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ELISA Kit Positive Regulation of Erythrocyte Differentiation

Also showing ELISA Kit ELISA Positive Regulation of Erythrocyte Differentiation

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated at Thr180/Tyr182. A phospho-p38 MAP kinase (Thr180/Tyr182) mouse antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-p38 MAP kinase (Thr180/Tyr182) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a p38 MAP kinase rabbit detection antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-p38 MAP kinase (Thr180/Tyr182). Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-p38 MAP kinase (Thr180/Tyr182).Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), also called RK (1) or CSBP (2), is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast HOG kinase that participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress (1-4). Four isoforms of p38 MAPK, p38α, β, γ (also known as Erk6 or SAPK3), and δ (also known as SAPK4) have been identified. Similar to the SAPK/JNK pathway, p38 MAPK is activated by a variety of cellular stresses including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), UV light, and growth factors (1-5). MKK3, MKK6, and SEK activate p38 MAPK by phosphorylation at Thr180 and Tyr182. Activated p38 MAPK has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 (3) and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF-2 (5), Max (6), and MEF2 (5-8). SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-imidazole) is a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. This compound inhibits the activation of MAPKAPK-2 by p38 MAPK and subsequent phosphorylation of HSP27 (9). SB203580 inhibits p38 MAPK catalytic activity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket, but does not inhibit phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by upstream kinases (10).

