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Product listing: Ubc12 (D13D7) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P61081 #5641 to VIMP (D1D1M) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q9BQE4 #15160

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Similar to ubiquitin, NEDD8 is covalently linked to target proteins through an enzymatic cascade composed of NEDD8-specific E1 (activating)- and E2 (conjugating)-enzymes (1,2). The E2 ligase specific for NEDD8 is Ubc12 (3-5). Ubc12 forms a heterodimeric conjugate with NEDD8 in order to catalyze the transfer of NEDD8 from E1 to lysine side chains of target proteins (1,2). Well known targets of NEDD8 are cullin-based RING E3 ligases. Neddylation of cullin isoforms activates the related ubiquitin E3 complex by promoting its interaction with a cognate ubiquitin-E2 ligase (6-7). Neddylation of Cul-1 complexes containing βTrCP and SKP2 has been shown to be required for controlling the stability of important signaling targets such as IκB, NF-κB, and p27 Kip (8-10), thereby regulating cell cycle progression, signaling cascades, and developmental programming processes (11).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The process of SUMO-1 conjugation is similar to that seen with ubiquitin and other forms of post-translational protein modification (1). Like ubiquitin, SUMO-1 is conjugated to its target protein by the coordinated action of ubiquitin conjugation enzymes E1, E2 and E3 (2). Ubc9 (or ube2M) is a highly conserved, 158 amino acid protein that acts as a SUMO-1 conjugating enzyme (3). Ubc9 binds to target proteins through their SUMO-1-CS (consensus sequence) domains and interacts with SUMO via the structurally conserved amino-terminal domain (3,4). Localization of Ubc9 to the nucleus and the nuclear envelope allows this enzyme to catalyze target protein sumoylation and regulate target protein nucleocytoplasmic transport and transcriptional activity (5,6). Ubc9 target proteins include a host of proteins (RAD51, RAD52, p53 and c-Jun) that regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, and p53-dependent processes (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2 and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through an ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with an E1 enzyme. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol-group of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of a lysine residue on the target protein, a transfer mediated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E3 (1). UbcH5C is a universally expressed E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and member of the UbcH5 family that also includes UbcH5A and UbcH5B (2). Evidence suggests that UbcH5C plays an important role in regulating a number of signaling pathways by catalyzing the ubiquitination of key target proteins, including p53, PCNA, the IκB kinase protein NEMO, and the apoptosis inhibitor BRUCE (3-6). Gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of UbcH5C in meibomian cell carcinoma and oncocytic thyroid adenomas (7,8), while an RNAi screen reveals diffrential Ubc5HC in acute promyelocytic cells (9). These results suggest a potential role of UbcH5C in cell cycle control and tumorigenesis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Interferon-stimulated 15 kDa protein (ISG15), also known as ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is a member of the ubiquitin-like protein family and functions in various biological pathways from pregnancy to innate immune responses (1). Expression of ISG15 is stimulated by cellular exposure to type 1 interferons α and β, in addition to infection with viruses such as influenza B (2,3). After exposure to type I interferons, both lymphocytes and monocytes, in addition to some fibroblasts and epithelial cells, release ISG15 into culture medium (1,4). ISG15 has been shown to function as a cytokine, stimulating interferon γ secretion by monocytes and macrophages, proliferation of natural killer cells, and chemotactic responses in neutrophils (4,5). ISG15 has also been shown to function intracellularly, being covalently conjugated to other proteins by E1 (Ube1L), E2 (UbcH8) and E3 ligases via a multi-step process analogous to ubiquitination (6,7). ISG15 is removed from proteins by the ubiquitin processing protease Ubp43 (8). ISG15-protein conjugation (ISGylation) is induced by type 1 interferons, and target proteins include the serine protease inhibitor Serpin 2A, PLCγ1, ERK1/2, Jak1 and Stat1 (9,10). Unlike ubiquitination, ISGylation does not target proteins for degradation, rather ISGylation increases Jak1 and Stat1 activity, enhancing the cellular response to interferons (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin (Ub) is a conserved polypeptide that is covalently linked to many cellular proteins through the process of ubiquitination, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three enzymatic components are involved in the protein ubiquitination cascade. