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Product listing: Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P42229 #9314 to Sox9 (D8G8H) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P48436 #82630

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, TMEM173, MITA) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is a critical component of the cellular innate immune response to pathogenic cytoplasmic DNA (1,2). STING is a ubiquitously expressed protein found predominantly in the ER (1). The enzyme cGAMP synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in response to cytoplasmic DNA (3,4). cGAMP binds and activates STING (3,4). In addition, detection of cytoplasmic DNA by nucleic acid sensors, including DDX41 or IFI16, results in STING activation (5,6). Following activation, STING translocates with TBK1 to perinuclear endosomes (7). The TBK1 kinase phosphorylates and activates interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and NF-κB, which leads to the induction of type I interferon and other immune response genes (1,2,7).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The family of Trk receptor tyrosine kinases consists of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC. While the sequence of these family members is highly conserved, they are activated by different neurotrophins: TrkA by NGF, TrkB by BDNF or NT4, and TrkC by NT3 (1). Neurotrophin signaling through these receptors regulates a number of physiological processes, such as cell survival, proliferation, neural development, and axon and dendrite growth and patterning (1). In the adult nervous system, the Trk receptors regulate synaptic strength and plasticity. TrkA regulates proliferation and is important for development and maturation of the nervous system (2). Phosphorylation at Tyr490 is required for Shc association and activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade (3,4). Residues Tyr674/675 lie within the catalytic domain, and phosphorylation at these sites reflects TrkA kinase activity (3-6). Point mutations, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements (chimeras) cause ligand-independent receptor dimerization and activation of TrkA (7-10). TrkA is activated in many malignancies including breast, ovarian, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas (8-13). Research studies suggest that expression of TrkA in neuroblastomas may be a good prognostic marker as TrkA signals growth arrest and differentiation of cells originating from the neural crest (10).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The family of Trk receptor tyrosine kinases consists of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC. While the sequence of these family members is highly conserved, they are activated by different neurotrophins: TrkA by NGF, TrkB by BDNF or NT4, and TrkC by NT3 (1). Neurotrophin signaling through these receptors regulates a number of physiological processes, such as cell survival, proliferation, neural development, and axon and dendrite growth and patterning (1). In the adult nervous system, the Trk receptors regulate synaptic strength and plasticity. TrkA regulates proliferation and is important for development and maturation of the nervous system (2). Phosphorylation at Tyr490 is required for Shc association and activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade (3,4). Residues Tyr674/675 lie within the catalytic domain, and phosphorylation at these sites reflects TrkA kinase activity (3-6). Point mutations, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements (chimeras) cause ligand-independent receptor dimerization and activation of TrkA (7-10). TrkA is activated in many malignancies including breast, ovarian, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas (8-13). Research studies suggest that expression of TrkA in neuroblastomas may be a good prognostic marker as TrkA signals growth arrest and differentiation of cells originating from the neural crest (10).

$122
20 µl
$307
100 µl
$719
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR, Flk-1) is a major receptor for VEGF-induced signaling in endothelial cells. Upon ligand binding, VEGFR2 undergoes autophosphorylation and becomes activated (1). Major autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 are located in the kinase insert domain (Tyr951/996) and in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain (Tyr1054/1059) (2). Activation of the receptor leads to rapid recruitment of adaptor proteins, including Shc, GRB2, PI3 kinase, NCK, and the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 (3). Phosphorylation at Tyr1212 provides a docking site for GRB2 binding and phospho-Tyr1175 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase and PLCγ, as well as Shb (1,4,5). Signaling from VEGFR2 is necessary for the execution of VEGF-stimulated proliferation, chemotaxis and sprouting, as well as survival of cultured endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo (6-8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Growth factors and hormones trigger this phosphorylation event, which in turn coordinates cell growth, cell cycle entry, cell migration, and cell survival (1). PTEN reverses this process, and research studies have shown that the PI3K signaling pathway is constitutively activated in human cancers that have loss of function of PTEN (2). PI3Ks are composed of a catalytic subunit (p110) and a regulatory subunit. Various isoforms of the catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, and