Dropping with the temps: Cool deals on CST mAbs | Learn More >>

Product listing: Phospho-Src (Tyr527) Antibody, UniProt ID P12931 #2105 to Transketolase Antibody, UniProt ID P29401 #8616

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Stathmin is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule destabilizing phosphoprotein that is upregulated in a number of cancers. The amino terminus of the protein contains multiple phosphorylation sites and is involved in the promotion of tubulin filament depolymerization. Phosphorylation at these sites inactivates the protein and stabilizes microtubules. Ser16 phosphorylation by CaM kinases II and IV (1,2) increases during G2/M-phase and is involved in mitotic spindle regulation (3,4). Ser38 is a target for cdc2 kinase (5) and TNF-induced cell death gives rise to reactive oxygen intermediates leading to hyperphosphorylation of stathmin (6). EGF receptor activation of Rac and cdc42 also increases phosphorylation of stathmin on Ser16 and Ser38 (7). Other closely related family members are neuronally expressed and include SCG10, SCLIP, RB3 and its splice variants RB3' and RB3''. Stathmin and SCG10 have been shown to play roles in neuronal-like development in PC-12 cells (8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Syk is a protein tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction in hematopoietic cells (1-3). Syk interacts with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) located in the cytoplasmic domains of immune receptors (4). It couples the activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis (4). There is also evidence of a role for Syk in nonimmune cells and investigators have indicated that Syk is a potential tumor suppressor in human breast carcinomas (5). Tyr323 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site within the SH2-kinase linker region in Syk. Phosphorylation at Tyr323 provides a direct binding site for the TKB domain of Cbl (6,7). Tyr352 of Syk is involved in the association of PLCγ1 (8). Tyr525 and Tyr526 are located in the activation loop of the Syk kinase domain; phosphorylation at Tyr525/526 of human Syk (equivalent to Tyr519/520 of mouse Syk) is essential for Syk function (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TAK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that can be activated by TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein and other cytokines including IL-1 (1,2). In vivo activation of TAK1 requires association with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), which triggers phosphorylation of TAK1 (3,4). Another adaptor protein, TAB2, links TAK1 with TRAF6 and mediates TAK1 activation upon IL-1 stimulation (5). Once activated, TAK1 phosphorylates MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK3/6, which activate p38 MAPK and JNK, respectively. In addition, TAK1 activates the NF-κB pathway by interacting with TRAF6 and phosphorylating the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) (2).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Tau is a heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein that promotes and stabilizes microtubule assembly, especially in axons. Six isoforms with different amino-terminal inserts and different numbers of tandem repeats near the carboxy terminus have been identified, and tau is hyperphosphorylated at approximately 25 sites by Erk, GSK-3, and CDK5 (1,2). Phosphorylation decreases the ability of tau to bind to microtubules. Neurofibrillary tangles are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; these tangles are bundles of paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In particular, phosphorylation at Ser396 by GSK-3 or CDK5 destabilizes microtubules. Furthermore, research studies have shown that inclusions of tau are found in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies (1,3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Much of the dynamic behavior of cellular proteins, including the regulation of molecular interactions (1), subcellular localization (2), and transcriptional regulation (3) is controlled by a variety of post-translational modifications (4). Antibodies specific for these post-translational modifications are invaluable tools in the quest to understand normal and pathogenic molecular and cellular behavior.General protein modification antibodies are designed to react with modified amino acid residues (e.g. phospho-threonine, phospho-tyrosine, acetyl-lysine, nitro-tyrosine) independently of the sequence in which they are embedded. This ability to recognize modified residues in a "context-independent" fashion gives these antibodies broad reactivities, presumably conferring upon them the ability to react with hundreds of distinct proteins. This broad pattern of reactivity makes these antibodies especially valuable in multiplex analyses and target discovery programs.