (3), growth regulation (4), cytokine production (5), T-cell apoptosis (6), and immune responses (7).Galectin-9 is induced by proinflammatory stimuli, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TLR ligands, and regulates various immune responses through interaction with its ligand TIM-3 (8, 9). Binding of galectin-9 to TIM-3 expressed by Th1 CD4 T cells resulted in T cell death (9). On the other hand, galectin-9 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased the number of IFN-γ-producing TIM-3+ CD8 T cells and TIM-3+ dendritic cells (10). Transgenic overexpression of either TIM-3 or galectin-9 in mice led to an increase in cells with a myeloid-derived suppressor cell phenotype and inhibition of immune responses (11). CD44 is also proposed to be a receptor for galectin-9, and interaction of galectin-9 with CD44 expressed by induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells enhanced the stability of function of iTreg cells. In addition, galectin-9 was recently demonstrated to bind Dectin-1 expressed by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-infiltrating macrophages, resulting in tolerogenic macrophage reprogramming and suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Increased galectin-9 expression has been observed in several cancer types, including lung, liver, breast, and kidney (12). Alternative splicing of the galectin-9 transcript leads to several isoforms (13).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Galectins are a family of β-galactose binding proteins that are characterized by an affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and a carbohydrate-binding site (1,2). Members of the galectin family have been implicated in a variety of biological functions, including cell adhesion (3), growth regulation (4), cytokine production (5), T-cell apoptosis (6), and immune responses (7).Galectin-9 is induced by proinflammatory stimuli, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TLR ligands, and regulates various immune responses through interaction with its ligand TIM-3 (8, 9). Binding of galectin-9 to TIM-3 expressed by Th1 CD4 T cells resulted in T cell death (9). On the other hand, galectin-9 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased the number of IFN-γ-producing TIM-3+ CD8 T cells and TIM-3+ dendritic cells (10). Transgenic overexpression of either TIM-3 or galectin-9 in mice led to an increase in cells with a myeloid-derived suppressor cell phenotype and inhibition of immune responses (11). CD44 is also proposed to be a receptor for galectin-9, and interaction of galectin-9 with CD44 expressed by induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells enhanced the stability of function of iTreg cells. In addition, galectin-9 was recently demonstrated to bind Dectin-1 expressed by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-infiltrating macrophages, resulting in tolerogenic macrophage reprogramming and suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Increased galectin-9 expression has been observed in several cancer types, including lung, liver, breast, and kidney (12). Alternative splicing of the galectin-9 transcript leads to several isoforms (13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GBP5 (guanylate binding protein 5) is one of seven interferon-inducible GTPases in humans that have recently been shown to be involved in host defense against intracellular pathogens (1,2). Specifically, in response to intracellular bacteria or cell wall components, GBP5 acts as a tetramer to facilitate assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation (2,3). In addition, GBP5 enables activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by promoting lysis of intracellular bacteria and release of pathogenic double-stranded DNA (4).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naive and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3, 4, 6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naive and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3, 4, 6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Granzyme B (D2H2F) Rabbit mAb #17215.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Granzyme B (D2H2F) Rabbit mAb #17215.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Granzyme B (D2H2F) Rabbit mAb #17215.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Granzymes are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and are key components of immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells (1). Granzymes are synthesized as zymogens and are processed into mature enzymes by cleavage of a leader sequence. They are released by exocytosis in lysosome-like granules containing perforin, a membrane pore-forming protein. Granzyme B has the strongest apoptotic activity of all the granzymes as a result of its caspase-like ability to cleave substrates at aspartic acid residues thereby activating procaspases directly and cleaving downstream caspase substrates (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: G protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (GRK6) is one of 7 members of the GRK serine/threonine kinase subfamily, which are known primarily for their role in desensitizing activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (1,2). GRKs function by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in activated GPCRs. Upon phosphorylation these residues serve as binding sites for β-arrestin proteins, inhibiting re-activation of GPCRs by blocking their re-association with G proteins (3). There is evidence that GRKs can also modulate selected non-GPCR signaling pathways (2). For example, GRK6 has been shown to modulate the Wnt signaling pathway via phosphorylation of LRP6 (4), and the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (5). GRK6 may also play a role in immune system function. Investigators have