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Actin Dynamics siRNA

Also showing siRNA Transfection Actin Dynamics

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cofilin siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit cofilin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cofilin siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit cofilin expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cofilin and actin-depolymerization factor (ADF) are members of a family of essential conserved small actin-binding proteins that play pivotal roles in cytokinesis, endocytosis, embryonic development, stress response, and tissue regeneration (1). In response to stimuli, cofilin promotes the regeneration of actin filaments by severing preexisting filaments (2). The severing activity of cofilin is inhibited by LIMK or TESK phosphorylation at Ser3 of cofilin (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser3 also regulates cofilin translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (6).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® VASP siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit VASP expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) was originally characterized as a substrate of both cGMP- and cAMP-dependent kinases (PKG and PKA, or cGPK and cAPK, respectively) (1). It is now believed that VASP belongs to the Ena/VASP family of adaptor proteins linking the cytoskeletal system to the signal transduction pathways and that it functions in cytoskeletal organization, fibroblast migration, platelet activation and axon guidance (2,3). Three phosphorylation sites, Ser157, Ser239, and Thr278, have been identified. Ser239 is the major PKG phosphorylation site while Ser157 is the major PKA phosphorylation site (4). Evidence suggests that VASP phosphorylation reduces its association with actin and has a negative effect on actin polymerization (5). Phosphorylation at Ser239 of VASP is a useful marker for monitoring PKG activation and signaling (6,7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PAK1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PAK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine kinases is engaged in multiple cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, MAPK signaling, apoptotic signaling, control of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, and growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth (1,2). Several mechanisms that induce PAK activity have been reported. Binding of Rac/Cdc42 to the CRIB (or PBD) domain near the amino terminus of PAK causes autophosphorylation and conformational changes in PAK (1). Phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr423 by PDK induces activation of PAK1 (3). Several autophosphorylation sites have been identified, including Ser199 and Ser204 of PAK1 and Ser192 and Ser197 of PAK2 (4,5). Because the autophosphorylation sites are located in the amino-terminal inhibitory domain, it has been hypothesized that modification in this region prevents the kinase from reverting to an inactive conformation (6). Research indicates that phosphorylation at Ser144 of PAK1 or Ser139 of PAK3 (located in the kinase inhibitory domain) affects kinase activity (7). Phosphorylation at Ser21 of PAK1 or Ser20 of PAK2 regulates binding with the adaptor protein Nck (8). PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6 have lower sequence similarity with PAK1-3 in the amino-terminal regulatory region (9). Phosphorylation at Ser474 of PAK4, a site analogous to Thr423 of PAK1, may play a pivotal role in regulating the activity and function of PAK4 (10).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PI3 Kinase p110α siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PI3 Kinase p110α expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All CST™ SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Growth factors and hormones trigger this phosphorylation event, which in turn coordinates cell growth, cell cycle entry, cell migration, and cell survival (1). PTEN reverses this process, and research studies have shown that the PI3K signaling pathway is constitutively activated in human cancers that have loss of function of PTEN (2). PI3Ks are composed of a catalytic subunit (p110) and a regulatory subunit. Various isoforms of the catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, and p110δ) have been isolated, and the regulatory subunits that associate with p110α, p110β, and p110δ are p85α and p85β (3). In contrast, p110γ associates with a p101 regulatory subunit that is unrelated to p85. Furthermore, p110γ is activated by βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PKCα siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PKCα expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is one of the earliest events in a cascade that controls a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, gene expression, proliferation, and muscle contraction (1,2). PKC isoforms belong to three groups based on calcium dependency and activators. Classical PKCs are calcium-dependent via their C2 domains and are activated by phosphatidylserine (PS), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phorbol esters (TPA, PMA) through their cysteine-rich C1 domains. Both novel and atypical PKCs are calcium-independent, but only novel PKCs are activated by PS, DAG, and phorbol esters (3-5). Members of these three PKC groups contain a pseudo-substrate or autoinhibitory domain that binds to substrate-binding sites in the catalytic domain to prevent activation in the absence of cofactors or activators. Control of PKC activity is regulated through three distinct phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation occurs in vivo at Thr500 in the activation loop, at Thr641 through autophosphorylation, and at the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic site Ser660 (2). Atypical PKC isoforms lack hydrophobic region phosphorylation, which correlates with the presence of glutamic acid rather than the serine or threonine residues found in more typical PKC isoforms. The enzyme PDK1 or a close relative is responsible for PKC activation. A recent addition to the PKC superfamily is PKCμ (PKD), which is regulated by DAG and TPA through its C1 domain. PKD is distinguished by the presence of a PH domain and by its unique substrate recognition and Golgi localization (6). PKC-related kinases (PRK) lack the C1 domain and do not respond to DAG or phorbol esters. Phosphatidylinositol lipids activate PRKs, and small Rho-family GTPases bind to the homology region 1 (HR1) to regulate PRK kinase activity (7).