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucose homeostasis is regulated by hormones and cellular energy status. Elevations of blood glucose during feeding stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through a glucose sensing pathway. Feeding also stimulates release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which further induces insulin release, inhibits glucagon release and promotes β-cell viability. CREB-dependent transcription likely plays a role in both glucose sensing and GLP-1 signaling (1). The protein CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2)/TORC2 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 2) functions as a CREB co-activator (2,3) and is implicated in mediating the effects of these two pathways (4). In quiescent cells, CRTC2/TORC2 is phosphorylated at Ser171 and becomes sequestered in the cytoplasm via an interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Glucose and gut hormones lead to the dephosphorylation of CRTC2/TORC2 and its dissociation from 14-3-3 proteins. Dephosphorylated CRTC2/TORC2 enters the nucleus to promote CREB-dependent transcription. CRTC2/TORC2 plays a key role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription in response to hormonal and energy signals during fasting (5).CRTC2/TORC2-related proteins CRTC1/TORC1 and CRTC3/TORC3 also act as CREB co-activators (2,3). CRTC1/TORC1, CRTC2/TORC2 and CRTC3/TORC3 associate with the HTLV Tax protein to promote Tax-dependent transcription of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (6,7). CRTC1/TORC1 is highly phosphorylated at Ser151 in mouse hypothalamic cells under basal conditions (8). When these cells are exposed to cAMP or a calcium activator, CRTC1/TORC1 is dephosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus (8). CRTC1/TORC1 is essential for energy balance and fertility (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: YAP (Yes-associated protein, YAP65) was identified based on its ability to associate with the SH3 domain of Yes. It also binds to other SH3 domain-containing proteins such as Nck, Crk, Src, and Abl (1). In addition to the SH3 binding motif, YAP contains a PDZ interaction motif, a coiled-coil domain, and WW domains (2-4). While initial studies of YAP all pointed towards a role in anchoring and targeting to specific subcellular compartments, subsequent studies showed that YAP is a transcriptional co-activator by virtue of its WW domain interacting with the PY motif (PPxY) of the transcription factor PEBP2 and other transcription factors (5). In its capacity as a transcriptional co-activator, YAP is now widely recognized as a central mediator of the Hippo Pathway, which plays a fundamental and widely conserved role in regulating tissue growth and organ size. Phosphorylation at multiple sites (e.g., Ser127, Ser397) by LATS kinases promotes YAP translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is sequestered through association with 14-3-3 proteins (6-8). These LATS-driven phosphorylation events serve to prime YAP for subsequent phosphorylation by CK1δ/ε in an adjacent phosphodegron, triggering proteosomal degradation of YAP (9).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The Syk family protein tyrosine kinase Zap-70 is expressed in T and NK cells and plays a critical role in mediating T cell activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement (1). Following TCR engagement, Zap-70 is rapidly phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues through autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by the Src family tyrosine kinase Lck (2-6). Tyrosine phosphorylation correlates with increased Zap-70 kinase activity and downstream signaling events. Expression of Zap-70 is correlated with disease progression and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (7,8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases (PIP4K) synthesize phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), a key precursor in phosphoinositide signaling that directly modulates the activity of signaling proteins and cellular processes. There are two subfamilies of PIP kinases, type I and II, that generate PtdIns(4,5)P2 from distinct substrate pools. PIP4 type I kinases use PtdIns5P as a substrate, whereas PIP5 type II kinases use PtdIns4P (1,2). In mammalian cells, three isoforms of each PIP4K and PIP5K subfamily, encoded by distinct genes, have been characterized (3-7). All PIP kinases are stimulated by phosphatidic acid, extensively regulated by ARF and Rho GTPases, and inhibited by protein kinase A and PI-stimulated autophosphorylation (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a transcriptional activator (1). PPARγ is preferentially expressed in adipocytes as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage (2). Besides its role in mediating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism (2), PPARγ also modulates insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and inflammation (3). PPARγ transcriptional activity is inhibited by MAP kinase phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser84 (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Protein Regulator of Cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) is a member of the MAP65/ASE1 family of nonmotor microtubule-associated proteins, first described in budding yeast (1,2). PRC1 is a substrate of CDK1, which maintains PRC1 in an inactive, monomeric state (2). Cell-cycle dependent degradation of CDK1 leads to dephosphorylation of PRC1 and subsequent KIF4-mediated translocation to the plus ends of microtubules, where it promotes microtubule bundling by cross-linking antiparallel microtubules (3-5). The microtubule bundling functions of PRC1 play a critical role in maintaining structural integritry of the spindle midzone during cytokinesis (3,6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Rab5 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small Rab GTPases. Rab5 is localized at the plasma membrane and early endosomes and functions as a key regulator of vesicular trafficking during early endocytosis (1). The conformational change between Rab5 GTP/GDP states is essential for its biological function as a rate limiting regulator at multiple steps during endocytosis (1,2). Rab5 exerts its function by interacting with several Rab5-specific effectors (1-3). These proteins form complexes with Rab5 on a specialized Rab domain of the endosome and promote recycling of Rab5-cargo targets between endosome and the plasma membrane.

