20% off purchase of 3 or more products* | Learn More >>

Antibody Sampler Kit Camera-Type Eye Development

The Nuclear Receptor Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the presence and status of nuclear receptors. This kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary.
The Retinoic Acid and Retinoid X Receptors Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the expression of various subtypes of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary.
The Neuronal Marker IF Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means for labeling neuronal structures by immunofluorescence (IF-F). This kit includes enough primary antibody to perform at least forty IF-F tests or two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family and their activation status. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Wnt Signaling Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting integral proteins within the Wnt signaling pathway. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two Western blots with each.
The CDK Antbody Sampler Kit provides and economical means of evaluating Cdk proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.
Cell Cycle Regulation Antibody Sampler kit offers an economical way of detecting eight integral cell cycle regulation proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is dependent, in part, on the tightly regulated activity of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclin D/CDK4/6 activity occurs in mid-late G1 phase, upstream of CDK2/cyclin E activity. Both of these activities are required for hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). pRb phosphorylation allows the release of S phase-promoting transcription factors and is indicative of the cell's commitment to proliferate. This point in the cell cycle is known as the restriction point. Cyclin protein levels oscillate throughout the cell cycle, and their availability is a means of controlling CDK activity and cell proliferation. Cyclin D is degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the absence of mitogenic signaling. Ubiquitination of cyclin D1 is enhanced by phosphorylation at Thr286 by glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK-3b) (1). p27/Kip1, p57 Kip2 and p21 Waf1/Cip1 are members of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. They form heterotrimeric complexes with cyclins and CDKs, inhibiting kinase activity and blocking progression through G1/S phase (2). However, p21 may enhance assembly and activity of cyclin D/CDK4/6 complexes (3). Levels of p21 and p27 protein are controlled through ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (4). Levels of p27 are upregulated in quiescent cells and in cells treated with negative cell cycle regulators. p27 nuclear localization is controlled by Akt-dependent phosphorylation at Thr157 (5). The inhibitors of CDK4 (INK4) family include p15 INK4B, p16 INK4A, p18 INK4C, and p19 INK4D. All INK4 proteins selectively inhibit CDK4/6 activity, either in a binary complex, or in a ternary complex including cyclin D, resulting in inhibition of cell division (6,7).

This Cadherin-Catenin Antibody Sampler kit contains reagents to examine the total protein levels of key proteins found in cell-cell adherens junctions. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.
The β-Catenin Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting total β-catenin as well as β-catenin phosphorlylated at various residues. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two Western blots with each antibody.

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

The Tyro/Axl/Mer Activation Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting the activation of TAM family members using phospho-specific and control antibodies. The kit includes enough antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Axl, Mer and Tyro3 are three members of the TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase that share a common NCAM (neural adhesion molecule)-related extracellular domain and a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. These receptors bind common homologous vitamin K dependent protein GAS6 and protein S to activate downstream signaling pathways (1). TAM family receptors are involved in the development of immune, nervous, vascular and reproductive systems, autoimmune disease, cancer drug resistance and tumor immunity response (2-5). Axl (Tyr698), Axl (Tyr702), Mer Tyr(749) and Tyro3 (Tyr681) are conserved autophosphorylation sites located in the activation loop of the respective tyrosine kinase domains. Phosphorylation at these sites is required for full kinase activation of each of the corresponding receptors (6,7).

The Cardiogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating proteins involved in heart development. This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.