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Antibody Sampler Kit Purine Base Metabolic Process

Also showing Antibody Sampler Kit Purine Base Biosynthetic Process

The Inflammasome Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting multiple inflammasome components. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments.

Background: The innate immune system works as the first line of defense in protection from pathogenic microbes and host-derived signals of cellular distress. One way in which these “danger” signals trigger inflammation is through activation of inflammasomes, which are multiprotein complexes that assemble in the cytosol after exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 (Reviewed in 1-6). Inflammasome complexes typically consist of a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR; a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat [NLR] or AIM2-like receptor [ALR] family member), an adaptor protein (ASC/TMS1), and pro-caspase-1. A number of distinct inflammasome complexes have been identified, each with a unique PRR and activation triggers. The best characterized is the NLRP3 complex, which contains NLRP3, ASC/TMS1, and pro-caspase-1. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in a two-step process. First, NF-κB signaling is induced through PAMP- or DAMP-mediated activation of TLR4 or TNFR, resulting in increased expression of NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18 (priming step, signal 1). Next, indirect activation of NLRP3 occurs by a multitude of signals (whole pathogens, PAMPs/DAMPs, potassium efflux, lysosomal-damaging environmental factors [uric acid, silica, alum] and endogenous factors [amyloid-β, cholesterol crystals], and mitochondrial damage), leading to complex assembly and activation of caspase-1 (signal 2). The complex inflammasome structure is built via domain interactions among the protein components. Other inflammasomes are activated by more direct means: double-stranded DNA activates the AIM2 complex, anthrax toxin activates NLRP1, and bacterial flagellin activates NLRC4. Activated caspase-1 induces secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and -18, but also regulates metabolic enzyme expression, phagosome maturation, vasodilation, and pyroptosis, an inflammatory programmed cell death. Inflammasome signaling contributes to the onset of a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and autoimmune disorders.

The Innate Immunity Activation Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting the activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in innate immunity using phospho-specific, cleavage-specific, and control antibodies. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments.

Background: The innate immune system responds rapidly to pathogens by detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). There are several families of PRRs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane PRRs and signal through recruitment of adaptor proteins, including MyD88, which leads to recruitment and phosphorylation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, followed by activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases (1-3). Some TLRs also activate IRFs, which upregulate the type I interferon response. Activation of TLR3 and TLR4 results in phosphorylation and activation of IRF-3, while TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 lead to activation of IRF-7 (2, 3). STING is a multi-pass ER transmembrane protein that is activated in response to intracellular DNA downstream of DNA-sensing cytoplasmic PRRs, such as DDX41, or by binding the second messenger cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by cGAS (4-6). Following activation, STING translocates with TBK1 to perinuclear endosomes, leading to phosphorylation and activation of IRF-3 and NF-κB (7, 8). Following activation and translocation, STING gets phosphorylated by ULK1, resulting in STING inactivation and degradation (9). Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic multimeric protein complexes that assemble in response to PAMPs or DAMPs detected by AIM2 or members of the nod-like receptor (NLR) family, such as NLRP3 (10). Inflammasomes activate Caspase-1, which cleaves the IL-1β and IL-18 precursor proteins into the mature forms (10).

Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting multiple components of the SASP. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Senescence is characterized by stable stress-induced proliferative arrest and resistance to mitogenic stimuli, as well as the secretion of proteins such as cytokines, growth factors and proteases. These secreted proteins comprise the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells are thought to accumulate as an organism ages, and contribute to age-related diseases, including cancer, through promotion of inflammation and disruption of normal cellular function (1,2). The composition of the SASP varies, and SASP components can be either beneficial or deleterious in human disease, depending on the context (3).Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) Antibody Sampler Kit provides a collection of antibodies to various SASP components, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), the multifunctional cytokine IL-1beta, the chemokines CXCL10, RANTES/CCL5 and MCP-1, the matrix metalloprotease MMP3, and the serine-protease inhibitor PAI-1.

The Human Reactive Inflammasome Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means of detecting multiple inflammasome components. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments.