$115
100 µl
Rabbit IgG was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye under optimal conditions, and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human and mouse cells. Alexa Fluor® dye is maximally excited by red light (e.g. 633 nm He-Ne laser). Antibody conjugated of the Alexa Fluor® 647 dye produce far-red-fluorescence emission with a peak at 655 nm.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Isotype control antibodies are used to estimate the nonspecific binding of target primary antibodies due to Fc receptor binding or other protein-protein interactions. An isotype control antibody should have the same immunoglobulin type and be used at the same concentration as the test antibody.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: RALY is a member of the large family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). RALY was initially discovered in lethal yellow mice, a condition where heterozygotes display an all yellow coat, obesity, diabetes, and tumors. In this condition, mRNA to the 5’ untranslated region of RALY fuses to the agouti transcript (1,2). RALY binds to U-rich elements in coding and non-coding mRNAs undergoing translation (3). RALY has been implicated certain cancer types, as it can control transcriptional regulation and splicing of E2F1 and PRMT1 mRNAs (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 21 kDa guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (K-Ras, H-Ras, and N-Ras) cycle between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) forms (1). Receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors activate Ras, which then stimulates the Raf-MEK-MAPK pathway (2-4). GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) normally facilitate the inactivation of Ras. However, research studies have shown that in 30% of human tumors, point mutations in Ras prevent the GAP-mediated inhibition of this pathway (5). The most common oncogenic Ras mutation found in tumors is Gly12 to Asp12 (G12D), which prevents Ras inactivation, possibly by increasing the overall rigidity of the protein (5,6).

$111
20 µl
$260
200 µl
$630
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) is a membrane-bound protein essential in regulating sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) processing (1). In cholesterol-starved cells, SREBPs move from the ER to the Golgi apparatus with the help of SCAP, where the precursor SREBPs are cleaved by site-1 (S1P) and site-2 (S2P) proteases (1,2). Released SREBP amino-terminal domains enter the nucleus and bind to sterol response elements located in the promoters of a number of genes responsible for the cholesterol synthesis (1,2). Research studies show that the SCAP/SREBP pathway is critical for diabetic fatty liver development and carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia in mice (3). In addition, the SCAP/SREBP pathway is required to protect cancer cells from lipotoxicity (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT1, the mammalian ortholog of Sir2, is a nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, endocrine signaling, glucose homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Targets of SirT1 include acetylated p53 (2,3), p300 (4), Ku70 (5), forkhead (FoxO) transcription factors (5,6), PPARγ (7), and the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein (8). Deacetylation of p53 and FoxO transcription factors represses apoptosis and increases cell survival (2,3,5,6). Deacetylation of PPARγ and PGC-1α regulates the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathways in the liver and fat mobilization in white adipocytes in response to fasting (7,8). SirT1 deacetylase activity is inhibited by nicotinamide and activated by resveratrol. In addition, SirT1 activity may be regulated by phosphorylation, as it is phosphorylated at Ser27 and Ser47 in vivo; however, the function of these phosphorylation sites has not yet been determined (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are unique in their pluripotent capacity and potential for self-renewal (1). Research studies demonstrate that a set of transcription factors that includes Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog forms a transcriptional network that maintains cells in a pluripotent state (2,3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Sox2 and Oct-4 bind to thousands of gene regulatory sites, many of which regulate cell pluripotency and early embryonic development (4,5). siRNA knockdown of either Sox2 or Oct-4 results in loss of pluripotency (6). Induced overexpression of Oct-4 and Sox2, along with additional transcription factors Klf4 and c-Myc, can reprogram both mouse and human somatic cells to a pluripotent state (7,8). Additional evidence demonstrates that Sox2 is also present in adult multipotent progenitors that give rise to some adult epithelial tissues, including several glands, the glandular stomach, testes, and cervix. Sox2 is thought to regulate target gene expression important for survival and regeneration of these tissues (9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and autophagy (1-4). It was first identified as a protein that binds to the SH2 domain of p56Lck (5) and independently found to interact with PKCζ (6,7). SQSTM1 was subsequently found to interact with ubiquitin, providing a scaffold for several signaling proteins and triggering degradation of proteins through the proteasome or lysosome (8). Interaction between SQSTM1 and TRAF6 leads to the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and subsequent activation of the NF-κB pathway (9). Protein aggregates formed by SQSTM1 can be degraded by the autophagosome (4,10,11). SQSTM1 binds autophagosomal membrane protein LC3/Atg8, bringing SQSTM1-containing protein aggregates to the autophagosome (12). Lysosomal degradation of autophagosomes leads to a decrease in SQSTM1 levels during autophagy; conversely, autophagy inhibitors stabilize SQSTM1 levels. Studies have demonstrated a link between SQSTM1 and oxidative stress. SQSTM1 interacts with KEAP1, which is a cytoplasmic inhibitor of NRF2, a key transcription factor involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress (3). Thus, accumulation of SQSTM1 can lead to an increase in NRF2 activity.