20% off purchase of 3 or more products* | Learn More >>

Product listing: SirT6 Antibody, UniProt ID Q8N6T7 #2590 to ZMYND8 Antibody, UniProt ID Q9ULU4 #97845

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (Sir2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of this family is Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT6, a mammalian homolog of Sir2, is a nuclear, chromatin-associated protein that promotes the normal maintenance of genome integrity mediated by the base excision repair (BER) pathway (2-4). The BER pathway repairs single-stranded DNA lesions that arise spontaneously from endogenous alkylation, oxidation, and deamination events. SirT6 deficient mice show increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, including the alkylating agents MMS and H2O2 (2). In addition, these mice show genome instability with increased frequency of fragmented chromosomes, detached centromeres, and gaps (2). SirT6 may regulate the BER pathway by deacetylating DNA Polβ or other core components of the pathway (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SMARCA1 (SNF2L) is one of the two orthologs of the ISWI (imitation switch) ATPases encoded by the mammalian genome (1). The ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes were first identified in Drosophila and have been shown to remodel and alter nucleosome spacing in vitro (2). SMARCA1 is the catalytic subunit of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) and CECR2-containing remodeling factor (CERF) complexes (3-5). The NURF complex plays an important role in neuronal physiology by promoting neurite outgrowth and regulation of Engrailed homeotic genes that are involved in neuronal development in the mid-hindbrain (3). NURF is also thought to be involved in the maturation of T cells from thymocytes by regulating chromatin structure and expression of genes important for T cell development (6). The largest subunit of the NURF complex, BPTF, is required for proper development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, suggesting a role for SMARCA1 in the development of the germ layers in mouse embryo (7). Disruption of the CERF complex by deletion of CECR2, an interacting partner of SMARCA1, is associated with the neural tube defect exencephaly, linking the CERF complex with regulation of neurulation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SMARCAD1 is a SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling protein that plays a critical role in the maintenance of heterochromatin domains following DNA replication and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis (1-3). SMARCAD1 can be found in association with transcription repressor KAP1, histone deacetylases HDAC1/2, and lysine methyltransferase G9a/GLP, which are recruited to sites of DNA replication by PCNA. These proteins facilitate deacetylation of histones and methylation of histone H3 Lys9 to re-establish heterochromatin domains, such as centromeric regions (1). SMARCAD1 also plays a role in double stranded DNA break repair by facilitating DNA end resection and the subsequent repair by homologous recombination (4). Loss of SMARCAD1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, suggesting a role in the maintenance of genome stability.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play an essential role in the regulation of nuclear processes such as transcription and DNA replication and repair (1,2). The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex consists of more than 10 subunits and contains a single molecule of either BRM or BRG1 as the ATPase catalytic subunit. The activity of the ATPase subunit disrupts histone-DNA contacts and changes the accessibility of crucial regulatory elements to the chromatin. The additional core and accessory subunits play a scaffolding role to maintain stability and provide surfaces for interaction with various transcription factors and chromatin (2-5). The interactions between SWI/SNF subunits and transcription factors, such as nuclear receptors, p53, Rb, BRCA1, and MyoD, facilitate recruitment of the complex to target genes for regulation of gene activation, cell growth, cell cycle, and differentiation processes (1,6-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 (SMYD2), also known as lysine methyltransferase protein 3C (KMT3C), is a member of the SMYD family of protein methyltransferases (1). All five members of this family (SMYD1, SMYD2, SMYD3, SMYD4, and SMYD5) contain a conserved catalytic SET domain, originally identified in Drosophila Su[var]3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. This domain is split by the MYN domain/zinc finger motif believed to facilitate protein-protein interactions (1). SMYD2 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and is highly expressed in the adult mouse heart, brain, liver, kidney, thymus, and ovary, as well as in the developing mouse embryo (1). SMYD2 functions to repress transcription by interacting with the Sin3A repressor complex and methylating Lys36 of histone H3 (1). SMYD2 also interacts with HSP90α and methylates