p110δ) have been isolated, and the regulatory subunits that associate with p110α, p110β, and p110δ are p85α and p85β (3). In contrast, p110γ associates with a p101 regulatory subunit that is unrelated to p85. Furthermore, p110γ is activated by βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphate transporter 1 (PiT1/SLC20A1) is a sodium dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter that imports Pi into cells. PiT1 was initially identified as a receptor for retroviruses (1,2). It is widely expressed in various tissues where it plays a critical role in maintaining cellular Pi homeostasis (3,4). Phosphate transporter 1 is important in cell proliferation and tumor cell growth independent of PiT1 phosphate transport function (5). Researchers have found that PiT1 is involved in TNF-α induced apoptosis (6). Moreover, phosphate uptake via PiT1 is crucial for vascular calcification (7) and overexpression of PiT1 leads to soft tissue calcification in Werner syndrome patients (8). Additional research indicates that increased PiT1 expression is seen in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) tissues, and that PiT1 enhances apoptosis and mineralization by modifying Akt1 levels (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a transcriptional activator (1). PPARγ is preferentially expressed in adipocytes as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage (2). Besides its role in mediating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism (2), PPARγ also modulates insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and inflammation (3). PPARγ transcriptional activity is inhibited by MAP kinase phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser84 (4,5).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of more than 100 proteins whose normal expression is largely restricted to immune privileged germ cells of the testis, ovary, and trophoblast cells of the placenta. Although most normal somatic tissues are void of CTA expression, due to epigenetic silencing of gene expression, their expression is upregulated in a wide variety of human solid and liquid tumors (1,2). As such, CTAs have garnered much attention as attractive targets for a variety of immunotherapy-based approaches to selectively attack tumors (3).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1) is a transcription factor known for its roles in organ development and lymphangiogenesis. It plays a critical role in the development of the CNS, lens, retina, liver, pancreas, and heart, and is considered to be the master regulator of the lymphatic system (1,2). PROX1 initiates the differentiation of lymphatic vasculature from the cardinal vein, where it is regulated by Sox18 (3,4). The PROX1 suppressor COUP-TFII represses the Notch pathway in venous endothelium, which prevents arterialization (4). HIF-1α and HIF-1β mediated hypoxia induces PROX1, which suggests a means of promoting lymphangiogenesis. Since the tumor microenvironment is typically hypoxic, regulation of PROX1 by hypoxia may also explain the up-regulation of this transcription factor in some cancers (2). PROX1 promotes colon cancer progression by down-regulating E-cadherin via miR-9, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis (5). The PROX1 protein can act as a tumor suppressor in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. PROX1 represses transcription of TWIST1, a transcription factor that promotes metastasis by binding the E-cadherin promoter. The function of PROX1 in other cancers is an area of active research (6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Western Blotting

Background: Postsynaptic Density protein 95 (PSD95) is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins. These family members consist of an amino-terminal variable segment followed by three PDZ domains, a SH3 domain, and an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain. PSD95 is a scaffolding protein involved in the assembly and function of the postsynaptic density complex (1-2). PSD95 participates in synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors through an indirect manner involving Stargazin and related transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) (3). It is implicated in experience-dependent plasticity and plays an indispensable role in learning (4). Mutations in PSD95 are associated with autism (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
$637
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially hazardous lesions that can be induced by ionizing radiation (IR), radiomimetic chemicals, or DNA replication inhibitors. Cells sense and repair DSBs via two distinct but partly overlapping signaling pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Research studies have shown that defects in both pathways are associated with human disease, including cancer (reviewed in 1).DSBs that arise during S or G2 phase are repaired via homologous recombination (HR), using the replicated sister chromatid as a repair template. Rad51 recombinase, a eukaryotic homologue of E. coli RecA, polymerizes and forms a filament along single-stranded DNA, mediating HR with the help of auxiliary proteins, including Rad54 and BRCA2 (reviewed in 2,3). BRCA2 binds Rad51 and targets it to single-stranded DNA, allowing it to displace replication protein A (RPA) (4). Five Rad51 paralogs exist in vertebrates (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B, Rad51C, and Rad51D) and they all appear to be required for efficient