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Stat1 transcription factor is activated in response to a large number of ligands (1) and is essential for responsiveness to IFN-α and IFN-γ (2,3). Phosphorylation of Stat1 at Tyr701 induces Stat1 dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (4). Stat1 protein exists as a pair of isoforms, Stat1α (91 kDa) and the splice variant Stat1β (84 kDa). In most cells, both isoforms are activated by IFN-α, but only Stat1α is activated by IFN-γ. The inappropriate activation of Stat1 occurs in many tumors (5). In addition to tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat1 is also phosphorylated at Ser727 through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway in response to IFN-α and other cellular stresses (6). Serine phosphorylation may be required for the maximal induction of Stat1-mediated gene activation.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Hippo pathway is an important evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size and tumor suppression by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis (1,2). An integral function of the Hippo pathway is to repress the activity of Yes-associated protein (YAP), a proposed oncogene whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular localization (3,4). When the Hippo pathway is turned off, YAP is phosphorylated and translocates to the nucleus where it associates with various transcription factors including members of the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF) family, also known as the TEA domain (TEAD) family (TEAD1-4) (5,6). Although widely expressed in tissues, the TEAD family proteins have specific tissue and developmental distributions. YAP/TEAD complexes regulate the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TFAM (Transcription Factor A, Mitochondrial; aka TCF6) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) proteins because it contains two HMG boxes. TFAM is a transcription factor for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and enhances mtDNA transcription in a promoter-specific fashion in the presence of mitochondrial RNA polymerase and transcription factor B (1). Because the majority of ATP production depends on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome is critical for normal health. TFAM plays an essential role in the maintenance of mtDNA and thus, ATP production (2). TFAM binds to mtDNA both nonspecifically and in a sequence-specific manner. It is known to have a dual effect on mtDNA: protection of mtDNA and initiation of transcription from mtDNA (3). TFAM attenuates age-dependent impairment of the brain by preventing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in microglia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a member of the Myc-related, bHLH leucine-zipper family of transcription factors that drives the expression of a network of genes known as the Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) network (1,2). TFEB specifically recognizes and binds regulatory sequences within the CLEAR box (GTCACGTGAC) of lysosomal and autophagy genes, resulting in the up-regulated expression of genes involved in lysosome biogenesis and function, and regulation of autophagy (1,2). TFEB is activated in response to nutrient deprivation, stimulating translocation to the nucleus where it forms homo- or heterooligomers with other members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) subfamily and resulting in up-regulation of autophagosomes and lysosomes (3-5). Recently, it has been shown that TFEB is a component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which regulates the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB in response to cellular starvation and stress (6-9). During normal growth conditions, TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser211 in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Phosphorylation promotes association of TFEB with 14-3-3 family proteins and retention in the cytosol. Inhibition of mTORC1 results in a loss of TFEB phosphorylation, dissociation of the TFEB/14-3-3 complex, and rapid transport of TFEB to the nucleus where it increases transcription of CLEAR and autophagy genes (10). TFEB has also been shown to be activated in a nutrient-dependent manner by p42 MAP kinase (Erk2). TFEB is phosphorylated at Ser142 by Erk2 in response to nutrient deprivation, resulting in nuclear localization and activation, and indicating that pathways other than mTOR contribute to nutrient sensing via TFEB (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transketolase (TKT) is a homodimer in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that catalyzes the interketol transfer between ketoses and aldoses (1,2). This enzyme, along with transaldolase, connects the nonoxidative branch of the PPP with glycolysis (1-3). Several regions of TKT are evolutionarily conserved from gram-negative bacteria to mammals (3). There is evidence that hypoxic (4) and non-hypoxic induction of HIF1-α (5) increases the expression of TKT. Because cancer cells rely on TKT in altered cell metabolism for nucleic acid synthesis, work has been done to develop inhibitors of TKT as novel cancer treatments (5-8).