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Product listing: PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID Q9NZQ7 #71391 to Mios (D12C6) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q9NXC5 #13557

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PD-L1 (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb #86744.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family. It is activated by a small cytokine, CXCL12, also known as stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (1). The main function of CXCR4 is the mediation of the homing of progenitor cells in the bone marrow and their recruitment to sites of injury (2). More recently, CXCR4 has been studied, as a potential therapeutic target, in the context of autoimmune diseases (3) as well as cancer, as the receptor is involved in the regulation of migration, proliferation, and survival of cancer cells (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glutamatergic neurons release glutamate, the most common excitatory neurotransmitter. Their synaptic vesicles are filled with glutamate by vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUTs (1). VGLUT1, also called solute carrier family 17 member 7 (SLC17A7), was first identified as an inorganic phosphate transporter (2). Despite the absence of homology with neurotransmitter transporters, VGLUT1 was later demonstrated to be a glutamate transporter (1) specific to glutamatergic neurons (3). Closely related to VGLUT1, VGLUT2 and VGLUT3 are also involved in glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles, but define different neuronal subpopulations (4,5). VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are the most abundant isoforms. VGLUT1 is expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex, while VGLUT2 is mostly found in the thalamus (6,7). VGLUT3 is expressed in hair cells of the auditory system (8).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated DYKDDDDK Tag (D6W5B) Rabbit mAb #14793.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining techniques. Because of their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein’s biochemical properties.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The AP-2 coat assembly protein complex is an important component of clathrin-coated pits involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis at the plasma membrane (1-3). Each AP-2 heterotetramer is composed of α, β, μ, and σ protein subunits. The 50 kDa μ subunit (AP-2μ, AP2M1) is located at the core of the AP-2 complex and mediates interaction between the cargo protein and the clathrin-coated pit (1-4). The carboxy-terminal AP2M1 region recognizes the tyrosine-based, endocytotic sorting motif YXXφ found in cargo proteins and helps to bring the cargo protein to the clathrin-coated pit. Non-canonical, tyrosine-based endocytotic sorting signals can also promote interaction between cargo proteins and AP2M1 (5,6). AP2M1 plays an essential role in molecular signaling as it couples receptor-mediated endocytosis and pathways involving membrane receptors (7-9), matrix metalloproteinases (10), and ion channel proteins (11). Phosphorylation of specific AP2M1 residues and binding of lipids to this adaptor protein can regulate AP2M1 activity (12,13). Phosphorylation of AP2M1 at Thr156 by adaptor-associated kinase 1 (AAK1) stimulates affinity binding of AP2M1 to cargo protein signals (14).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that is part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (reviewed in 1). The gene for MPO was cloned independently from several laboratories (2-5). A decrease in MPO expression was noticed upon differentiation of HL-60 cells (5). MPO catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and chloride (or other halides) to produce hypochlorous acid and other potent antimicrobial oxidants. Knockout mice of MPO are impaired in clearing select microbial infections (6). Processing of mature MPO from an initial 80-90 kDa translation product involves insertion of a heme moiety, glycosylation, and proteolytic cleavage. The mature protein is a tetramer of two heavy chains (60 kDa) and two light chains (12 kDa). It is abundantly expressed in neutrophils and monocytes and secreted during their activation. Heightened MPO levels have been associated with tissue damage and a number of pathological conditions (1).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. During neurotransmission, glutamate is released from vesicles of the pre-synaptic cell, and glutamate receptors (e.g. NMDA Receptor, AMPA Receptor) bind glutamate for activation at the opposing post-synaptic cell. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels. In addition, glutamate transporters may limit the duration of synaptic excitation by an electrogenic process in which the transmitter is cotransported with three sodium ions and one proton, followed by countertransport of a potassium ion. Five EAATs (EAAT1-5) are characterized: EAAT2 (GLT-1) is primarily expressed in astrocytes but is also expressed in neurons of the retina and during fetal development (1). Homozygous EAAT2 knockout mice have spontaneous, lethal seizures and an increased predisposition to acute cortical injury (2). PKC phosphorylates Ser113 of EAAT2 and coincides with glutamate transport (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, also known as FOLH1), a type II transmembrane protein of the M28 family, has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase activity. PSMA was originally identified in the LNCaP cell line, which was derived from a prostate adenocarcinoma lymph node metastasis (1,2). PSMA is an established prostate cancer marker (3); however, it is expressed in other tissues, including kidney, liver, and urinary bladder (4), and it is associated with tumor neovasculature (5) as well. Research studies suggest that PSMA is both a potential diagnostic readout and therapeutic target (6-8).