Lys4 of histone H3, a mark associated with transcriptional activation (2). In addition to histones as methyl substrates, SMYD2 methylates p53 at Lys370 to repress p53-mediated transcriptional activation and apoptosis (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor belonging to the family of C2H2-type zinc finger containing DNA-binding proteins. SP1 binds GC-rich motifs with high affinity and regulates the expression of numerous mammalian genes (1,2). It interacts with many other transcription factors, such as c-Myc, EGR1, and Stat1, and with basal transcription machinery components. SP1 interacts with chromatin-modifying factors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and p300 in chromatin remodeling. Transcriptional activity and stability of SP1 are regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and glycosylation (3). Glycosylation of SP1 following insulin treatment leads to increased nuclear localization, while glucagon treatment increases cytoplasmic SP1 levels (4-6). Investigators have found high levels of SP1 in patients with Alzheimer's disease (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF), a heterodimer composed of SPT4 and SPT5, is capable of both facilitating and inhibiting RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) activity (1-3). DSIF, together with NELF (Negative Elongation Factor), inhibits RNAPII elongation, resulting in promoter proximal pausing of RNAPII as it awaits additional signaling to resume transcription (4). The release of promoter proximal pausing is signaled through phosphorylation of the RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD) and NELF by positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) (5). P-TEFb also phosphorylates SPT5 at Thr4 within the evolutionarily conserved heptapeptide repeat motif. This phosphorylation event switches DSIF from a transcriptional repressor to an activator where it becomes a critical factor for transcriptional elongation (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SS18 is a protein that has been shown to be a part of the SWI/SNF complex (1, 2). The SS18-SSX fusion proteins are a result of in-frame fusions that fuse the SS18 gene on chromosome 18 with X chromosome genes SSX1, SSX2, and to a lesser extent SSX4 (3). Human synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for 8-10% of all soft tissue malignancies and 95% of these malignancies express the recurrent translocation of the SS18 gene on chromosome 18 (3). The N-terminal SNH domain (SYT N-terminal homology domain) of the SS18 protein interacts with SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes via the N terminal region of BRM and BRG1 subunits (4). Studies of the SS18-SSX fusion in SS suggest that endogenous SS18 competes with the mutant SS18-SSX fusion for occupancy in the SWI/SNF complexes resulting in the displacement of SNF5 (BAF47) subunit. Displacement of the SNF5 subunit results in altered function of the SWI/SNF complex that leads to deregulated expression of genes such as Sox2 in SS (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Suppressor of Ty-16 (SPT16) and structure-specific recognition protein-1 (SSRP1) are subunits of the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex that is essential for transcription elongation (1,2). FACT facilitates RNA polymerase-dependent transcription of chromatin templates by destabilizing the nucleosomes within the open reading frames of active genes (3-5). FACT destabilizes the nucleosomes, which would otherwise act as barriers to RNA polymerase transcription activity, by disrupting histone-histone and histone-DNA contacts that lead to the eviction of the histone H2A-H2B dimer (2,3,6). FACT may also function as a histone chaperone to reassemble nucleosomes after RNA polymerase passage (7). In addition to transcription, FACT activity has been shown to have a role in DNA replication in yeast and in DNA repair by contributing to the activation of p53 by CK2 and by facilitating histone H2AX-H2B exchange upon DNA damage (8-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that functions at the core of the general transcription factor protein complex TFIID (1-3). TFIID, which contains TBP and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), contributes to the formation of the transcription pre-initiation complex, an assembly of multiple protein complexes (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH, and RNA polymerase II) that bind to a gene promoter during the initiation of transcription (1-3). Once the pre-initiation complex is formed, RNA polymerase II becomes competent for elongation and transcribes the body of a gene. TBP functions in the recruitment of TFIID by binding to the TATA-box sequence found approximately 25 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site of many protein-coding genes. In addition, many transcriptional activator proteins interact with TBP and various TAF proteins to facilitate recruitment of TFIID and formation of the pre-initiation complex.