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ELISA Kit Nitric Oxide Biosynthetic Process

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Chemiluminescent Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein with a chemiluminescent readout. Chemiluminescent ELISAs often have a wider dynamic range and higher sensitivity than conventional chromogenic detection. This chemiluminescent ELISA which is offered in low volume microplates, shows increased signal and sensitivity while using a smaller sample size. An Akt rabbit antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-Akt proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, phospho-Akt (Thr308) mouse antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-Akt protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. Chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. The magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein. An Akt Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-Akt proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Akt protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Estrogen Receptor α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of estrogen receptor α protein. An Estrogen Receptor α Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-estrogen receptor α proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Estrogen Receptor α Mouse Detection mAb is added to detect captured estrogen receptor α proteins. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of estrogen receptor α protein.Antibodies in the kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Estrogen receptor α (ERα), a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, contains highly conserved DNA binding and ligand binding domains (1). Through its estrogen-independent and estrogen-dependent activation domains (AF-1 and AF-2, respectively), ERα regulates transcription by recruiting coactivator proteins and interacting with general transcriptional machinery (2). Phosphorylation at multiple sites provides an important mechanism to regulate ERα activity (3-5). Ser104, 106, 118, and 167 are located in the amino-terminal transcription activation function domain AF-1, and phosphorylation of these serine residues plays an important role in regulating ERα activity. Ser118 may be the substrate of the transcription regulatory kinase CDK7 (5). Ser167 may be phosphorylated by p90RSK and Akt (4,6). According to the research literature, phosphorylation at Ser167 may confer tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total Akt2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt2 protein. An Akt rabbit antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Akt protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Akt2 mouse mAb is added to detect captured Akt2 protein. HRP-linked anti-mouse IgG is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Akt2 protein.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Akt2 (Ser474) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt2 protein when phosphorylated at Ser474. A phospho-Akt rabbit antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Akt protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Akt2 mouse mAb is added to detect captured Akt2 protein. HRP-linked anti-mouse IgG is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Akt2 phosphorylated at Ser474.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Cox2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Cox2. A Cox2 Mouse Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Cox2 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Cox2 Rabbit Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured Cox2 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of Cox2.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Cyclooxygenase1 (Cox1) and cyclooxygenase2 (Cox2), family members with 60% homology in humans, catalyze prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid (1,2). While Cox1 expression is constitutive in most tissues, Cox2 expression is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN) (3). PGN activates Ras, leading to phosphorylation of Raf at Ser338 and Erk1/2 at Tyr204. The activation of MAP kinase signaling results in subsequent activation of IKKα/β, phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32/36, and NF-κB activation. Finally, activation of the transcription factor NF-κB is responsible for the induction of Cox2 expression (4). Investigators have shown that LPS and PGN induce the clinical manifestations of arthritis and bacterial infections, such as inflammation, fever, and septic shock (5). Research studies have indicated that Cox1 and Cox2 may also play a role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease by potentiating γ-secretase activity and β-amyloid generation (6).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total Akt2 Sandwich ELISA Kit (Mouse Preferred) is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt2 protein. An Akt rabbit antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Akt protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Akt2 mouse antibody is added to detect captured Akt2 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody* is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Akt2 protein. *Antibodies in this kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Akt2 (Ser474) Sandwich ELISA Kit (Mouse Preferred) is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt2 protein phosphorylated at Ser474. A phospho-Akt rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Akt protein is captured by coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Akt2 mouse antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-Akt2 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody* is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Akt2 phosphorylated at Ser474. *Antibodies in this kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Insulin Receptor β Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects transfected levels of Insulin Receptor β protein. An Insulin Receptor β Mouse mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Insulin Receptor β protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Insulin Receptor β Rabbit mAb is added to detect captured Insulin Receptor β protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Insulin Receptor β protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Insulin receptor (INSR) is a membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. The receptor molecule consists of a disulfide linked heterodimer. The α subunit is a 135 kDa extracellular fragment, and the β subunit is a 95 kDa fragment containing an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain (1). Insulin ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activation. INSR catalyzes the tyrosine phosphorylation of molecules such as IRS, Gab1, Shc, and Cbl, which further activate the downstream MAPK, PI3K, and TC10 pathways. This eventually leads to increases in glucose uptake and metabolism as well as cell growth (2,3). INSR has peptide substrate specificity similar to other receptor tyrosine kinase members, preferring acidic residues at the -1 to -4 positions and large hydrophobic amino acids at positions +1 and +3 (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-Insulin Receptor β (panTyr) Sandwich ELISA Kit from Cell Signaling Technology is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects transfected levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated Insulin Receptor β protein. An Insulin Receptor β Rabbit mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Insulin Receptor β protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-tyrosine Mouse mAb is added to detect captured tyrosine-phosphorylated Insulin Receptor β protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Insulin Receptor β protein phosphorylated on tyrosine.