found GRK6 expression is typically abundant in hematopoietic tumor cell lines, and a recent research study demonstrated that GRK6 suppression was selectively lethal for a number of myeloma tumor cell lines (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase that is prominently expressed in lymphoid and myeloid lineages of hematopoiesis (1). The Hck kinase participates in transduction of a variety of extracellular signals that affect cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Hck protein structure includes a relatively divergent amino-terminal "unique" domain that is subject to post-translational lipid modifications and targets Hck to the plasma membrane. Src homology 3 (SH3) and 2 (SH2) domains, and a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain are adjacent to the "unique" domain. Research studies indicate that phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine residues positively and negatively regulate Hck catalytic activity. Phosphorylation of Hck at the conserved, carboxy-terminal Tyr499 by protein kinase Csk promotes an interaction between the phosphorylated tyrosine and the SH2 domain, rendering Hck inactive. Disruption of this interaction through dephosphorylation, the replacement of the Tyr522 with phenylalanine, or carboxy-terminal truncation mutations, results in constitutive activation of Hck. Autophosphorylation of Tyr411 within the kinase domain positively regulates Hck catalytic activity. Thus, the activation of Hck requires both disruption of the regulatory tyrosine-SH2 domain interaction and autophosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue within the kinase domain (2,3). The dysfunction or dysregulation of Hck may contribute to the pathogenesis of some human forms of leukemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Helios (D8W4X) XP® Rabbit mAb #42427.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Helios (D8W4X) XP® Rabbit mAb #42427.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Helios (D8W4X) XP® Rabbit mAb #42427.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: HERV-H LTR-associating protein 2 (HHLA2, with alternative names of B7-H5 and B7-H7) is a member of the B7 immunoglobulin superfamily (1). HHLA2 protein is constitutively expressed on the surface of human monocytes and is induced on B cells after stimulation with LPS and IFN-γ (1,2). Through interaction with TMIGD2, which is constitutively expressed on all naïve T cells and the majority of natural killer cells, but not on T regulatory cells or B cells, HHLA2 co-stimulates T cells in the context of TCR-mediated activation, enhancing T cell proliferation and cytokine production via an AKT-dependent signaling cascade (2). Contrary to this, HHLA2 has also been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine production, suggesting a secondary receptor for HHLA2 that is expressed on activated T cells with co-inhibitory functions (3). Moreover, HHLA2 has been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancer, and is associated with a poor prognosis (4-10). Further understanding the immunologic functions of the HHLA2 pathway will guide the selection of agents used for cancer immunotherapy, autoimmune disorders, infection, and transplant rejection.

$299
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$139
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$159
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$309
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$249
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to redFluor™ 710 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: HLA-G (HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G) is a non-classical MHC molecule expressed by trophoblasts in placenta, thymic epithelial cells, and some tumors. Alternative splicing leads to generation of at least six isoforms, four that are transmembrane proteins and two that are soluble (1-4). It is an inhibitory molecule involved in immune tolerance and escape, originally studied for its role in maternal tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy (1-5). HLA-G binds ILT2, ILT4, and KIR2DL4, playing a role in the regulation of natural killer, T, and monocyte/macrophage cells (4-5). Its involvement in evasion of immune response makes it a potential target for immunotherapy (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP/RNF31), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the catalytic subunit of the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) that is associated with TNF-R1 (1). Research studies have shown that the LUBAC consists of three subunits: HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin that facilitate canonical NF-kB activation in response to pro inflammatory cytokines through M1-linked linear ubiquitination of NEMO and RIP1 (2-6). As part of the LUBAC, HOIP has also been implicated in the negative regulation of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling through the suppression of RIG-I activation (7). The role of HOIP in LUBAC function and human disease is underscored by naturally occurring mutations in HOIP that impair LUBAC assembly and NF-kb activation. Patients that are homozygous for this mutation in HOIP have multi organ auto inflammation and immunodeficiency (8).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HS1 (HCLS1, LckBP1, p75) is a protein kinase substrate that is expressed only in tissues and cells of hematopoietic origin (1,2). HS1 contains four cortactin repeats and a single SH3 domain (2). This intracellular protein is phosphorylated following immune receptor activation, which promotes recruitment of HS1 to the immune synapse (3-5). Phosphorylation of HS1 is required to regulate actin dynamics and provide docking sites for many other signaling molecules, such as Vav1 and PLCγ1 (6). HS1 also plays an important role in platelet activation (7).