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Bovine Sprouting Angiogenesis

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tie2/Tek is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expressed almost exclusively on endothelial cells. It is critical for vasculogenesis and could be important for maintaining endothelial cell survival and integrity in adult blood vessels as well as tumor angiogenesis (1-3). A family of ligands known as the angiopoietins binds to Tie2. Interestingly, these ligands appear to have opposing actions; Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Angiopoietin-4 (Ang4) stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2; Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) and Angiopoietin-3 (Ang3) can inhibit this phosphorylation (4,5). Downstream signaling components, including Grb2, Grb7, Grb14, SHP-2, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and p56/Dok-2 interact with Tie2 in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner through their SH2 or PTB domains (6,7). Tyr992 is located on the putative activation loop of Tie2 and is a major autophosphorylation site (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Notch proteins (Notch1-4) are a family of transmembrane receptors that play important roles in development and the determination of cell fate (1). Mature Notch receptors are processed and assembled as heterodimeric proteins, with each dimer comprised of a large extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a smaller cytoplasmic subunit (Notch intracellular domain, NICD) (2). Binding of Notch receptors to ligands of the Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) family triggers heterodimer dissociation, exposing the receptors to proteolytic cleavages; these result in release of the NICD, which translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription of downstream target genes (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rac and Cdc42 are members of the Rho-GTPase family. In mammals, Rac exists as three isoforms, Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3, which are highly similar in sequence. Rac1 and Cdc42, the most widely studied of this group, are ubiquitously expressed. Rac2 is expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin, and Rac3, while highly expressed in brain, is also found in many other tissues. Rac and Cdc42 play key signaling roles in cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, cell growth and development (1). GTP binding stimulates the activity of Rac/Cdc42, and the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through the protein's intrinsic GTPase activity, rendering it inactive. GTP hydrolysis is aided by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), while exchange of GDP for GTP is facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Another level of regulation is achieved through the binding of RhoGDI, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, which retains Rho family GTPases, including Rac and Cdc42, in their inactive GDP-bound state (2,3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rac and Cdc42 are members of the Rho-GTPase family. In mammals, Rac exists as three isoforms, Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3, which are highly similar in sequence. Rac1 and Cdc42, the most widely studied of this group, are ubiquitously expressed. Rac2 is expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin, and Rac3, while highly expressed in brain, is also found in many other tissues. Rac and Cdc42 play key signaling roles in cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, cell growth and development (1). GTP binding stimulates the activity of Rac/Cdc42, and the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through the protein's intrinsic GTPase activity, rendering it inactive. GTP hydrolysis is aided by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), while exchange of GDP for GTP is facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Another level of regulation is achieved through the binding of RhoGDI, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, which retains Rho family GTPases, including Rac and Cdc42, in their inactive GDP-bound state (2,3).