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Insulin receptor (INSR) is a membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. The receptor molecule consists of a disulfide linked heterodimer. The α subunit is a 135 kDa extracellular fragment, and the β subunit is a 95 kDa fragment containing an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain (1). Insulin ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activation. INSR catalyzes the tyrosine phosphorylation of molecules such as IRS, Gab1, Shc, and Cbl, which further activate the downstream MAPK, PI3K, and TC10 pathways. This eventually leads to increases in glucose uptake and metabolism as well as cell growth (2,3). INSR has peptide substrate specificity similar to other receptor tyrosine kinase members, preferring acidic residues at the -1 to -4 positions and large hydrophobic amino acids at positions +1 and +3 (4).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Insulin Receptor β (Tyr1150/1151) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects transfected phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1150/1151) protein. An Insulin Receptor β Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-insulin receptor proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-IGF-I Receptor β (Tyr1135/1136)/Insulin Receptor β (Tyr1150/1151) Rabbit mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1150/1151) protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-insulin receptor β (Tyr1150/1151) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in many cell lines and cell types within fetal and postnatal tissues (1-3). Receptor autophosphorylation follows binding of the IGF-I and IGF-II ligands. Three tyrosine residues within the kinase domain (Tyr1131, Tyr1135, and Tyr1136) are the earliest major autophosphorylation sites (4). Phosphorylation of these three tyrosine residues is necessary for kinase activation (5,6). Insulin receptors (IRs) share significant structural and functional similarity with IGF-I receptors, including the presence of an equivalent tyrosine cluster (Tyr1146/1150/1151) within the kinase domain activation loop. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of IRs is one of the earliest cellular responses to insulin stimulation (7). Autophosphorylation begins with phosphorylation at Tyr1146 and either Tyr1150 or Tyr1151, while full kinase activation requires triple tyrosine phosphorylation (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Insulin Receptor β (Tyr1146) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects transfected phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1146) protein. A Phospho-Insulin Receptor (Tyr1146) Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1146) proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Insulin Receptor β Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1146) protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-insulin receptor (Tyr1146) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in many cell lines and cell types within fetal and postnatal tissues (1-3). Receptor autophosphorylation follows binding of the IGF-I and IGF-II ligands. Three tyrosine residues within the kinase domain (Tyr1131, Tyr1135, and Tyr1136) are the earliest major autophosphorylation sites (4). Phosphorylation of these three tyrosine residues is necessary for kinase activation (5,6). Insulin receptors (IRs) share significant structural and functional similarity with IGF-I receptors, including the presence of an equivalent tyrosine cluster (Tyr1146/1150/1151) within the kinase domain activation loop. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of IRs is one of the earliest cellular responses to insulin stimulation (7). Autophosphorylation begins with phosphorylation at Tyr1146 and either Tyr1150 or Tyr1151, while full kinase activation requires triple tyrosine phosphorylation (8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HIF-1α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total HIF-1α protein. A HIF-1α antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HIF-1α protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an HIF-1α Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured HIF-1α protein. Anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HIF-1α protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that plays a critical role in the cellular response to hypoxia (1). The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). HIF1 regulates the transcription of a broad range of genes that facilitate responses to the hypoxic environment, including genes regulating angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell cycle, metabolism, and apoptosis. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is proline hydroxylated leading to a conformational change that promotes binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (VHL) E3 ligase complex; ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation follows (3,4). Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (5-7).HIF-1β is also known as AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) due to its ability to partner with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to form a heterodimeric transcription factor complex (8). Together with AhR, HIF-1β plays an important role in xenobiotics metabolism (8). In addition, a chromosomal translocation leading to a TEL-ARNT fusion protein is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (9). Studies also found that ARNT/HIF-1β expression levels decrease significantly in pancreatic islets from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that HIF-1β plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function (10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total VEGFR-2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total VEGFR-2 protein. A VEGFR-2 Mouse mAb (7335-1D6*) has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Both nonphospho- and phospho-VEGFR-2 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a VEGFR-2 Rabbit mAb (7340-55B11*) is added to detect the captured VEGFR-2 protein. HRP-linked anti-rabbit antibody (#7074*) is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total VEGFR-2 protein.* Antibodies in this kit are custom formulations specific to the kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR, Flk-1) is a major receptor for VEGF-induced signaling in endothelial cells. Upon ligand binding, VEGFR2 undergoes autophosphorylation and becomes activated (1). Major autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 are located in the kinase insert domain (Tyr951/996) and in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain (Tyr1054/1059) (2). Activation of the receptor leads to rapid recruitment of adaptor proteins, including Shc, GRB2, PI3 kinase, NCK, and the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 (3). Phosphorylation at Tyr1212 provides a docking site for GRB2 binding and phospho-Tyr1175 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase and PLCγ, as well as Shb (1,4,5). Signaling from VEGFR2 is necessary for the execution of VEGF-stimulated proliferation, chemotaxis and sprouting, as well as survival of cultured endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo (6-8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-VEGFR-2 (Tyr1175) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Phospho-VEGFR-2 (Tyr1175) protein. A VEGFR-2 Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both nonphospho- and phospho-VEGFR-2 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-VEGFR-2 Rabbit mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-VEGFR-2 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-VEGFR-2 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR, Flk-1) is a major receptor for VEGF-induced signaling in endothelial cells. Upon ligand binding, VEGFR2 undergoes autophosphorylation and becomes activated (1). Major autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 are located in the kinase insert domain (Tyr951/996) and in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain (Tyr1054/1059) (2). Activation of the receptor leads to rapid recruitment of adaptor proteins, including Shc, GRB2, PI3 kinase, NCK, and the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 (3). Phosphorylation at Tyr1212 provides a docking site for GRB2 binding and phospho-Tyr1175 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase and PLCγ, as well as Shb (1,4,5). Signaling from VEGFR2 is necessary for the execution of VEGF-stimulated proliferation, chemotaxis and sprouting, as well as survival of cultured endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo (6-8).