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Antibody Sampler Kit Response to Estrogen Stimulus

The Nuclear Receptor Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the presence and status of nuclear receptors. This kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary.
The ALK Activation Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the activation status of multiple members of the ALK pathway, including phosphorylated ALK, Jak2, Jak3, Stat3, Stat5, PLCγ1, Akt, Src, and p44/42 MAPK. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor for pleiotrophin (PTN), a growth factor involved in embryonic brain development (1-3). In ALK-expressing cells, PTN induces phosphorylation of both ALK and the downstream effectors IRS-1, Shc, PLCγ, and PI3 kinase (1). ALK was originally discovered as a nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein produced by a translocation (4). Investigators have found that the NPM-ALK fusion protein is a constitutively active, oncogenic tyrosine kinase associated with anaplastic lymphoma (4). Research literature suggests that activation of PLCγ by NPM-ALK may be a crucial step for its mitogenic activity and involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic lymphomas (5).A distinct ALK oncogenic fusion protein involving ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) has been described in the research literature from a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, with corresponding fusion transcripts present in some cases of lung adenocarcinoma. The short, amino-terminal region of the microtubule-associated protein EML4 is fused to the kinase domain of ALK (6-8).

The Phospho-EGF Receptor Pathway Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the activation status of multiple members of the EGF receptor pathway, including phosphorylated EGF receptor, Stat5, c-Cbl, Shc, Gab1, PLCγ1, Akt and p44/42 MAPK. The kit includes enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that belongs to the HER/ErbB protein family. Ligand binding results in receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation, activation of downstream signaling, internalization, and lysosomal degradation (1,2). Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) at Tyr845 in the kinase domain is implicated in stabilizing the activation loop, maintaining the active state enzyme, and providing a binding surface for substrate proteins (3,4). c-Src is involved in phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845 (5). The SH2 domain of PLCγ binds at phospho-Tyr992, resulting in activation of PLCγ-mediated downstream signaling (6). Phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1045 creates a major docking site for the adaptor protein c-Cbl, leading to receptor ubiquitination and degradation following EGFR activation (7,8). The GRB2 adaptor protein binds activated EGFR at phospho-Tyr1068 (9). A pair of phosphorylated EGFR residues (Tyr1148 and Tyr1173) provide a docking site for the Shc scaffold protein, with both sites involved in MAP kinase signaling activation (2). Phosphorylation of EGFR at specific serine and threonine residues attenuates EGFR kinase activity. EGFR carboxy-terminal residues Ser1046 and Ser1047 are phosphorylated by CaM kinase II; mutation of either of these serines results in upregulated EGFR tyrosine autophosphorylation (10).

The Angiogenesis Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the angiogenic pathway downstream of VEGFR2. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary antibody.
The Matrix Remodeling Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting different MMPs and TIMPs using the specific corresponding antibodies. The kit contains enough antibody to perform at least two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Matrix remodeling is mainly controlled by MMPs and TIMPs. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteases are a group of zinc-dependent enzymes that target extracellular proteins, including growth factors, cell surface receptors, adhesion molecules, matrix structural proteins, and other proteases (1, 2). Among the family members, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP14 (MT1-MMP) have been characterized as important factors for normal tissue remodeling during embryonic development, wound healing, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis (3). MMP activity is regulated by mechanisms of both transcriptional control and post translational protein processing. Once synthesized, MMPs exist as latent proenzymes. Maximum MMP activity requires proteolytic cleavage to generate active MMPs by releasing the inhibitory propeptide domain from the full-length protein (4). MMP activity can be inhibited through its binding to endogenously expressed TIMPs. TIMPs are members of the family of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases that include TIMP1, TIMP2, TIMP3, and TIMP4. The main function of TIMPs is their inhibitory effect on MMPs. TIMPs irreversibly inactivate MMPs by direct binding MMPs and chelating their zinc cofactor at the catalytic site to inhibit the proteinase function (5,6).

Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting multiple components of the SASP. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Senescence is characterized by stable stress-induced proliferative arrest and resistance to mitogenic stimuli, as well as the secretion of proteins such as cytokines, growth factors and proteases. These secreted proteins comprise the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells are thought to accumulate as an organism ages, and contribute to age-related diseases, including cancer, through promotion of inflammation and disruption of normal cellular function (1,2). The composition of the SASP varies, and SASP components can be either beneficial or deleterious in human disease, depending on the context (3).Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) Antibody Sampler Kit provides a collection of antibodies to various SASP components, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), the multifunctional cytokine IL-1beta, the chemokines CXCL10, RANTES/CCL5 and MCP-1, the matrix metalloprotease MMP3, and the serine-protease inhibitor PAI-1.

The Adipogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate proteins involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.
The Huntingtin Interaction Antibody Sampler kit provides an economical means of detecting transcription-related proteins that interact with Huntingtin (Htt). This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
This Cadherin-Catenin Antibody Sampler kit contains reagents to examine the total protein levels of key proteins found in cell-cell adherens junctions. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.
The Phospho-Erk1/2 Pathway Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating multiple members of the Erk pathway as well as their activation state. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

The PDGF Receptor Activation Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate the activation status of multiple members of the PDGF receptor pathway, including SHP-2, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2). The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Phospho-MAPK Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating the phosphorylation state of p38, p44/42, and SAPK/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2), SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPK function in protein kinase cascades that play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and control of cellular responses to cytokines and stress. p44/42 MAPK is activated by growth and neurotrophic factors. Activation occurs through phosphorylation of threonine and tyrosine residues (Thr202 and Tyr204 in human Erk1) at the sequence T*EY* by a single upstream MAP kinase kinase (MEK). SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK are activated by inflammatory cytokines and by a wide variety of cellular stresses. Activation of SAPK/JNK occurs via phosphorylation at Thr183 and Tyr185 by the dual specificity enzyme SEK/MKK4. Both MKK3 and SEK phosphorylate p38 MAPK on tyrosine and threonine at the sequence T*GY* to activate p38 MAP kinase (1-5).

The MAPK Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating total levels of p38, p44/42, and SAPK/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2), SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPK function in protein kinase cascades that play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and control of cellular responses to cytokines and stress. p44/42 MAPK is activated by growth and neurotrophic factors. Activation occurs through phosphorylation of threonine and tyrosine residues (Thr202 and Tyr204 in human Erk1) at the sequence T*EY* by a single upstream MAP kinase kinase (MEK). SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK are activated by inflammatory cytokines and by a wide variety of cellular stresses. Activation of SAPK/JNK occurs via phosphorylation at Thr183 and Tyr185 by the dual specificity enzyme SEK/MKK4. Both MKK3 and SEK phosphorylate p38 MAPK on tyrosine and threonine at the sequence T*GY* to activate p38 MAP kinase (1-5).

The Glycolysis Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate select enzymes involved in glycolysis. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.
The Vesicle Trafficking Antibody Sampler kit provides an economical means to analyze proteins involved in the intracellular transport of cargo proteins. This kit includes enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.
The Cardiogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating proteins involved in heart development. This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Endosomal Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of distinguishing endosomes in the early, late, and recycling phases. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.
The Mitochondrial Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate relevant mitochondial proteins. This kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary.
The HSP/Chaperone Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate protein folding within the cell. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments with each antibody.
The Src Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating total levels of Src family member proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two western blots with each antibody.

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).