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Elongin complex is a heterotrimer composed of TCEB3/Elongin A, Elongin B (TCEB2), and Elongin C (TCEB1) subunits (1-3). The Elongin complex regulates the rate of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation by releasing the transient pausing of RNAPII at multiple sites along the DNA. TCEB3/Elongin A is the transcriptionally active subunit, while Elongin B and C subunits play a regulatory role (3,4). TCEB3/Elongin A may be required for expression of a subset of cell cycle regulated genes, and embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking TCEB3/Elongin A show abnormalities in cell size, growth, and cell cycle distribution (5). In addition, the Elongin complex has been shown to interact with the cullin family and RING finger proteins Cul5/Rbx2 upon UV-induced DNA damage, removing arrested RNAPII at sites of DNA damage by ubiquitination and degradation as part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TFII-I (also known as SPIN and BAP-135) is a mutifunctional transcription factor that facilitates basal transcriptional machinery assembly at the core promotor region, as well as the assembly of the transcriptional activator complex at upstream regulatory sites (1). Four isoforms of TFII-I (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) form homo- or heteromeric complexes, which may perform different functions on different promoters (1). In B cells, cross-linking of BCR (B cell receptors) leads to TFII-I phosphorylation at Tyr248 by Btk (2). This phosphorylation disrupts the association of Btk and TFII-I and enhances TFII-I transcriptional activity and nuclear localization (2). In nonlymphoid cells, TFII-I is phosphorylated at Tyr248 by Src dependent kinase or JAK2 (3,4). PKG (cGMP-dependent kinase) interacts with and phosphorylates TFII-I at Ser371 and 743, which also promotes TFII-I transcription activity (5). TFII-I activity is also modulated by HDAC3 (Histone Deacetylase 3) through a physical interaction between the two proteins (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transcription initiation factor IIE subunit alpha (TFIIE-α) is part of TFIIE, a general transcription factor made up of paired α and β subunits. These general transcription factors include TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH (1-4). Binding of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to promoter sequences as part of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) is facilitated by these general transcription factors. These factors also help in selection of the proper transcription start site, DNA unwinding, and RNAPII promoter escape during transcription (1). During the transition from transcription initiation to elongation, TFIIE stimulates the TFIIH kinase and DNA helicase activities, responsible for phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest RNAPII subunit (POL2RA) and unwinding of promoter DNA for RNAPII promoter escape (1,5-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TFIIF is a member of the group of general transcription factors that facilitate the binding of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to promoter sequences as part of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) (1). TFIIF consists of subunits TFIIF-α (RAP74) and TFIIF-β (RAP30). It is involved in the stabilization of Pol II association with the PIC and selection of the transcription start site during transcription initiation (1,2). In addition to its role in transcription initiation, TFIIF has been shown to stimulate the transcription elongation activity of Pol II as well as dephosphorylation and recycling of Pol II during transcription termination (3-5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Tip60 is a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2 and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases and plays a role in a variety of cellular processes such as transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and apoptosis (1,2). Tip60 exists as part of a multi-subunit complex that includes proteins such as TRRAP, p400, Reptin, and Pontin (3,4). Tip60 plays important roles in double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair. Tip60 is required for the activation of the ATM kinase in response to DSBs, as well as acetylation of histones H4 and H2A.X at DSBs to facilitate DNA repair (1,2,5-7). In addition, Tip60 dependent acetylation at Lys120 of p53 within the DNA binding domain is required for the induction of apoptosis upon DNA damage (8,9). Tip60 is involved in a number of transcriptional regulation pathways driven by factors such as nuclear receptors and β-catenin (10-13). The Tip60 complex has been shown to be important for mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal by regulating transcription of developmental regulators that are controlled by Nanog (14). GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) mediated phosphorylation at Ser86 of Tip60 promotes Tip60 acetylation and subsequent stimulation of the required autophagy protein ULK1 (15).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1). Histone methylation is a major determinant for the formation of active and inactive regions of the genome and is crucial for the proper programming of the genome during development (2,3). Arginine methylation of histones H3 (Arg2, 17, 26) and H4 (Arg3) promotes transcriptional activation and is mediated by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), including the co-activators PRMT1 and CARM1 (PRMT4) (4). In contrast, a more diverse set of histone lysine methyltransferases has been identified, all but one of which contain a conserved catalytic SET domain originally identified in the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, and Trithorax proteins. Lysine methylation occurs primarily on histones H3 (Lys4, 9, 27, 36, 79) and H4 (Lys20) and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and silencing (4). Methylation of these lysine residues coordinates the recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes containing methyl-lysine binding modules such as chromodomains (HP1, PRC1), PHD fingers (BPTF, ING2), tudor domains (53BP1), and WD-40 domains (WDR5) (5-8). The discovery of histone demethylases such as PADI4, LSD1, JMJD1, JMJD2, and JHDM1 has shown that methylation is a reversible epigenetic marker (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tripartite motif-containing protein 29 (TRIM29, ATDC) was isolated as a candidate gene by its ability to complement the radiosensitivity defect of an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cell line (1). This putative transcription regulator belongs to the TRIM (tripartite motif) protein family that is characterized by highly conserved amino-terminal RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains. The TRIM29 protein binds and sequesters cytosolic p53, repressing expression of p53 target genes including p21 and Noxa by preventing p53 from entering the nucleus. Expression of TRIM29 inhibits p53 function and results in increased cell proliferation. (2). TRIM29 enhances tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and high TRIM29 levels are seen in most invasive pancreatic cancers. The oncogenic effect of TRIM29 appears to require β-catenin as expression of both proteins is elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tissues (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP) is a highly conserved 434 kDa protein found in various multiprotein complexes, such as SAGA, PCAF, NuA4 and TIP60, which contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity (1-4). TRRAP functions as an adaptor protein by binding directly to the transactivation domains of transcriptional activator proteins and facilitating the recruitment of HAT complexes to acetylate histone proteins and activate transcription (1-5). TRRAP is required for the transcriptional activation and cell transformation activities of c-Myc, E2F1, E2F4, p53 and the adenovirus E1A proteins (1,6,7). TRRAP is also essential in early development and is required at the mitotic checkpoint and for normal cell cycle progression (8,9). In addition, TRRAP has been shown to function in DNA repair. As part of the TIP60 complex, TRRAP is required for the acetylation of histone H4 at double-stranded DNA breaks and subsequent DNA repair by homologous recombination (10). In addition, TRRAP associates with the MRN (MRE11, RAD50, NBS1) complex, which lacks intrinsic HAT activity yet functions in the sensing and subsequent repair of double-stranded breaks by non-homologous DNA end-joining (11). TRRAP shows significant homology to the PI-3 kinase domain of the ATM family of kinases; however, amino acids that map to the catalytic site of the kinase domain are not conserved in TRRAP (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP) is a highly conserved 434 kDa protein found in various multiprotein complexes, such as SAGA, PCAF, NuA4 and TIP60, which contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity (1-4). TRRAP functions as an adaptor protein by binding directly to the transactivation domains of transcriptional activator proteins and facilitating the recruitment of HAT complexes to acetylate histone proteins and activate transcription (1-5). TRRAP is required for the transcriptional activation and cell transformation activities of c-Myc, E2F1, E2F4, p53 and the adenovirus E1A proteins (1,6,7). TRRAP is also essential in early development and is required at the mitotic checkpoint and for normal cell cycle progression (8,9). In addition, TRRAP has been shown to function in DNA repair. As part of the TIP60 complex, TRRAP is required for the acetylation of histone H4 at double-stranded DNA breaks and subsequent DNA repair by homologous recombination (10). In addition, TRRAP associates with the MRN (MRE11, RAD50, NBS1) complex, which lacks intrinsic HAT activity yet functions in the sensing and subsequent repair of double-stranded breaks by non-homologous DNA end-joining (11). TRRAP shows significant homology to the PI-3 kinase domain of the ATM family of kinases; however, amino acids that map to the catalytic site of the kinase domain are not conserved in