HR (5).Researchers have found that mutations in the Rad51 gene may be related to breast cancer risk (6). Some studies have implicated Rad51 as a potential marker for pancreatic cancer (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Rhodopsin is the photoreceptor in the retinal rods. It is activated by photons, transduces visual information through its cognate G protein, transducin, and is inactivated by arrestin binding (1). Using atomic-force microscopy, rhodopsin was found to be arranged into paracrystalline arrays of dimers in mouse disc membranes (2). Rhodopsin is considered to be the prototype of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and is the first GPCR for which a crystal structure was solved (3). Research studies have linked mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin to retinitis pigmentosa (4,5), a disease characterized by retinal degeneration resulting in reduced peripheral vision and night blindness (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rho family small GTPases act as molecular switches that regulate processes such as cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Typically, they are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, and are inhibited by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which catalyze the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP (1). Rnd1, Rnd2 and RhoE/Rnd3 comprise the evolutionarily divergent Rnd family of Rho-type small GTPases, which lack GTPase activity and therefore remain in a GTP-bound state (2, reviewed in 3). RhoE/Rnd3 activity leads to a decrease in stress fibers and increased cell migration, at least in part through regulation of the Rho-dependent kinase ROCK1 (4). Activity of RhoE/Rnd3 itself is regulated by ROCK1, which phosphorylates RhoE/Rnd3 at Ser11, enhancing its activity (5). RhoE/Rnd3 has been implicated in inhibition of DNA-damage induced apoptosis (6) and cell cycle arrest (7). In keratinocytes, RhoE/Rnd3 regulates differentiation through its effects on both proliferation and adhesion (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: ROCK (Rho-associated kinase), a family of serine/threonine kinases, is an important downstream target of Rho-GTPase and plays an important role in Rho-mediated signaling. Two isoforms of ROCK have been identified: ROCK1 and ROCK2. ROCK is composed of N-terminal catalytic, coiled-coil, and C-terminal PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. The C-terminus of ROCK negatively regulates its kinase activity (1,2). Caspase-3-induced cleavage of ROCK1 and direct cleavage of ROCK2 by granzyme B (grB) activates ROCK and leads to phosphorylation of myosin light chain and inhibition of myosin phosphatase (3). This phosphorylation may account for the mechanism by which Rho regulates cytokinesis, cell motility, cell membrane blebbing during apoptosis, and smooth muscle contraction (4-6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated S6 Ribosomal Protein (54D2) Mouse mAb #2317.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key lipogenic enzyme found in the endoplasmic reticulum that catalyzes the conversion of palmitoyl–CoA and stearoyl–CoA to palmitoleoyl–CoA (16:1) and oleoyl–CoA (18:1) (1-3). Palmitoleate and oleate are the major components of triglycerides, membrane phospholipids and cholesterol esters (1). SCD1-knockout mice show improved insulin sensitivity and reduced body fat (1). Disruption of SCD1 in mouse brown adipose tissue strengthens insulin signaling and results in increased translocation of Glut4 to plasma membrane and enhanced uptake of glucose (4). Furthermore, SCD1 is essential for the onset of diet-induced body weight gain (1) and insulin resistance in the liver (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: The stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1/CXCL12) is a small, pro-inflammatory chemoattractant cytokine that regulates leukocyte trafficking through interactions with its cognate 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (1). The SDF1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, also serves as a coreceptor for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus into target cells (2). SDF1/CXCL12 may regulate homing and maintenance of CXCR4-expressing stem or progenitor cells, including embryonic and many somatic stem cells (3,4). Many cancer cells express CXCR4, suggesting that SDF1/CXCL12 plays a role in cancer metastasis (5,6). Alternative splicing and differential processing during maturation produce a pair of SDF1/CXCL12 isoforms (SDF1/CXCL12α and SDF1/CXCL12β) that have different properties and biological activities (7). Additional isoforms of SDF1/CXCL12 have been reported (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serine racemase, also called SRR, is an enzyme that is highly expressed in the brain and converts L-serine to D-serine (1,2). D-serine is a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. NMDA receptor activation requires the binding of glutamate to its GluN2 subunit and the concomitant binding of either glycine or D-serine to its glycine binding site on the GluN1 subunit (3). Decreased activation of NMDA receptors is a typical feature of impaired synaptic plasticity in age-related memory deficits. Therefore, D-serine availability makes serine racemase an important therapeutic target for memory deficit associated with nonpathological aging (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mTORC1 kinase complex is a critical regulator of cell growth (1,2). Its activity is modulated by enviromental factors such as energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (3, 4). The GTPases RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD mediate amino acid signaling to activate mTORC1 (1, 2). SH3BP4 (SH3 domain-binding protein 4) binds to the inactive Rag GTPase complex during amino acid starvation and prevents the association of Rag GTPase complex with mTORC1 resulting in the suppression of mTORC1 activation and cell growth (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: SHP-1 (PTPN6) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. The enzyme is composed of two SH2 domains, a tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain, and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain (1). SHP-1 removes phosphates from target proteins to downregulate several tyrosine kinase-regulated pathways. In hematopoietic cells, the amino-terminal SH2 domain of SHP-1 binds to tyrosine phosphorylated erythropoietin receptors (EpoR) to negatively regulate hematopoietic growth (2). Overexpression of SHP-1 in epithelial cells results in dephosphorylation of the Ros receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent downregulation of Ros-dependent cell proliferation and transformation (3). Following ligand binding in myeloid cells, SHP-1 associates with the IL-3R β chain and downregulates IL-3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and cell proliferation (4). Because SHP-1 downregulates various proliferation pathways, SHP-1 is considered a potential tumor suppressor and angiogenesis regulator (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SMARCA1 (SNF2L) is one of the two orthologs of the ISWI (imitation switch) ATPases encoded by the mammalian genome (1). The ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes were first identified in Drosophila and have been shown to remodel and alter nucleosome spacing in vitro (2). SMARCA1 is the catalytic subunit of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) and CECR2-containing remodeling factor (CERF) complexes (3-5). The NURF complex plays an important role in neuronal physiology by promoting neurite outgrowth and regulation of Engrailed homeotic genes that are involved in neuronal development in the mid-hindbrain (3). NURF is also thought to be involved in the maturation of T cells from thymocytes by regulating chromatin structure and expression of genes important for T cell development (6). The largest subunit of the NURF complex, BPTF, is required for proper development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, suggesting a role for SMARCA1 in the development of the germ layers in mouse embryo (7). Disruption of the CERF complex by deletion of CECR2, an interacting partner of SMARCA1, is associated with the neural tube defect exencephaly, linking the CERF complex with regulation of neurulation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. It was initially identified as an inhibitor of TGF-β/BMP signaling by targeting R-Smads and TGF type I receptor for ubiquitination and degradation (1-3). Subsequent studies have revealed its role in neuronal and planar cell polarity, as well as in the senescence response and suppression of tumorigenesis (4-8). Smurf2 has a broad range of substrates including RUNX2, AMSH, Rap1B, and RNF11 (5,9-11). Smurf2 is widely expressed in various tissues. The C2 domain of Smurf2 inhibits its catalytic activity by interacting with the HECT domain (12). Research studies have shown that Smurf2 functions as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability through targeting RNF20 (13).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Snail is a zinc-finger transcription factor that can repress E-cadherin transcription. Downregulation of E-cadherin is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during embryonic development, a process also exploited by invasive cancer cells (1-3). Indeed, loss of E-cadherin expression is correlated with the invasive properties of some tumors and there is a considerable inverse correlation between Snail and E-cadherin mRNA levels in epithelial tumor cell lines (4,5). In addition, Snail blocks the cell cycle and confers resistance to cell death (6). Phosphorylation of Snail by GSK-3 and PAK1 regulates its stability, cellular localization and function (7-10).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are unique in their pluripotent capacity and potential for self-renewal (1). Research studies demonstrate that a set of transcription factors that includes Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog forms a transcriptional network that maintains cells in a pluripotent state (2,3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Sox2 and Oct-4 bind to thousands of gene regulatory sites, many of which regulate cell pluripotency and early embryonic development (4,5). siRNA knockdown of either Sox2 or Oct-4 results in loss of pluripotency (6). Induced overexpression of Oct-4 and Sox2, along with additional transcription factors Klf4 and c-Myc, can reprogram both mouse and human somatic cells to a pluripotent state (7,8). Additional evidence demonstrates that Sox2 is also present in adult multipotent progenitors that give rise to some adult epithelial tissues, including several glands, the glandular stomach, testes, and cervix. Sox2 is thought to regulate target gene expression important for survival and regeneration of these tissues (9).

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).