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® PKA C-α siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PKA C-α expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA or cAPK) in mammalian cells and controls many cellular mechanisms such as gene transcription, ion transport, and protein phosphorylation (1). Inactive PKA is a heterotetramer composed of a regulatory subunit (R) dimer and a catalytic subunit (C) dimer. In this inactive state, the pseudosubstrate sequences on the R subunits block the active sites on the C subunits. Three C subunit isoforms (C-α, C-β, and C-γ) and two families of regulatory subunits (RI and RII) with distinct cAMP binding properties have been identified. The two R families exist in two isoforms, α and β (RI-α, RI-β, RII-α, and RII-β). Upon binding of cAMP to the R subunits, the autoinhibitory contact is eased and active monomeric C subunits are released. PKA shares substrate specificity with Akt (PKB) and PKC, which are characterized by an arginine at position -3 relative to the phosphorylated serine or threonine residue (2). Substrates that present this consensus sequence and have been shown to be phosphorylated by PKA are Bad (Ser155), CREB (Ser133), and GSK-3 (GSK-3α Ser21 and GSK-3β Ser9) (3-5). In addition, combined knock-down of PKA C-α and -β blocks cAMP-mediated phosphorylation of Raf (Ser43 and Ser259) (6). Autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by PDK-1 are two known mechanisms responsible for phosphorylation of the C subunit at Thr197 (7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® FAK siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit FAK expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a widely expressed cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase involved in integrin-mediated signal transduction. It plays an important role in the control of several biological processes, including cell spreading, migration, and survival (1). Activation of FAK by integrin clustering leads to autophosphorylation at Tyr397, which is a binding site for the Src family kinases PI3K and PLCγ (2-5). Recruitment of Src family kinases results in the phosphorylation of Tyr407, Tyr576, and Tyr577 in the catalytic domain, and Tyr871 and Tyr925 in the carboxy-terminal region of FAK (6,7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PKA C-α siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PKA C-α expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA or cAPK) in mammalian cells and controls many cellular mechanisms such as gene transcription, ion transport, and protein phosphorylation (1). Inactive PKA is a heterotetramer composed of a regulatory subunit (R) dimer and a catalytic subunit (C) dimer. In this inactive state, the pseudosubstrate sequences on the R subunits block the active sites on the C subunits. Three C subunit isoforms (C-α, C-β, and C-γ) and two families of regulatory subunits (RI and RII) with distinct cAMP binding properties have been identified. The two R families exist in two isoforms, α and β (RI-α, RI-β, RII-α, and RII-β). Upon binding of cAMP to the R subunits, the autoinhibitory contact is eased and active monomeric C subunits are released. PKA shares substrate specificity with Akt (PKB) and PKC, which are characterized by an arginine at position -3 relative to the phosphorylated serine or threonine residue (2). Substrates that present this consensus sequence and have been shown to be phosphorylated by PKA are Bad (Ser155), CREB (Ser133), and GSK-3 (GSK-3α Ser21 and GSK-3β Ser9) (3-5). In addition, combined knock-down of PKA C-α and -β blocks cAMP-mediated phosphorylation of Raf (Ser43 and Ser259) (6). Autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by PDK-1 are two known mechanisms responsible for phosphorylation of the C subunit at Thr197 (7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® PI3 Kinase p110β siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PI3 Kinase p110β expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All CST™ SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Growth factors and hormones trigger this phosphorylation event, which in turn coordinates cell growth, cell cycle entry, cell migration, and cell survival (1). PTEN reverses this process, and research studies have shown that the PI3K signaling pathway is constitutively activated in human cancers that have loss of function of PTEN (2). PI3Ks are composed of a catalytic subunit (p110) and a regulatory subunit. Various isoforms of the catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, and p110δ) have been isolated, and the regulatory subunits that associate with p110α, p110β, and p110δ are p85α and p85β (3). In contrast, p110γ associates with a p101 regulatory subunit that is unrelated to p85. Furthermore, p110γ is activated by βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® GRB2 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit GRB2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Growth factor receptor-binding protein 2 (GRB2) is an adaptor protein that is involved in RTK signal transduction. The SH2 domain of GRB2 binds to tyrosine phosphorylated proteins such as EGFR, IRS-1, Shc and Gab1 (1). The SH3 domain of GRB2 associates with Sos, which stimulates the GTP binding activity of Ras, leading to the activation of the MAP kinase and other signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of Tyr209 of GRB2 by Bcr-Abl and EGFR abolishes its association with Sos and negatively regulates downstream signaling (2).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® TAK1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit TAK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: TAK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that can be activated by TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein and other cytokines including IL-1 (1,2). In vivo activation of TAK1 requires association with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), which triggers phosphorylation of TAK1 (3,4). Another adaptor protein, TAB2, links TAK1 with TRAF6 and mediates TAK1 activation upon IL-1 stimulation (5). Once activated, TAK1 phosphorylates MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK3/6, which activate p38 MAPK and JNK, respectively. In addition, TAK1 activates the NF-κB pathway by interacting with TRAF6 and phosphorylating the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) (2).

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK2 expression using RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression in specified cell lines.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK1 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® TAK1 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit TAK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: TAK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that can be activated by TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein and other cytokines including IL-1 (1,2). In vivo activation of TAK1 requires association with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), which triggers phosphorylation of TAK1 (3,4). Another adaptor protein, TAB2, links TAK1 with TRAF6 and mediates TAK1 activation upon IL-1 stimulation (5). Once activated, TAK1 phosphorylates MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK3/6, which activate p38 MAPK and JNK, respectively. In addition, TAK1 activates the NF-κB pathway by interacting with TRAF6 and phosphorylating the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) (2).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® MKK7 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MKK7 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MKK7 is a MAP kinase kinase that serves as a specific activator of the SAPK/JNK pathway (1,2). MKK7 is strongly activated by TNF-α, as well as other environmental stresses, whereas SEK1/MKK4, which activates both p38 and SAPK/JNK pathways, is not activated by TNF-α (2). Sequence alignment of the activation loop of the MAP kinase kinase family members indicates that Ser271 and Thr275 are potential phosphorylation sites that are crucial for the kinase acivity.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.