TRRAP (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin specific protease 39 (USP39) is a 65 kDa protein that plays an important role in pre-mRNA splicing, as well as mitotic spindle formation. It displays significant homology with ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase proteins (UCHs), containing both an N-terminal zinc finger domain as well as UCH-1 and UCH-2-like domains also observed in the UCH2 family of proteins (1). However, USP39 lacks a catalytic cysteine residue found in UCHs and has been shown experimentally to lack peptidase activity (2). USP39 associates with the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP) complex and is necessary for the formation of the mature spliceosome. Silencing of USP39 has been shown to adversely affect chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in U2OS cells, likely due to improper splicing of Aurora B and other mRNAs necessary for mitotic spindle formation and checkpoint function (2). In addition, USP39 has been found to be overexpressed in many types of cancers, and in most cases is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Overexpression has been observed in pancreatic (3), prostate (4), colorectal (5,6), lung (6,7), gastric (8), and triple negative breast cancers (9), as well as melanoma (10) and hepatocellular carcinoma (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The human WSTF gene is located within the common Williams Syndrome (WS) deletion area at chromosome 7q11.23. Several WSTF gene products have been detected with little difference in length of polypeptides (1-3). Functional motifs identified by sequence-homology searches include a PHD-type zinc finger motif followed by a bromodomain. Both motifs are found in many transcription factors, suggesting that WSTF may function as a transcription factor. A Drosophila gene (acf1) was cloned, which encodes two forms of Acf1 proteins with molecular weight 170 kDa and 185 kDa, respectively (4). It was demonstrated that Acf1 is structurally related to the human WSTF gene. Acf1 forms a complex with another protein, ISWI, and functions in the ATP-dependent catalysis of chromatin assembly (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methyltransferase-like protein 3 (METTL3) and methytransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14) are the two catalytic subunits of an N6-methyltransferase complex that methylates adenosine residues in RNA (1). Methylation of adenosine residues regulates mRNA splicing, processing, translation efficiency, editing and stability, in addition to regulating primary miRNA processing, and is critical for proper regulation of the circadian clock, embryonic stem cell self-renewal, immune tolerance, response to various stimuli, meiosis and mouse fertility (2,3). In this complex, METTL3 functions as the catalytic methyltransferase subunit and METTL14 functions as the target recognition subunit by binding to RNA (4). In addition, the Wilms tumor 1-associated protein (WTAP) functions as a regulatory subunit and is required for accumulation of the complex to nuclear speckles, which are sites of RNA processing (5). Several studies suggest a role for this complex in cancer. METTL3 expression is elevated in lung adenocarcinoma where it promotes growth, survival and invasion of human lung cancer cells (6). In addition, WTAP is over-expressed in a number of different cancers and positively regulates cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma and cholangiocarcinoma (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: YTH domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1) and YTH domain-containing protein 2 (YTHDC2) both belong to a family of proteins that bind to RNA. YTHDC1 and YTHDC2 both recognize and bind to N6-methyladenosine(m6A)-containing RNAs; binding is mediated through the YTH domains (1-3). m6A is a modification that is present at internal sites of mRNAs and some non-coding RNAs and plays a role in regulating mRNA splicing, processing, and stability. YTHDC1, also known as splicing factor YT521, regulates alternative splicing by functioning as a key regulator of exon-inclusion or exon-skipping. YTHDC1 promotes exon-inclusion by recruiting pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF3 to regions containing m6A, while repressing exon-skipping by blocking SRSF10 binding to these same regions (2). Increased expression of YTHDC1 promotes malignant endometrial carcinoma (EC) through alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), resulting in an increase in VEGF-165 isoform and increased EC cell invasion (4). YTHDC2 functions to enhance the translation efficiency of target mRNAs and may play a role in spermatogenesis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: YTH domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1) and YTH domain-containing protein 2 (YTHDC2) both belong to a family of proteins that bind to RNA. YTHDC1 and YTHDC2 both recognize and bind to N6-methyladenosine(m6A)-containing RNAs; binding is mediated through the YTH domains (1-3). m6A is a modification that is present