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thioester complex with an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme. Activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to an E2 ubiquitin-carrier protein, and then from the E2 to an E3 ubiquitin ligase for final delivery to the ε-amino group of the target protein lysine residue (1-3).The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 (UBE2G2, UBC7) is a ubiquitously expressed E2 enzyme and critical component of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway (ERAD) (4). Research studies demonstrate that UBE2G2 forms homodimers and preassembles K48-linked poly-Ub chains at its active site (5-8). The association of Ub-charged UBE2G2 molecules with the ER-resident E3 ligase AMFR (gp78) is required for Ub chain transfer and efficient removal of misfolded or aggregated proteins through the ERAD pathway (9,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol group of ubiquitin-carrier enzyme E2. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of the target protein lysine residue, which is mediated by ubiquitin-ligase enzyme E3 (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification that regulates protein function and fate (1). Ubiquitin (Ub) can be conjugated to target proteins in either monomeric or polymeric forms. There are several different lysine residues within Ub that can be used as conjugation sites for poly-Ub chain formation. Different poly-Ub linkages mediate different functions of the target protein ranging from alterations in protein function to degradation (2). UBE2N/Ubc13 is a ubiquitin-E2-conjugating enzyme that catalyzes K63-linked poly-Ub chain formation (1,2). UBE2N forms a heterodimer with MMS2 or Uev1A to exert its E2 ligase function. The UBE2N/MMS2 and UBE2N/Uev1A heterodimers catalyze different modes of target protein ubiquitination to mediate various signaling pathways (3-5) including: DNA damage and recombination, p53 and check point control, the cell cycle (6-10), immunoreceptor signaling (11,12), and endocytosis (13). Most recently, UBE2N was shown to play an important role in inflammatory signaling by promoting K63-linked ubiquitination and activation of IKK downstream of the IL-1β receptor (14). Furthermore, interaction of UBE2N with the Triad1 E3 protein-ubiquitin ligase was shown to play an important role in myelopoiesis (15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol group of ubiquitin-carrier enzyme E2. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of the target protein lysine residue, which is mediated by ubiquitin-ligase enzyme E3 (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination requires the concerted action of the E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Ubiquitin is first activated through ATP-dependent formation of a thiol ester with ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to a thiol group of ubiquitin-carrier enzyme E2. The final step is the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to an ε-amino group of the target protein lysine residue, which is mediated by ubiquitin-ligase enzyme E3 (1).Ubiquitin conjugating-enzyme 2T (UBE2T) is an E2 family member responsible for the ATP-dependent ubiquitin tagging of target proteins for degradation. Research studies indicate that UBE2T plays an important role in the Fanconi anemia pathway and that UBE2T expression is required for normal DNA repair through this pathway. Interaction between UBE2T and FANCL appears to stimulate UBE2T auto monoubiquitination, leading to UBE2T inactivation and negative regulation of the Fanconi anemia pathway (2-4). Additional research details upregulation of UBE2T expression in breast cancer cells and certain lung carcinomas, suggesting a possible involvement in these malignancies (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: UBE3A, also commonly referred to as E6AP (E6 Associated Protein), is an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase and founding member of the HECT (Homologous to the E6 Carboxyl Terminus) family of E3 ligases (1). UBE3A has been shown to be hijacked by the oncogenic E6 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV16 and HPV18) that causes the ubiquitination activity of UBE3A to be inappropriately directed toward several specific cellular proteins, the most notable of which, with respect to carcinogenesis, is p53 (2). Although the DNA-repair enzyme, HHR23A (human homolog A of Rad23), was the first described E6-independent substrate of UBE3A, very few E6-independent targets of UBE3A have been identified. This continues to be an active area of research, particularly because mutations or disruption in expression of UBE3A in the brain are the cause of Angelman syndrome (AS), a severe form of mental retardation (3-6). Although UBE3A is expressed in most human tissues from both parental alleles, it is expressed from the maternal allele in subregions of the brain, with the paternal allele being epigenetically silenced. AS is caused by disruptions in expression of the materal UBE3A allele, generally by large chromosomal deletion, but also by point mutations within the UBE3A coding sequence. This strongly suggests that lack of ubiquitination of one or more UBE3A substrates in neuronal tissue is responsible for the AS phenotype (7). Indeed, a recent study identified several new neuronal substrates of UBE3A including Arc and Ephexin-5 (8). The immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) is rapidly upregulated after robust neuronal stimulation and promotes internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), resulting in reduction in synaptic strength. UBE3A ubiquitinates Arc and promotes its degradation by the 26S proteasome, thus preventing AMPAR internalization (8). Disruption in neuronal UBE3A function leads to an increase in Arc expression and a decrease in AMPARs at excitatory synapses, which may contribute to the neurological symptoms of AS.