$61
25 mg
Hoechst 33342 (bisBenzimide H33342 trihydrochloride) is supplied as a lyophilized powder in 25 mg units. It can be used to examine cellular DNA in most fluorescent applications.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.

$499
120 slides
1 Kit
SignalStain® Apoptosis (Cleaved Caspase-3) IHC Detection Kit allows the detection of activated caspase-3 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human and mouse tissue samples. Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) (D3E9) Rabbit mAb is detected by the polymer based, HRP-conjugated SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagent in combination with SignalStain® DAB Diluent and Chromogen Concentrate. Also included is a concentration-matched rabbit monoclonal IgG control to verify the specificity of staining.This combination of reagents provides a sensitive and specific means of detecting apoptotic events in tissue samples.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$121
250 µl
Anti-rat IgG (H+L) antibody was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions and formulated at 2 mg/mL.
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: 4F2hc is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the solute carrier family. 4F2hc forms heterodimeric complexes with various amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT2 and regulates uptake of amino acids (1-5). 4F2hc is one of the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes (6), hence it is also named CD98. 4F2hc is expressed in all cell types with the exception of platelets, and is expressed at highest levels in the tubules of the kidney and the gastrointestinal tract (7,8). It is localized at the plasma membrane when associated with LAT1 or LAT2 (9) and at the apical membrane of placenta (10). Research studies have shown that 4F2hc is highly expressed in various tumors including glioma (11), ovarian cancer (12), and astrocytomas (13), and it has been implicated in tumor progression and correlated with poor outcome in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (14). 4F2hc is also involved in integrin trafficking through association with β1 and β4 integrins, and regulates keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation (15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: CXCR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the chemokine receptor subfamily (1). Upon binding of its ligand, the chemokine CXCL13, CXCR5 initiates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, and migration (2). CXCR5 is expressed in both mature B cells and follicular helper T cells, and respond to CXCL13 gradient to control lymphocyte migration towards secondary lymphoid tissues (3). CXCR5 has also been shown to be highly expressed in primary breast tumors, in correlation with their propensity to grow and metastasize (4).

Molecular Weight:258.24 g/mol

Background: AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside) is an adenosine analog taken up by muscle and phosphorylated to form 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1--D-ribofuranosyl-5'-monophosphate (ZMP), which stimulates AMPK activity and glucose transport in skeletal muscle (1). AICAR has been used in studies measuring glucose uptake, diabetes and insulin resistance, and energy regulation during exercise. AICAR acts by entering nucleoside pools and significantly increasing levels of adenosine during periods of ATP breakdown (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), also known as CD66e or CEACAM5, is a 180-200 kDa cell surface glycoprotein whose expression is elevated in intestinal carcinomas and other tumors. CEA mediates cell adhesion, though little more is known about its biological activity. Expression of CEA is correlated with tumerogenicity (1), and it has been shown to play a role in cell migration, adhesion and invasion in culture cells, as well as in metastasis in vivo (2).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which contains five immunoglobulin-like domains, is a highly glycosylated protein (1). MAG is a component of all myelinated internodes, whether formed by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) or by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (2), and has several functions. A known function of MAG is its inhibition of axonal regeneration after injury. It inhibits axonal outgrowth from adult dorsal root ganglion and in postnatal cerebellar, retinal, spinal, hippocampal, and superior cervical ganglion neurons (3). Interaction between MAG and several other molecules on the innermost wrap of myelin and complementary receptors on the opposing axon surface are required for long-term axon stability. Without MAG, myelin is still expressed, but long-term axon degeneration and altered axon cytoskeleton structure can be seen (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CBARA1/MICU1 is a mitochondrial protein associated to the mitochondrial inner membrane that is comprised of two EF hand helix-loop-helix motifs. CBARA1/MICU1 is involved in mitochondrial calcium entry, metabolic coupling between cytosolic calcium transients, and activation of matrix dehydrogenases (1). Mitochondrial CBARA1/MICU1 is required to preserve normal mitochondrial calcium concentration below the equilibrium level by interacting with the uniporter pore-forming subunit MCU (2). CBARA1/MICU1 is important in pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial calcium uptake and sustained insulin secretion (3).

$305
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized by the covalent reaction of formylbenzamide-modified antibody with hydrazide-activated magnetic bead. His-Tag (27E8) Mouse mAb (Magnetic Bead Conjugate) is useful for immunoprecipitation of recombinant proteins containing the 6xHis epitope tag.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Epitope tags are useful for the labeling and detection of proteins using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunostaining techniques. Due to their small size, they are unlikely to affect the tagged protein's biochemical properties.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: GLI was first identified as a gene amplified in a malignant glioma (1) capable of transforming primary cells in cooperation with adenovirus E1A (2). GLI belongs to the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins that includes three mammalian GLI proteins: GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 (3). These GLI proteins are similar to the Drosophila homolog Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and function as transcription factors activated by the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Hedgehog signaling plays an important role in animal development, and research studies have shown that this pathway is aberrantly activated in many types of cancers (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and referred to as autophagy-related (Atg) genes. Formation of the autophagosome involves a ubiquitin-like conjugation system in which Atg12 is covalently bound to Atg5 and targeted to autophagosome vesicles (4-6). This conjugation reaction is mediated by the ubiquitin E1-like enzyme Atg7 and the E2-like enzyme Atg10 (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein containing multiple amino-terminal extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain (1). Alternative splicing generates two isoforms of VCAM-1 (2). The role of VCAM-1 during infection and inflammatory diseases is well characterized. Expression of VCAM-1 is induced in endothelial cells by inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β (1). VCAM-1 on endothelial cells interacts with the integrin VLA-4 (α4β1) on leukocytes to mediate migration of circulating leukocytes from the blood across the endothelium and into tissues (3).

$314
100 µg
ER-Tracker™ Green (BODIPY® FL Glibenclamide) is recommended for live cell imaging only; fixation with aldehydes or alcohols will inhibit staining. Excitation: 504 nm, Emission: 511 nm, Molecular Weight: 783.10 g/mol
APPLICATIONS

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated α-Tubulin (DM1A) Mouse mAb #3873.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$305
50 assays
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated NY-ESO-1 (D1Q2U) Rabbit mAb #45437.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of more than 100 proteins whose normal expression is largely restricted to immune privileged germ cells of the testis, ovary, and trophoblast cells of the placenta. Although most normal somatic tissues are void of CTA expression, due to epigenetic silencing of gene expression, their expression is upregulated in a wide variety of human solid and liquid tumors (1,2). As such, CTAs have garnered much attention as attractive targets for a variety of immunotherapy-based approaches to selectively attack tumors (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but is also associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and is directed by a number of autophagy-related (Atg) genes. These proteins are involved in the formation of autophagosomes, which are cytoplasmic vacuoles that are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. The class III type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 regulates vacuolar trafficking and autophagy (4,5). Multiple proteins associate with Vps34, including p105/Vps15, Beclin-1, UVRAG, Atg14, and Rubicon (6-12). Atg14 and Rubicon were identified based on their ability to bind to Beclin-1 and participate in unique complexes with opposing functions (9-12). Rubicon, which localizes to the endosome and lysosome, inhibits Vps34 lipid kinase activity; knockdown of Rubicon enhances autophagy and endocytic trafficking (11,12). In contrast, Atg14 localizes to autophagosomes, isolation membranes, and ER and can enhance Vps34 activity. Knockdown of Atg14 inhibits starvation-induced autophagy (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mTORC1 kinase complex plays a critical role in cell growth regulation (1,2). mTORC1 activity is modulated by energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (3,4). Four related GTPases (RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD) interact with raptor in mTORC1, which is necessary and sufficient for mTORC1 activation in response to amino acid signals (1,2). The GAP Activity Towards Rags (GATOR) complex interacts with Rag GTPases and is made up of a pair of protein subcomplexes (5). The GATOR1 subcomplex includes the proteins DEPDC5, Nprl2 and Nprl3, and is a RagA and RagB GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that negatively regulates mTORC1 signaling. Conversely, the GATOR2 subcomplex (including Mios, WDR24, WDR59, Seh1L and Sec13 proteins) is a positive regulator of mTORC1 signaling (5).