$622
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® MAP Kinase Multi-Target Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that combines the reagents necessary to detect endogenous levels of phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204), phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182), MEK1, phospho-MEK1 (Ser217/221), SAPK/JNK and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185). These molecules represent convergence points and key regulatory proteins in signaling pathways controlling cellular events such as growth, differentiation and the response to stress and inflammation. Sixteen tests are provided for each target protein. Specific assay formulations for the indicated target proteins can be found in the datasheets associated with the individual PathScan® Sandwich ELISA Kits**. Briefly, a capture antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the target protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a detection antibody is added to detect the captured target protein. An HRP-linked secondary antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of bound target protein. *Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit. **See companion products.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse
$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HIF-1α Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total HIF-1α protein. A HIF-1α antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HIF-1α protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an HIF-1α Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured HIF-1α protein. Anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HIF-1α protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that plays a critical role in the cellular response to hypoxia (1). The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). HIF1 regulates the transcription of a broad range of genes that facilitate responses to the hypoxic environment, including genes regulating angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell cycle, metabolism, and apoptosis. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is proline hydroxylated leading to a conformational change that promotes binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (VHL) E3 ligase complex; ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation follows (3,4). Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (5-7).HIF-1β is also known as AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) due to its ability to partner with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to form a heterodimeric transcription factor complex (8). Together with AhR, HIF-1β plays an important role in xenobiotics metabolism (8). In addition, a chromosomal translocation leading to a TEL-ARNT fusion protein is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (9). Studies also found that ARNT/HIF-1β expression levels decrease significantly in pancreatic islets from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that HIF-1β plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function (10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST’s PathScan® Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Stat5a when phosphorylated at Tyr694 and Stat5b at Tyr699. A Phospho-Stat5 Mouse Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Stat5a (Tyr694) and phospho-Stat5b (Tyr699) proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Stat5 Rabbit Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-Stat5a and phospho-Stat5b protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Stat5a phosphorylated at Tyr694 and Stat5b phosphorylated at Tyr699.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Rb ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Rb. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Rb in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Rb. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Total Rb Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Rb protein. An Rb antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Rb protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a biotinylated Rb Antibody is added to detect the captured Rb protein. HRP-linked Streptavidin is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Rb protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Phospho-Rb (Ser780) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein. A Phospho-Rb (Ser780) specific antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Rb mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Rb protein. HRP-linked Anti-Mouse IgG is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Rb (Ser780) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) protein. A phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) specific antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Rb mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Rb protein. HRP-linked Anti-Mouse IgG is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Rb when phosphorylated at Ser807/811. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Rb (Ser807/811). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the restriction point within the G1-phase of the cell cycle (1). Rb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with critical regulatory proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, c-Abl tyrosine kinase, and proteins with a conserved LXCXE motif (2-4). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation by a CDK inhibits Rb target binding and allows cell cycle progression (5). Rb inactivation and subsequent cell cycle progression likely requires an initial phosphorylation by cyclin D-CDK4/6 followed by cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation (6). Specificity of different CDK/cyclin complexes has been observed in vitro (6-8) and cyclin D1 is required for Ser780 phosphorylation in vivo (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236). A Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, only phospho-S6 ribosomal protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Total S6 Ribosomal Protein Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236). Anti-Mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236).Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total S6 Ribosomal Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total S6 ribosomal protein. An S6 Ribosomal Protein Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-S6 ribosomal proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, S6 Ribosomal Protein Antibody is added to detect phospho- and nonphospho-S6 ribosomal proteins. HRP-linked Anti-rabbit Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density is proportional to the quantity of total ribosomal protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) Chemiluminescent Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236) with a chemiluminescent readout. Chemiluminescent ELISAs often have a wider dynamic range and higher sensitivity than conventional chromogenic detection. This chemiluminescent ELISA, which is offered in low volume microplates, shows increased signal and sensitivity while using smaller samples. A Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) Rabbit mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-S6 ribosomal protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a total S6 Ribosomal Protein Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236). Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. Chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. The magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is proportional to the quantity of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236).Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total S6 Ribosomal Protein Chemiluminescent Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total S6 ribosomal protein with a chemiluminescent readout. Chemiluminescence ELISAs often have a wider dynamic range and higher sensitivity than conventional chromogenic detection. This chemiluminescent ELISA, which is offered in low volume microplates, shows increased signal and sensitivity while using smaller sample size. A S6 Ribosomal Protein Mouse mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the S6 ribosomal protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, S6 Ribosomal Protein Rabbit Antibody is added to detect the captured total S6 ribosomal protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. Chemiluminescent reagent is added for signal development. The magnitude of light emission, measured in relative light units (RLU), is proportional to the quantity of total S6 ribosomal protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
PathScan® Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser240/244) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein at Ser240/244. A Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser240/244) Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser240/244) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an S6 Ribosomal Protein Mouse Detection mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-S6 ribosomal protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylated at Ser240/244.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of cleaved caspase-3 protein. A Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the cleaved caspase-3 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Biotinylated Caspase-3 Rabbit Antibody is added to detect the captured cleaved caspase-3 protein. HRP-linked streptavidin is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of cleaved caspase-3 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-c-Kit (Tyr719) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of c-Kit protein when phosphorylated at Tyr719. A c-Kit Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-c-Kit proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-c-Kit (Tyr719) Rabbit Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-c-Kit protein. Anti-rabbit IgG HRP-linked Antibody #7074 is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of c-Kit protein phosphorylated at Tyr719.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: c-Kit is a member of the subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes PDGF, CSF-1, and FLT3/flk-2 receptors (1,2). It plays a critical role in activation and growth in a number of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, mast cells, melanocytes, and germ cells (3). Upon binding with its stem cell factor (SCF) ligand, c-Kit undergoes dimerization/oligomerization and autophosphorylation. Activation of c-Kit results in the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream SH2-containing signaling components including PLCγ, the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, and CrkL (4). Molecular lesions that impair the kinase activity of c-Kit are associated with a variety of developmental disorders (5), and mutations that constitutively activate c-Kit can lead to pathogenesis of mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (6). Tyr719 is located in the kinase insert region of the catalytic domain. c-Kit phosphorylated at Tyr719 binds to the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase in vitro and in vivo (7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Axl Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Axl protein. An Axl mouse antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Axl protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Axl rabbit antibody is added to detect captured Axl protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Axl protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$622
96 assays
1 Kit
CST’s PathScan® Cell Growth Multi-Target Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that combines the reagents necessary to detect endogenous levels of S6 ribosomal protein, phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236), Akt1, phospho-Akt (Ser473), phospho-Akt (Thr308) and phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204). These molecules represent key signaling proteins in pathways controlling growth and differentiation. Sixteen assays are provided for each target protein. Specific assay formulations for the indicated target proteins can be found in the datasheets associated with the individual sandwich ELISA kits*. Briefly, a capture antibody** has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, the target protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a detection antibody** is added to detect the captured target protein. An HRP-linked secondary antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of bound target protein. *See companion products. **Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse