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Product listing: PTMScan® Phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro Motif [p(S/T)P] Kit #28303 to Adora2a/Adenosine Receptor A2a (E5I8X) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific), UniProt ID Q60613 #94871

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur. For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur. For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/services/index.html.

Background: Acetylation of lysine, like phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, is an important reversible modification controlling protein activity. The conserved amino-terminal domains of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) contain lysines that are acetylated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) (1). Signaling resulting in acetylation/deacetylation of histones, transcription factors, and other proteins affects a diverse array of cellular processes including chromatin structure and gene activity, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (2-6). Recent proteomic surveys suggest that acetylation of lysine residues may be a widespread and important form of posttranslational protein modification that affects thousands of proteins involved in control of cell cycle and metabolism, longevity, actin polymerization, and nuclear transport (7,8). The regulation of protein acetylation status is impaired in cancer and polyglutamine diseases (9), and HDACs have become promising targets for anti-cancer drugs currently in development (10).

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/services/index.html.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/services/index.html.
PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur. For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/services/index.html.

Background: Lysine is subject to a wide array of regulatory post-translational modifications due to its positively charged ε-amino group side chain. The most prevalent of these are ubiquitination and acetylation, which are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes (1,2). Acyl group transfer from the metabolic intermediates acetyl-, succinyl-, malonyl-, glutaryl-, butyryl-, propionyl-, and crotonyl-CoA all neutralize lysine’s positive charge and confer structural alterations affecting substrate protein function. Lysine acetylation is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases, HATs, using acetyl-CoA as a cofactor (3,4). Deacylation is mediated by histone deacetylases, HDACs 1-11, and NAD-dependent Sirtuins 1-7. Some sirtuins have little to no deacetylase activity, suggesting that they are better suited for other acyl lysine substrates (5).

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.

Background: Lysine is subject to a wide array of regulatory post-translational modifications due to its positively charged ε-amino group side chain. The most prevalent of these are ubiquitination and acetylation, which are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes (1,2). Acyl group transfer from the metabolic intermediates acetyl-, succinyl-, malonyl-, glutaryl-, butyryl-, propionyl-, and crotonyl-CoA all neutralize lysine’s positive charge and confer structural alterations affecting substrate protein function. Lysine acetylation is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases, HATs, using acetyl-CoA as a cofactor (3,4). Deacylation is mediated by histone deacetylases, HDACs 1-11, and NAD-dependent Sirtuins 1-7. Some sirtuins have little to no deacetylase activity, suggesting that they are better suited for other acyl lysine substrates (5).

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.

Background: Arginine methylation is a prevalent PTM found on both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Arginine methylated proteins are involved in many different cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, RNA metabolism, and DNA damage repair (1-3). Arginine methylation is carried out by the arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a guanidine nitrogen of arginine (4). There are three different types of arginine methylation: asymmetric dimethylarginine (aDMA, omega-NG,NG-dimethylarginine), where two methyl groups are placed on one of the terminal nitrogen atoms of the guanidine group of arginine; symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA, omega-NG,N’G-dimethylarginine), where one methyl group is placed on each of the two terminal guanidine nitrogens of arginine; and monomethylarginine (MMA, omega-NG-dimethylarginine), where a single methyl group is placed on one of the terminal nitrogen atoms of arginine. Each of these modifications has potentially different functional consequences. Though all PRMT proteins catalyze the formation of MMA, Type I PRMTs (PRMT1, 3, 4, and 6) add an additional methyl group to produce aDMA, while Type II PRMTs (PRMT5 and 7) produce sDMA. Methylated arginine residues often reside in glycine-arginine rich (GAR) protein domains, such as RGG, RG, and RXR repeats (5). However, PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 methylate arginine residues within proline-glycine-methionine rich (PGM) motifs (6).

PTMScan® Technology employs a proprietary methodology from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) for peptide enrichment by immunoprecipitation using a specific bead-conjugated antibody in conjunction with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for quantitative profiling of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in cellular proteins. These include phosphorylation (PhosphoScan®), ubiquitination (UbiScan®), acetylation (AcetylScan®), and methylation (MethylScan®), among others. PTMScan® Technology enables researchers to isolate, identify, and quantitate large numbers of post-translationally modified cellular peptides with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, providing a global overview of PTMs in cell and tissue samples without preconceived biases about where these modified sites occur (1). For more information on PTMScan® Proteomics Services, please visit www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=ptmscan-services.
The Alzheimer's Disease Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating Alzheimer's Disease-related signaling. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The AMPA Receptor (GluA) Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating the four subunits of AMPARs. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each antibody.

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainate-, and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are comprised of four subunits (GluR 1-4), which assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers to mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the central nervous system. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization, and plasticity (1). In contrast to GluR 2-containing AMPARs, AMPARs that lack GluR 2 are permeable to calcium (2). Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phosphorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties of AMPARs. Research studies have implicated activity changes in AMPARs in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and epilepsy (1).

$118
10 western blots
100 µl
CREB Control Cell Extracts (SK-N-MC untreated): Total cell extracts from SK-N-MC cells serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS sample buffer.CREB Control Cell Extracts (SK-N-MC +IBMX/Forskolin): Total cell extracts from SK-N-MC cells treated with 30 μM Forskolin #3828 and 0.5 mM IBMX for 30 minutes serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS sample buffer.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

This peptide is used to block DARPP-32 (19A3) Rabbit mAb #2306 reactivity in dot blot protocols.

Background: DARPP-32 (dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, relative molecular mass 32,000) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the neostriatum (1). It is a bifunctional signaling molecule that controls serine/threonine kinase and serine/threonine phosphatase activity (2). Dopamine stimulates phosphorylation of DARPP-32 through D1 receptors and activation of PKA. PKA phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 converts it into an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (1). DARPP-32 is converted into an inhibitor of PKA when phosphorylated at Thr75 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) (2). Mice containing a targeted deletion of the DARPP-32 gene exhibit an altered biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotype (3).

This peptide is used to block EGR1 rabbit poly #4152, (15F7) Rabbit mAb #4153, and (44D5) Rabbit mAb #4154 reactivity.

Background: EGR family members are transcriptional factors that contain three repetitive zinc finger DNA binding domains which bind to EGR response elements (ER) to regulate target gene expression (1). The expression of EGR family members is induced by growth factors, with EGR1 expression being induced by NGF (1,2). Increased EGR1 expression activates transcription of other signaling molecules, including CDK5 and tyrosine hydroxylase, and exerts long term effects on neural cell growth and differentiation (2,3).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-CREB (Ser133) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of CREB when phosphorylated at Ser133. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-CREB (Ser133) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-CREB (Ser133). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Tau (Ser416) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Tau when phosphorylated at Ser416. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Tau (Ser416) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Tau (Ser416). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Tau (Thr181) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Tau when phosphorylated at Thr181. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Tau (Thr181) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Tau (Thr181). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Tau ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Tau. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Tau in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Tau. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total TREM2 ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of TREM2. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with TREM2 in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of TREM2. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) protein is an innate immune receptor that is expressed on the cell surface of microglia, macrophages, osteoclasts, and immature dendritic cells (1). The TREM2 receptor is a single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein that consists of an extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. TREM2 interacts with the tyrosine kinase-binding protein DAP12 to form a receptor-signaling complex (2). The TREM2 protein plays a role in innate immunity and a rare functional variant (R47H) of TREM2 is associated with the late-onset risk of Alzheimer’s disease (1,3). Research studies using mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease indicate that deficiency and haploinsufficiency of TREM2 can lead to increased β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation as a result of dysfunctional microglia response (4). These results agree with the distribution of TREM2 in human brain regions (e.g., white matter, the hippocampus, and neocortex) that are involved in Alzheimer's disease pathology (2). In addition, amyloid plaque formation induces expression of TREM2 and amyloid phagocytosis (5). Loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding TREM2 or DAP12 genes can result in Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare form of progressive presenile dementia that results from polycystic osseous lesions (6). TREM2 membrane shedding occurs by cleavage at the extracellular site between H157/S158 generating an N-terminal shedded fragment and a membrane bound C-terminal fragment (7, 8).

Background: Neurotrophins are comprised of at least four family members including NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 and all are known to influence growth, development, differentiation and survival of neurons (1). Proneurotrophis bind to p75NTR but not to the family of Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (Trk) and following maturation, BDNF binds and activates TrkB. Trk receptors in turn activate three major signaling pathways: (a) Ras-MAPK signaling, which promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth, (b) PI3 Kinase-Akt signaling, which promotes survival and growth of neurons, and (c) PLC-γ1-PKC signaling, which promotes synaptic plasticity (2). BDNF is a major regulator of transmission and plasticity at adult synapses. Moreover, the precursor proBDNF and the mature protein mBDNF drive opposite effects on long-term potentiation and long-term depression (3). BDNF has also been implicated in body weight regulation and activity: heterozygous BDNF knockout mice are hyperphagic, obese, and hyperactive (4).

The Huntingtin Interaction Antibody Sampler kit provides an economical means of detecting transcription-related proteins that interact with Huntingtin (Htt). This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a central nervous system monoamine implicated in a number of physiological functions, including sleep, mood, appetite, anxiety, and neurovegetative control (1). Serotonin acts through the activation of G protein receptors called serotonin receptors (5-HTRs). Seven 5-HTR subclasses (5-HTR1-7) have been described to date (2). Serotonin receptor 4 (5-HTR4) couples to Gαs (3), with stimulation of the receptor leading to adenylyl cyclase activation, elevation of cyclic AMP levels and downstream PKA activation (4). The corresponding HTR4 gene exhibits a complex structure, which includes a large number of splice variants that seem to share the same pharmacological properties (5). 5-HTR4 is one of several receptors implicated in cognition, depression, and the development of Alzheimer's disease (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: A2B5 Mouse mAb recognizes a cell surface ganglioside epitope that has been utilized as a marker for identification of various cell types. A2B5 Mouse mAb has been used to mark specific cell populations such as neuroendocrine cells, thymic epithelial cells (1), and glial precursors that give rise to type II astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (2-4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Adenosine Receptor A2a (A2AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). As a member of the purinergic adenosine receptors (A1, A2, and A3), A2AR activates classic G-protein signaling pathways upon binding of adenosine (1). Adenosine is present in all cells and extracellular fluids. Adenosine signaling, via A2AR, is mobilized during both physiological and pathological conditions. For example, adenosine, via A2AR, modulates neuronal function, acting to fine-tune neuronal function (2). A2AR function is modulated, in part, by its ability to form functional heteromers with other GPCRs, including dopamine receptors (D1 and D3), metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5), and others (3). In the brain, A2AR is enriched in the basal ganglia, suggesting that A2AR may be a potential drug target for neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease, drug addiction, and psychiatric disorders (4). Outside of the brain, A2AR may act as an immune checkpoint molecule to maintain an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, an environment that exhibits relatively elevated adenosine levels (5, 6).