Background: The innate immune system works as the first line of defense in protection from pathogenic microbes and host-derived signals of cellular distress. One way in which these “danger” signals trigger inflammation is through activation of inflammasomes, which are multiprotein complexes that assemble in the cytosol after exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 (Reviewed in 1-6). Inflammasome complexes typically consist of a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR; a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat [NLR] or AIM2-like receptor [ALR] family member), an adaptor protein (ASC/TMS1), and pro-caspase-1. A number of distinct inflammasome complexes have been identified, each with a unique PRR and activation triggers. The best characterized is the NLRP3 complex, which contains NLRP3, ASC/TMS1, and pro-caspase-1. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in a two-step process. First, NF-κB signaling is induced through PAMP- or DAMP-mediated activation of TLR4 or TNFR, resulting in increased expression of NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18 (priming step, signal 1). Next, indirect activation of NLRP3 occurs by a multitude of signals (whole pathogens, PAMPs/DAMPs, potassium efflux, lysosomal-damaging environmental factors [uric acid, silica, alum] and endogenous factors [amyloid-β, cholesterol crystals], and mitochondrial damage), leading to complex assembly and activation of caspase-1 (signal 2). The complex inflammasome structure is built via domain interactions among the protein components. Other inflammasomes are activated by more direct means: double-stranded DNA activates the AIM2 complex, anthrax toxin activates NLRP1, and bacterial flagellin activates NLRC4. Activated caspase-1 induces secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and -18, but also regulates metabolic enzyme expression, phagosome maturation, vasodilation, and pyroptosis, an inflammatory programmed cell death. Inflammasome signaling contributes to the onset of a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and autoimmune disorders.

The Pyroptosis Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting proteins that are used as readouts for pyroptosis. The kit includes enough antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Pyroptosis is a regulated pathway of cell death with morphological features of necrosis, including cell swelling, plasma membrane pore formation, and engagement of an inflammatory response with the release of a number of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-18 (1,2). Pyroptosis is generally induced in cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes, marcrophages, and dendritic cells in the presence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on microbial pathogens or by cell-derived DAMPs. It is induced through assembly of inflammasomes triggering proteolytic activation of caspase-1 which then cleaves inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-18 to their mature forms (3). A critical feature of pyroptosis is the cleavage of Gasdermin D by caspase-1 and mouse caspase-11 (or human caspase-4/5) (4-6). Upon cleavage the N-terminal fragment of Gasdermin D oligomerizes to form a pore allowing secretion of inflammatory DAMPs and cytokines. Canonical inflammasome assembly typically consists of a cytosolic-pattern recognition receptor (PPR; a nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat [NLR] or AIM2-like family members), an adaptor protein (ASC/TMS1), and pro-caspase-1. Distinct inflammasome complexes can recognize distinct PAMPs and DAMPs to trigger pyroptosis. The best characterized pathway triggered by the NLR, NLRP3, occurs through a two-step process. The first step is a priming signal, NF-κB is activated to induce the expression of a number of inflammasome components including NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18. In the second activation step, caspase-1 is activated and Gasdermin D and cytokines are proteolytically activated. In a non-canonical pathway, caspase-4 and caspase-5 can directly trigger Gasdermin D cleavage in monocytes following LPS stimulation (5,7).

The One-Carbon Metabolism Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting select components involved in one-carbon metabolism pathway. The kit contains enough primary antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments per antibody.

Background: One-carbon metabolism includes various enzymatic reactions involving the transfer of one-carbon groups mediated by folate cofactor (1). The activated one-carbon groups are used by various metabolic pathways, including purine synthesis, thymidine synthesis, and remethylation of homocysteine to methionine (1). S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-like protein 1 (AHCYL1) is a member of the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase family, which participates in the metabolism of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (2). Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism as it catalyzes the formation of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine (3,4). Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is an enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway, a route in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids (5). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (1). 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates its methyl group for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine (1). Methionine is further converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major reactive methyl carrier (1). NADP+ dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate in one-carbon flow from mitochondria to cytoplasm (6,7). MTHFD2 is a bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase involved in mitochondrial folate metabolism (8). Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) is a cytoplasmic serine hydroxylmethyltransferase (9,10). It catalyzes the conversion of serine to glycine with the transfer of β-carbon from serine to tetrahydrofolate (THF) to form 5, 10-methylene-THF (9, 10). The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides, a process catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS) (11-13).