at internal sites of mRNAs and some non-coding RNAs and plays a role in regulating mRNA splicing, processing, and stability. YTHDC1, also known as splicing factor YT521, regulates alternative splicing by functioning as a key regulator of exon-inclusion or exon-skipping. YTHDC1 promotes exon-inclusion by recruiting pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF3 to regions containing m6A, while repressing exon-skipping by blocking SRSF10 binding to these same regions (2). Increased expression of YTHDC1 promotes malignant endometrial carcinoma (EC) through alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), resulting in an increase in VEGF-165 isoform and increased EC cell invasion (4). YTHDC2 functions to enhance the translation efficiency of target mRNAs and may play a role in spermatogenesis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: YTH domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1) and YTH domain-containing protein 2 (YTHDC2) both belong to a family of proteins that bind to RNA. YTHDC1 and YTHDC2 both recognize and bind to N6-methyladenosine(m6A)-containing RNAs; binding is mediated through the YTH domains (1-3). m6A is a modification that is present at internal sites of mRNAs and some non-coding RNAs and plays a role in regulating mRNA splicing, processing, and stability. YTHDC1, also known as splicing factor YT521, regulates alternative splicing by functioning as a key regulator of exon-inclusion or exon-skipping. YTHDC1 promotes exon-inclusion by recruiting pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF3 to regions containing m6A, while repressing exon-skipping by blocking SRSF10 binding to these same regions (2). Increased expression of YTHDC1 promotes malignant endometrial carcinoma (EC) through alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), resulting in an increase in VEGF-165 isoform and increased EC cell invasion (4). YTHDC2 functions to enhance the translation efficiency of target mRNAs and may play a role in spermatogenesis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant RNA modification that plays an important role in mRNA splicing, processing, and stability. The m6A modification is specifically recognized by members of the YT521B homology (YTH) domain-containing family (YTHDF), consisting of YTHDF1, YTHDF2, and YTHDF3. All three members of the YTHDF family are primarily cytosolic proteins that share similar sequence and domain structure, including a conserved C-terminal YTH domain that specifically interacts with m6A (1). Despite these similarities, recent studies suggest that YTHDF proteins are involved in distinct regulatory functions with minimal overlap. Specifically, YTHDF1 binding has been reported to promote enhanced mRNA translation, but has no measurable effect on mRNA stability (2). Conversely, YTHDF2 binding appears to promote mRNA degradation, but has minimal effect on translation efficiency (3). The function of YTHDF3 is less clear, but it has been proposed to function as an auxiliary protein for both YTHDF1 and YTHDF2, helping to promote either increased mRNA translation or decay, respectively (4). Additional studies offer a different viewpoint, suggesting that all three YTHDF proteins initiate mRNA degradation (5), or mediate increased mRNA stability and protein expression (6), promoting the idea that these proteins may carry out similar rather than distinct functions.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Zinc finger MYND domain-containing protein 8 (ZMYND8), also referred to as receptor for activated C-kinase 7 (Rack7) and protein kinase C-binding protein 1 (PRKCBP1), is a DNA damage response protein and a transcriptional regulator that is a close homolog of ZMYND11 (BS69) (1). ZMYND8 binds to H3K36me2 and H4K16ac, two histone marks associated with active transcription (2). This protein is targeted to sites of DNA damage within actively transcribed genes, and recruits the H3K4me3-specific histone demethylase KDM5A/JARID1A and nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex (1-3). Together, these protein complexes mediate transcriptional repression and allow for subsequent double-strand break repair via homologous recombination. ZMYND8 contains a bromodomain and a PWWP domain near its N-terminus, and a MYND domain towards the C-terminus, the latter of which mediates interaction with the NuRD complex (1). ZMYND8 also functions to recruit the H3K4me3-specific histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C to enhancer and super-enhancer regions, and functions as a negative regulator of gene expression (4). ZMYND8 and JARID1C are both putative tumor suppressor proteins, and knockdown of either of these proteins leads to derepression of S100 oncogenes (1). ZMYND8 expression is altered in breast and cervical cancer (4, 5), and has been found to be translocated with RELA in at least one patient with acute erythroid leukemia (6). Knock-down of ZMYND8 expression in breast cancer cell lines increases anchorage-independent cell growth, cell migration and invasion, and tumor growth in mouse xenograft models (4).