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ubiquitin (P4D1) Mouse mAb #3936.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) is a ubiquitously expressed, type 2 ubiquitin like (UBL) protein that contains an amino-terminal UBL domain and a carboxy-terminal Ub-associated (UBA) domain (1). Research studies demonstrate that UBQLN1 associates with poly-Ub chains through its UBA domain, while the UBL domain participates in interactions with proteasome subunits. Evidence suggests that UBQLN1 acts as a shuttling factor during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) as it transports misfolded, ubiquitinated proteins from the ER to the proteasome for subsequent degradation (2-5). Additional research studies demonstrate that the UBL domain of UBQLN1 binds UIM-containing endocytic proteins and participates in the sequestration of protein aggregates during aggresome formation (6,7). UBQLN1 regulates presenilin protein levels and is localized in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease-affected brains (8). Polymorphisms in the corresponding UBQLN1 gene may be associated with a risk of Alzheimer's disease (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) is a broadly expressed member of the ubiquilin family of ubiquitin receptor proteins. UBQLN2 is a type 2 ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein that contains an amino-terminal UBL domain, multiple heat shock chaperonin-binding (STI) motifs, several PXX repeats, and a carboxy-terminal ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain (1-3). Research studies indicate that the UBL domain of UBQLN2 can interact with proteasome subunits (4). The UBA domain of UBQLN2 can interact with ubiquitinated proteins and the autophagosome and allows UBQLN2 to participate in the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways (5-8). Mutations in the PXX repeat region of the corresponding UBQLN2 gene are associated with an X-linked form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS15) and dementia with reduced penetrance in females (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Human E3 identified by differential display (UBR5/EDD) is a HECT domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase of the N-end rule pathway that promotes the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of proteins harboring N-degrons (1-3). UBR5 represents an ortholog of HYD, the Drosophila hyperplastic discs tumor suppressor gene product but has been found to be overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancers, suggesting a possible role in promoting tumor development (4,5). Research studies have demonstrated that UBR5 is functional within the nucleus as it participates in DNA damage signaling by controlling the activities of Chk2, TopBP1, and RNF168 (6-9). Recently, UBR5 was shown to play a novel role in immune cell function by regulating RORγt stability and IL-17 production by Th17 cells (10).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated UCHL1 (D3T2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #13179.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) family of DUBs, which all possess a conserved catalytic UCH domain of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique, extended carboxy-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule.UCHL1 (PGP 9.5/PARK5) functions as a deubiquitinating enzyme and monoubiquitin stabilizer. In vitro studies have demonstrated that UCHL1 can hydrolyze isopeptide bonds between the carboxy-terminal glycine of Ub and the ε-amino group of lysine on target proteins. UCHL1 is also involved in the cotranslational processing of pro-ubiquitin and ribosomal proteins translated as ubiquitin fusions (5-7). Mice deficient in UCHL1 experience spasticity, suggesting that UCHL1 activity is required for the normal neuromuscular junction structure and function (5-7). Research studies have described loss of UCHL1 expression in numerous human malignancies, such as prostate, colorectal, renal, and breast carcinomas. Investigators have shown that loss of UCHL1 expression in breast carcinomas can be attributed to hyper-methylation of the UCHL1 gene promoter (8). While loss of UCHL1 expression is implicated in human carcinogenesis, mutation of UCHL1 has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (6,7).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) family of DUBs, which all possess a conserved catalytic UCH domain of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique, extended carboxy-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule.UCHL1 (PGP 9.5/PARK5) functions as a deubiquitinating enzyme and monoubiquitin stabilizer. In vitro studies have demonstrated that UCHL1 can hydrolyze isopeptide bonds between the carboxy-terminal glycine of Ub and the ε-amino group of lysine on target proteins. UCHL1 is also involved in the cotranslational processing of pro-ubiquitin and ribosomal proteins translated as ubiquitin fusions (5-7). Mice deficient in UCHL1 experience spasticity, suggesting that UCHL1 activity is required for the normal neuromuscular junction structure and function (5-7). Research studies have described loss of UCHL1 expression in numerous human malignancies, such as prostate, colorectal, renal, and breast carcinomas. Investigators have shown that loss of UCHL1 expression in breast carcinomas can be attributed to hyper-methylation of the UCHL1 gene promoter (8). While loss of UCHL1 expression is implicated in human carcinogenesis, mutation of UCHL1 has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (6,7).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) family of DUBs, which all possess a conserved catalytic UCH domain of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique, extended carboxy-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule.UCHL1 (PGP 9.5/PARK5) functions as a deubiquitinating enzyme and monoubiquitin stabilizer. In vitro studies have demonstrated that UCHL1 can hydrolyze isopeptide bonds between the carboxy-terminal glycine of Ub and the ε-amino group of lysine on target proteins. UCHL1 is also involved in the cotranslational processing of pro-ubiquitin and ribosomal proteins translated as ubiquitin fusions (5-7). Mice deficient in UCHL1 experience spasticity, suggesting that UCHL1 activity is required for the normal neuromuscular junction structure and function (5-7). Research studies have described loss of UCHL1 expression in numerous human malignancies, such as prostate, colorectal, renal, and breast carcinomas. Investigators have shown that loss of UCHL1 expression in breast carcinomas can be attributed to hyper-methylation of the UCHL1 gene promoter (8). While loss of UCHL1 expression is implicated in human carcinogenesis, mutation of UCHL1 has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1,2). DUBs are categorized into 5 subfamilies: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. UCHL1, UCHL3, UCHL5/UCH37, and BRCA-1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) belong to the UCH family of DUBs, which all posses a conserved catalytic domain (UCH domain) of about 230 amino acids. UCHL5 and BAP1 have unique extended C-terminal tails. UCHL1 is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues and testes, while UCHL3 expression is more widely distributed (3,4). Although UCHL1 and UCHL3 are the most closely related UCH family members with about 53% identity, their biochemical properties differ in that UCHL1 binds monoubiquitin and UCHL3 shows dual specificity toward both ubiquitin (Ub) and NEDD8, a Ub-like molecule. In particular, UCHL3 functions as a Ub hydrolase involved in the processing of both Ub precursors and ubiquitinated substrates, generating free monomeric Ub. This is accomplished through the ability of UCHL3 to recognize and hydrolyze isopeptide bonds at the C-terminal glycine of either Ub or NEDD8 (5-7). Recent functional studies have identified UCH-L3 as a critical regulator of adipogenesis through its ability to promote IGF-IR and insulin receptor signaling (8). Furthermore, UCHL3 has been shown to promote deubiquitination, recycling, and cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel (9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB) action (1,2). There are five DUB subfamilies including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM enzymes. USP1 belongs to the USP subfamily and is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner by both transcriptional and ubiquitin-proteosomal mechanisms (3). USP1 is a nuclear protein and localizes to chromatin where it is specifically associated with FANCD2. USP1 deubiquitinates monoubiquitinated FANCD2, which plays an important role in DNA damage repair and Chk1 protein stability (3,4). Another important target of USP1 is PCNA. USP1 deubiquitinates monoubiquitinated PCNA, thereby negatively regulating PCNA-mediated translesion synthesis (TLS) during DNA repair (5). USP1 interaction with UAF1, a WD40 repeat-containing protein, leads to formation of an activated USP1/UAF1 complex, which is required for the deubiquitinase activity of USP1 (6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action (1,2). Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM enzymes. USP10 possesses amino acid sequences that match the consensus cysteine and histidine boxes representative of the USP family of deubiquitinating enzymes. At the posttranslational level, USP10 appears to be regulated through both protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation. Indeed, interaction of USP10 with Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein (G3BP) has been found to inhibit its ability to catalyze the disassembly of ubiquitin chains (3). Furthermore, ATM-mediated phosphorylation of USP10 at Thr42 and Ser337 was shown to promote USP10 stabilization and redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it functions in p53 deubiquitination, stabilization, and activation in response to genotoxic stress (4). Recently, it was shown that USP10 works in concert with USP13 and Vps34 complexes. USP10, along with USP13, appears to deubiquitinate Vps34 complexes to regulate the levels of this class III PI3K. Beclin-1, another component of these complexes, functions to regulate the stability of USP13, which can deubiquitinate and stabilize the levels of USP10. Therefore, Beclin-1, can indirectly regulate p53 stability by controlling the DUB activity of USP10 (5). USP10 also functions in the endosomal compartment, where it has been shown to deubiquitinate CFTR in order to enhance its endocytic recycling and cell surface expression (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action (1,2). Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM enzymes. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 13 (USP13; isopeptidase T-3) contains four ubiquitin-associated/translation elongation factor EF1B, amino terminal (UBA) domains and one ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) domain. The UBP domain of USP13 contains a catalytic site, a zinc finger domain, and two UBA domains. Similar to other USP family members, USP13 contains cysteines and histidines that are likely involved in its catalytic mechanism. Studies show that USP13 plays a critical role in autophagy through the deubiquitination of target proteins such as BECN1 and USP10 (3). Research also suggests that USP13 is implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma through its ability to regulate the ubiquitination status of MITF (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action (1,2). Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM enzymes. In humans, there are three proteasomal DUBs: PSMD14 (POH1/RPN11), UCH37 (UCH-L5), and Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14, which is also known as the 60 kDa subunit of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (USP14/TGT60 kDa). USP14 is recruited to the proteasome through its reversible association with the PSMD2 (S2/hRPN1) subunit of the 19S regulatory particle. Whereas PSMD14 appears to promote substrate degradation (3,4), USP14 is thought to antagonize substrate degradation (5-8). While the underlying mechanism for the opposing roles of these two proteasomal DUBs is still uncertain, it is thought that USP14 removes ubiquitin from substrate upon docking of the substrate with the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, USP14 trims ubiquitin residues from the distal end of the polyubiquitin chain, thus decreasing the affinity of the chain for the ubiquitin receptors of the proteasome, and allowing for enhanced substrate stability (6,9,10). Studies have elucidated a physiologic role for USP14 in regulating synaptic activity in mammals (11). Research studies have shown that targeting this activity with small molecule inhibitors has potential benefits for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer (5,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), respectively (1,2). DUBs are categorized into five subfamilies based on catalytic domain structure: USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 15 (USP15) is a USP subfamily deubiquitinating enzyme with similar domain structure to the paralogous DUBs, USP4, and USP11. The USP15 gene is amplified in glioblastoma and other solid tumors and its high expression correlates with a poor prognosis (3,4). Research studies demonstrate that USP15 is a positive regulator of oncogenic TGF-β signaling and that USP15 deubiquitinates monoubiquitinated R-SMADs to enhance target gene promoter binding (5). USP15 also promotes oncogenic TGF-β signaling by opposing SMURF2-mediated ubiquitination of the type I TGF-β receptor, which facilitates receptor stabilization (3,4). USP15 contributes to oncogenesis by negatively regulating T cell-mediated antitumor responses through the deubiquitination and stabilization of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2. This observation supports USP15 as a potential target for cancer therapeutics (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action. Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD and JAMM enzymes (1,2). USP18 (also known as UBP43) is a deubiquitinase best known for catalyzing the removal of ISG15, an interferon-regulated ubibiquitin-like protein, from conjugated proteins (3). Removal of ISG15 from target proteins by the USP18 peptidase maintains the critical cellular balance of ISG15-conjugated proteins important for normal development and brain function (4,5). Following induction by IFN or LPS (6), USP18 binds the INF receptor subunit IFNAR2 and inhibits signal transduction through the JAK-STAT pathway (7). USP18 regulation of IFN signaling inhibits IFN-mediated apoptosis and does not necessarily rely on USP18 peptidase activity (8). As the therapeutic use of recombinant IFN can lead to refractory IFN signaling and a less effective response, the combination of IFN treatment and regulation of USP18 expression may produce a more positive outcome (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action (1,2). Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM enzymes. The deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8/UBPy) is a cysteine protease belonging to the USP/UBP subfamily. Research studies have shown that USP8 is an essential growth-regulated enzyme indespensible for cell proliferation and survival (3,4). Indeed, conditional knock-out of murine USP8 was shown to promote a dramatic loss in expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, ErbB3, and c-Met (4). In agreement with these findings, USP8 inactivation leads to enhanced ubiquitination of ligand-activated EGFR (5,6). Furthermore, phosphorylation of USP8 at Ser680 results in its binding of 14-3-3, catalytic inactivation, and reduced EGFR deubiquitination (7). It appears as though USP8, in conjunction with components of the ESCRT-0 complex, plays an integral role in the early endosomal sorting machinery that functions to protect EGFR from lysosomal degradation (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalyzed by ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) respectively (1,2). DUBs are categorized into five subfamilies-USP, UCH, OTU, MJD, and JAMM. Ubiquitin-specific protease 9, X-linked (USP9X) possesses a well-conserved catalytic domain with cysteine peptidase activity, which allows for cleavage of ubiquitin and polyubiquitin conjugates. USP9X is the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila fat-facets (faf) gene, which is essential for normal eye development and viability of the early fly embryo (3,4). While USP9X expression is also critical for normal mammalian development (5-7), many of its substrates are only beginning to be elucidated. There is mounting evidence that USP9X functions in the formation of epithelial cell-cell contacts through deubiquitination-dependent stabilization of molecules involved in maintaining the integrity of both adherens and tight junctions. Indeed, USP9X has been found to associate with AF-6, the β-catenin-E-cadherin complex, and EFA6 (8-11). Research studies have also demonstrated that USP9X is an integral component of the TGF-β/BMP signaling cascade by opposing TRIM33-mediated monoubiquitination of SMAD4 (12). USP9X is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and contributes to enhanced cell survival, in part, through its ability to deubiquitinate and stabilize the Mcl-1 oncoprotein (13). There is some evidence, however, that suggests the role of USP9X in tumorigenesis is context dependent. Research studies have implicated USP9X in a tumor suppressor role during the early stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in an oncogenic role during advanced stages of PDAC (14,15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved and abundant 97 kDa protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins. VCP assembles as a homo-hexamer, forming a ring with a channel at its center (1,2,3). VCP homo-hexamers associate with a variety of protein cofactors to form many distinct protein complexes, which act as chaperones to unfold proteins and transport them to specific cellular compartments or to the proteosome (4). These protein complexes participate in many cellular functions, including vesicle transport and fusion, fragmentation and reassembly of the golgi stacks during mitosis, nuclear envelope formation and spindle disassembly following mitosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, B- and T-cell activation, NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and protein degradation (4). VCP appears to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum; however, tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with relocalization to the centrosome during mitosis (5). In addition, following cellular exposure to ionizing radition, VCP is phosphorylated at Ser784 in an ATM-dependent manner and accumulates in the nucleus at sites of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) (6). Exposure to other types of DNA damaging agents such as UV light, bleomycin or doxorubicin results in phosphorylation of VCP by ATR and DNA-PK in an ATM-independent manner (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: VCP-interacting membrane protein (VIMP, selenoprotein S) is a putative reductase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein involved in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (1,2). Research studies indicate that VIMP may play a protective role against inflammation and reduce ER-stress (3). The VIMP protein is a single-pass, transmembrane protein that recruits the cytosolic p97/VCP AAA-ATPase and its cofactors, UFD1 and NPL4, to the ER membrane (4). An ER membrane complex containing Derlin-1 and VIMP forms a critical node in the ERAD machinery and links substrate recognition in the ER lumen with the retrotranslocation function of the p97/VCP AAA-ATPase in the cytosol (1,4). Polymorphisms in the corresponding VIMP gene are associated with spontaneous preterm births and cardiovascular disease risk (5,6) while other studies do not support a correspondence between VIMP polymorphisms and inflammatory disorders (7).