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Antibody Sampler Kit Cellular Respiration

Also showing Antibody Sampler Kit Regulation of Cellular Respiration

The Mitochondrial Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate relevant mitochondial proteins. This kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary.
The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The PI3 Kinase Sampler Kit provides an economical means of studying PI3 kinase subunits in cells. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Growth factors and hormones trigger this phosphorylation event, which in turn coordinates cell growth, cell cycle entry, cell migration, and cell survival (1). PTEN reverses this process, and research studies have shown that the PI3K signaling pathway is constitutively activated in human cancers that have loss of function of PTEN (2). PI3Ks are composed of a catalytic subunit (p110) and a regulatory subunit. Various isoforms of the catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, and p110δ) have been isolated, and the regulatory subunits that associate with p110α, p110β, and p110δ are p85α and p85β (3). In contrast, p110γ associates with a p101 regulatory subunit that is unrelated to p85. Furthermore, p110γ is activated by βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (4).

The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family and their activation status. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Sirtuin Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating total levels of sirtuin proteins. The kit includes enough antibody to perform at least two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.